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A G V Teixeira, J A A McArt, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2)...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
Walter L Strohmaier
During the last few years, there has been relevant progress in both understanding and managing urolithiasis. Our knowledge of stone formation has changed; although the importance of urine biochemistry was questioned by several investigators years ago, the decisive role of cellular processes (induced by oxidative stress) and the renal papilla has only recently been generally accepted as the most important step in stone formation. For calcium oxalate urolithiasis, the formation of papillary calcifications plays a key role and is of prognostic relevance...
2016: F1000Research
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Uzma Ozair, Sadia Khan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age <1-15 years at our center. Risk factors were evaluated by gender and in age groups <1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. Patients were evaluated for demographics, blood and 24 h urine for calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid, electrolytes and additional protein, citrate, ammonia and oxalate in urine. All reported values were two sided and statistical significance was considered at p value ≤0...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
A Miernik, S Hein, F Adams, J Halbritter, M Schoenthaler
Urological and surgical treatment of urinary stones are highly technological and technology-driven disciplines in present-day surgery. German medical engineering has always been recognized for its technical innovations in endoscopic surgery. Current and future trends are indicative of further miniaturization and automation of surgical instruments and assist systems to facilitate endourological procedures as well as improvements in the quality of results and ergonomics. These technologies include, e. g. 3D-tracking to facilitate access to the pelvicaliceal system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) or robotic master-slave systems for endourology...
October 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
T Knoll, T Bach, U Humke, A Neisius, R Stein, M Schönthaler, G Wendt-Nordahl
Every tenth German citizen will suffer from at least one urinary calculus during the lifetime. The diagnostics, treatment and follow-up treatment of urolithiasis are, therefore, part of the daily routine practice for all urologists in hospitals and private practices as well as in many other disciplines, such as general practitioners, internists, nephrologists and pediatricians. Although the diagnostics and therapy have experienced substantial alterations over the last 10 years, the possibilities of metabolic diagnostics and secondary prevention for patients at risk are, unfortunately and unjustly, in many places very poorly represented...
July 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
J M Baumann, B Affolter
This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted...
August 2016: Urolithiasis
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey
The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al...
February 2016: Environmental Microbiology
M Lava, B Pardon, G Schüpbach-Regula, K Keckeis, P Deprez, A Steiner, M Meylan
The objective of this survey was to determine herd level risk factors for mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and metaphylactic application of antimicrobial group therapy in Swiss veal calves in 2013. A questionnaire regarding farm structure, farm management, mortality and antimicrobial use was sent to all farmers registered in a Swiss label program setting requirements for improved animal welfare and sustainability. Risk factors were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A total of 619 veal producers returned a useable questionnaire (response rate=28...
April 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A V Kustov, A L Strelnikov, A O Airapetyan, M A Moryganov, N I Zhuravleva
The paper presents the results of the 1-year screening of biochemical parameters of urine in female patient with recurrent calcium urate urolithiasis. Based on the data of quantitative X-ray phase analysis of the composition of stone and a complex of clinical and laboratory examination, reasons for recurrent stone formation were determined. The main reasons included hypocitraturia, hyperosmolarity of urine and uric acid diathesis. Therapy with citrate mixtures and adequate water schedule (daily urine--2-2.5 liters) for 10 weeks allowed to increase the urinary pH, led to 2...
September 2015: Urologii︠a︡
Hans-Martin Fritsche, Kristina Dötzer
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of aspects of compliance by the recurrent stone-former, and to give recommendations for its improvement. About half of all stone-formers have one recurrence during their lifetime. To avoid recurrent stone formation it is necessary to use metaphylaxis, based on individual risks. However, all general and specific efforts are meaningless if patients are not willing or are incapable of following the proposed therapy in the long-term. METHODS: PubMed was searched for articles on urolithiasis, metaphylaxis, compliance and adherence, and relevant papers were reviewed...
September 2012: Arab Journal of Urology
Walter Ludwig Strohmaier
OBJECTIVES: Urolithiasis is a considerable economic burden for health systems, especially in industrialised countries where the incidence of stone disease has increased during the last few decades, and probably will further increase for several reasons. METHODS: The survey was based on investigations in collaboration with a German health insurance company and on a literature search (PubMed, and the author's collection of proceedings of urolithiasis conferences: The keywords included economics, cost, urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal stone disease, metaphylaxis, recurrence) during 1999-2011...
September 2012: Arab Journal of Urology
Dirk J Kok
OBJECTIVE: The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. METHODS: Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three aspects of urolithiasis, i.e. epidemiology, mechanisms linking lifestyle and urolithiasis and lifestyle intervention for preventing urolithiasis. RESULTS: Epidemiological evidence links the prevalence of urinary stone formation to general lifestyle factors...
September 2012: Arab Journal of Urology
B J White, D E Amrine, D R Goehl
Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases...
August 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Samuel E Ives, John T Richeson
Despite research and increased availability of antimicrobials, the prevalence and challenges associated with BRD in stocker and feedlot operations remain. Preconditioned calves can better handle the transition from the origin ranch to the feedlot, yet there is incentive for buyers to purchase high-risk cattle at a reduced cost, and this is influenced by the proven efficacy and availability of antimicrobial metaphylaxis. The poor sensitivity of current BRD field diagnostic methods, typical pathogenesis of BRD, and labor issues are additional reasons to use metaphylaxis...
November 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
C R Ramirez, A L Harding, E B R Forteguerri, B M Aldridge, J F Lowe
Pigs that die from pathogens associated with porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in the late finishing period represent a significant economic wastage. While it is common to apply antimicrobial metaphylaxis (AM) to control PRDC, there are few studies exploring the potential cost-saving benefits of AM. In this study we examined the value of using AM in commercially reared, late finishing pigs, from farms with endemic PRDC. A total of 732 pigs from four AIAO wean to market sources, were blocked into 2 matching cohorts, based on enrollment body weight, sex, and rectal temperature...
September 1, 2015: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
G Regev-Shoshani, B McMullin, N Nation, J S Church, C Dorin, C Miller
Undifferentiated fever, or bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc), is a challenging multi-factorial health issue caused by viral/bacterial pathogens and stressors linked to the transport and mixing of cattle, negatively impacting the cattle feedlot industry. Common practice during processing at feedlots is administration of antibiotic metaphylaxis to reduce the incidence of BRDc. Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring nano-molecule with a wide range of physiological attributes. This study evaluated the metaphylactic use of intranasal NO releasing spray (NORS) to control BRDc incidence in calves at low-moderate risk of developing BRDc, arriving at a commercial feedlot as compared to conventional antibiotic metaphylaxis...
April 20, 2015: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Christian Fisang, Ralf Anding, Stefan C Müller, Stefan Latz, Norbert Laube
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urolithiasis in Germany is 4.7%; its incidence has trebled in the last three decades. The risk of recurrence is 50-80%, depending on the type of stone, unless secondary prevention is instituted. Risk-adapted secondary prevention lowers this risk to 10-15%. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the key words "urolithiasis," "urinary stones," "epidemiology," "lithogenesis," "biominerals," "risk factors," and "diagnosis, therapy, metaphylaxis...
February 6, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Vassilis Papatsiros
Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES) in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning) presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)...
2012: Veterinary Research Forum
Arkadiusz Miernik, Yvan Eilers, Christoph Nuese, Carsten Bolwien, Armin Lambrecht, Albrecht Hesse, Jens J Rassweiler, Daniel Schlager, Konrad Wilhelm, Ulrich Wetterauer, Martin Schoenthaler
PURPOSE: Raman spectroscopy allows immediate analysis of stone composition. In vivo stone analysis during endoscopic treatment may offer advantages concerning surgical strategy and metaphylaxis. Urinary stone components were evaluated utilizing an experimental setup of a Raman system coupled to commercial laser fibers. METHODS: Samples of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and human urinary stones with known Raman spectra were analyzed using an experimental Raman system coupled to common commercial lithotripsy laser fibers (200 and 940 µm)...
October 2015: World Journal of Urology
A G Martov, D V Ergakov
Numerous publications on the successful application of prolit super septo ( Greenwood, RF) in metaphylaxis of urolithiasis after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, and in infectiousand inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower urinary tract gave rise to research aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of long-term use of prolit super septo in patients undergoing various transurethral and percutaneous interventions. From September 2012, to March 2013, 894 transurethral and percutaneous endoscopic interventions were performed...
March 2014: Urologii︠a︡
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