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hiv hbv hcv dengue cmv

Shahzma Merani, Wenna Chen, Shokrollah Elahi
In recent years, a critical role for β-galactoside-binding protein, Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has emerged in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. It is a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), a type-I glycoprotein that is persistently expressed on dysfunctional T cells during chronic viral infections. Gal-9 exerts its pivotal immunomodulatory effects by inducing apoptosis or suppressing effector functions via engagement with its receptor, Tim-3. Recent studies report elevation of circulating Gal-9 in humans infected with different viral infections...
May 2015: Reviews in Medical Virology
Ingrid J M Snijdewind, Jeroen J A van Kampen, Pieter L A Fraaij, Marchina E van der Ende, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rob A Gruters
Almost five decades after their first application in diagnostics, dried blood spot (DBS) cards remain to be of key interest in many research areas and clinical applications. The advantages of sample stability during transport and storage, can now be combined with the high sensitivity of novel diagnostic techniques for the measurement and analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules which may overcome the limitations of the small samples sizes in DBS cards. Here we present a survey of the literature on the use of DBS cards for diagnosis, monitoring and epidemiological studies of virus infections other than HIV, including CMV, HBV, HCV, HAV, HEV, HTLV, EBV, HSV, measles-, rubella- and dengue-virus...
March 2012: Antiviral Research
Jean-Pierre Allain, Susan L Stramer, A B F Carneiro-Proietti, M L Martins, S N Lopes da Silva, M Ribeiro, F A Proietti, Henk W Reesink
A spectrum of blood-borne infectious agents is transmitted through transfusion of infected blood donated by apparently healthy and asymptomatic blood donors. The diversity of infectious agents includes hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1/2), human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I/II), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Parvovirus B19, West Nile Virus (WNV), Dengue virus, trypanosomiasis, malaria, and variant CJD. Several strategies are implemented to reduce the risk of transmitting these infectious agents by donor exclusion for clinical history of risk factors, screening for the serological markers of infections, and nucleic acid testing (NAT) by viral gene amplification for direct and sensitive detection of the known infectious agents...
April 2009: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
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