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Lung and iPS

Haruka Chino, Eri Hagiwara, Hideya Kitamura, Tomohisa Baba, Hideaki Yamakawa, Tamiko Takemura, Takashi Ogura
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare systemic vasculitis that often involves the lung. However, interstitial pneumonia (IP) is rarely seen in GPA patients. We herein report 3 cases of IP associated with GPA diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy. High-resolution CT showed uniform subpleural reticular opacity with traction bronchiectasis. Biopsies from all 3 patients revealed neutrophilic capillaritis, microabscesses with giant cells, and coexisting histological findings of usual IP pattern or fibrosing nonspecific IP pattern...
October 6, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Mahboobe Ghaedi, Laura E Niklason
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the product of adult somatic cell reprogramming to an embryonic-like state by inducing a "forced" expression of specific genes. They are similar to natural pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, in many aspects, such as the expression of certain stem cell genes and potency and differentiability. Human iPS cells are invaluable resource for basic research, cell therapy, drug discovery, and human organ tissue engineering. iPS cells can be derived from the patient to be treated and thus are genetically identical cells that may avoid immune rejection...
September 15, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
D Sheshagiri Rao, Ramachandra Barik
Arterial supply of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration (IPS) from the coronary circulation is extremely rare. A significant coronary steal does not occur because of dual or triple sources of blood supply to sequestrated lung tissue. We present a 60-year-old woman who presented to us with repeated episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in last 3 mo. Radio frequency ablation was ineffective. On evaluation, she had right lower lobe IPS with dual arterial blood supply, i.e., right pulmonary artery and the systemic arterial supply from the right coronary artery (RCA)...
July 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Stephen J Gurczynski, Megan C Procario, David N O'Dwyer, Carol A Wilke, Bethany B Moore
CCR2-expressing leukocytes are required for the progression of fibrosis in models of induced lung injury as well as models of bone marrow transplant (BMT)-related idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Infection with murid γ-herpesvirus-68 (γHV-68) results in severe pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis following syngeneic BMT; however, the roles that various proinflammatory leukocyte populations play in this process remain unclear. Deletion of CCR2 in both non-BMT and BMT mice increased early lytic viral replication and resulted in a reduction in the numbers of lung-infiltrating GR1+,F4/80+ and CXCR1+ cells, while maintaining robust neutrophil infiltration...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
N Tanaka, Y Kunihiro, T Kobayashi, T Yujiri, S Kido, K Ueda, N Matsunaga
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute lung dysfunction of non-infectious aetiology and a severe complication following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recently, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) updated the concept of IPS and extended the concept to a wider range; it defined IPS as "an idiopathic syndrome of pneumopathy after HSCT, with evidence of widespread alveolar injury and in which infectious aetiologies and cardiac dysfunction, acute renal failure, or iatrogenic fluid overload have been excluded...
October 2016: Clinical Radiology
Yan-Fen Li, Yu Zhao, Jian Bo, Ying Zhou, Chao Ma, Quan-Shun Wang, Li Yu, Dai-Hong Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, prognosis, delayed toxicity of Hodgkin's lymphoma with extranodal Involvement. METHODS: Thirty patients newly diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma with extranodal involvement from April 2008 to September 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients suffered from the advanced-stage diseases, their major pathological changes were nodular sclerosis and mixed cellular type, the most commonly involeved extranodal sites were the lung and bones, followed by the liver, stomach and intestine...
June 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Kung-Kai Kuo, King-Teh Lee, Ker-Kong Chen, Ya-Han Yang, Ying-Chu Lin, Ming-Ho Tsai, Kenly Wuputra, Yen-Liang Lee, Chia-Chen Ku, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Yukio Nakamura, Shigeo Saito, Chun-Chieh Wu, Chee-Yin Chai, Richard Eckner, Chen-Lung Steve Lin, Sophie S-W Wang, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chang-Shen Lin, Kazunari K Yokoyama
The network of stemness genes and oncogenes in human patient-specific reprogrammed cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains elusive, especially in liver cancer. HepG2-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-like cells (HepG2-iPS-like cells) were generated by introducing Yamanaka factors and the knockdown vector shTP53. They exhibited features of stemness and a higher tumorigenesis after xenograft transplantation compared with HepG2 cells. The cancerous mass of SCID mice derived from one colony was dissected and cultured to establish reprogrammed HepG2-derived CSC-like cells (designated rG2-DC-1C)...
June 24, 2016: Stem Cells
Hiroyuki Tao, Toshiki Tanaka, Tatsuro Hayashi, Kumiko Yoshida, Masashi Furukawa, Koichi Yoshiyama, Kazunori Okabe
OBJECTIVES: Dividing the intersegmental planes with a stapler during pulmonary segmentectomy leads to volume loss in the remnant segment. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of segment division methods on preserved lung volume and pulmonary function after segmentectomy. METHODS: Using image analysis software on computed tomography (CT) images of 41 patients, the ratio of remnant segment and ipsilateral lung volume to their preoperative values (R-seg and R-ips) was calculated...
October 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Arnout Schepers, Cheri Li, Arnav Chhabra, Benjamin Tschudy Seney, Sangeeta Bhatia
In vitro models of human tissue are crucial to our ability to study human disease as well as develop safe and effective drug therapies. Models of single organs in static and microfluidic culture have been established and shown utility for modeling some aspects of health and disease; however, these systems lack multi-organ interactions that are critical to some aspects of drug metabolism and toxicity. Thus, as part of a consortium of researchers, we have developed a liver chip that meets the following criteria: (1) employs human iPS cells from a patient of interest, (2) cultures cells in perfusable 3D organoids, and (3) is robust to variations in perfusion rate so as to be compatible in series with other specialized tissue chips (e...
July 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Martin G Radvany, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Gary L Gallia, Gary S Wand, Roberto Salvatori
OBJECTIVE: Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to detect many adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard to differentiate Cushing disease (CD) from ectopic ACTH secretion syndrome (EAS). Some authors have suggested internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) as an alternative to IPSS. METHODS: We simultaneously compared IJVS to IPSS in 30 consecutive patients referred for ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome and equivocal MRI exams...
September 2016: Endocrine Practice
Maneesh Bhargava, Kevin J Viken, Sanjoy Dey, Michael S Steinbach, Baolin Wu, Pratik D Jagtap, LeeAnn Higgins, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Daniel J Weisdorf, Vipin Kumar, Mukta Arora, Peter B Bitterman, David H Ingbar, Chris H Wendt
Pulmonary complications due to infection and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), a noninfectious lung injury in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, are frequent causes of transplantation-related mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to characterize the global bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein expression of IPS to identify proteins and pathways that differentiate IPS from infectious lung injury after HSCT. We studied 30 BALF samples from patients who developed lung injury within 180 days of HSCT or cellular therapy transfusion (natural killer cell transfusion)...
August 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Samantha Chang-Lin, Albert Hung, Donald C Chang, Yi-Wen Lin, Shao-Yao Ying, Shi-Lung Lin
Excessive accumulation of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific microRNAs occurs in both ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC); yet, the mechanism involved is unknown. In iPSCs, we for the first time found that novel glycylated sugar alcohols, particularly glycylglycerins, are tightly bound with ESC-specific microRNA precursors (pre-miRNA), such as pre-miR-302. Among these isolated glycylglycerins, we further identified that 1,3-diglycylglycerin and 1,2,3-triglycylglycerin are two major compounds bonded with negatively charged nucleic acids via electro-affinity and subsequently forming sugar-like coats in the hairpin-like double helix structures of pre-miRNAs...
June 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Mustafa Abugideiri, Ronica H Nanda, Charlotte Butker, Chao Zhang, Sungjin Kim, Kuang-Yueh Chiang, Elizabeth Butker, Mohammad K Khan, Ann E Haight, Zhengjia Chen, Natia Esiashvili
PURPOSE: This study evaluated factors associated with increased risk of pulmonary toxicity (PT) from any cause in pediatric patients after myeloablative conditioning, using total body irradiation (TBI), followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 129 consecutive pediatric patients (range: 1-21 years of age) who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at our institution between January 2003 and May 2014 were reviewed...
February 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Renishkumar R Delvadia, Xiangyin Wei, P Worth Longest, Jurgen Venitz, Peter R Byron
BACKGROUND: The amount of drug aerosol from an inhaler that can pass through an in vitro model of the mouth and throat (MT) during a realistic breath or inhalation flow rate vs. time profile (IP) is designated the total lung dose in vitro, or TLDin vitro. This article describes a clinical study that enabled us to recommend a general method of selecting IPs for use with powder inhalers of known airflow resistance (R) provided subjects followed written instructions either alone or in combination with formal training...
April 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Manon Le Bel, Jean Gosselin
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a central mediator of inflammation, is well known for its chemoattractant properties on effectors cells of the immune system. LTB4 also has the ability to control microbial infection by improving host innate defenses through the release of antimicrobial peptides and modulation of intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in response to agonist challenge. In this report, we provide evidences that LTB4 acts on nucleotide-binging oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) pathway to enhance immune response against influenza A infection...
2015: PloS One
Olga Bornachea, Fernando F López-Calderón, Marta Dueñas, Carmen Segrelles, Corina Lorz, Cristian Suárez-Cabrera, María Marañón, Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro, Mirentxu Santos, Jesús M Paramio
The TP63 gene codes for two major isoform types, TAp63 and ΔNp63, with probable opposite roles in tumorigenesis. The ΔNp63α protein is frequently amplified and overexpressed in different epithelial tumors. Accordingly, it has been considered a potential oncogene. Nonetheless, a possible metastatic suppressor activity has also been suggested based on the experimental observation that its expression is reduced or even absent in advanced invasive tumors. Such metastatic suppressor activities are often related to tumors bearing point mutated TP53 gene...
September 15, 2015: Oncotarget
Kiminobu Tanizawa, Tomohiro Handa, Sonoko Nagai, Toyohiro Hirai, Takeshi Kubo, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Isao Ito, Yutaka Ito, Kizuku Watanabe, Kensaku Aihara, Kohei Ikezoe, Toru Oga, Kazuo Chin, Takateru Izumi, Michiaki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis has been proposed as a means of objectively assessing fibrotic interstitial pneumonia (IP) including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated whether percentages of high-attenuation areas (HAA%) and cystic areas (CA%) quantified from CT images were useful as indices of fibrotic IP. METHODS: CT images of 74 patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IPF, 36; non-specific interstitial pneumonia, 9; unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 29) were analyzed via in-house computer software, which automatically calculated HAA%, CA%, mean lung density (MLD), standard deviation of lung density (SD-LD), kurtosis, and skewness from CT attenuation histograms...
2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Masaru Taniguchi, Michishige Harada, Nyambayar Dashtsoodol, Satoshi Kojo
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are unique lymphocytes characterized by their expression of a single invariant antigen receptor encoded by Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans, which recognizes glycolipid antigens in association with the monomorphic CD1d molecule. NKT cells mediate adjuvant activity to activate both CD8T cells to kill MHC-positive tumor cells and NK cells to eliminate MHC-negative tumor at the same time in patients, resulting in the complete eradication of tumors without relapse. Therefore, the NKT cell-targeted therapy can be applied to any type of tumor and also to anyone individual, regardless of HLA type...
2015: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Der-Cherng Tarng, Wei-Cheng Tseng, Pei-Ying Lee, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Shie-Liang Hsieh
Teratoma-like formation addresses a critical safety concern for the potential utility of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Therefore, therapy utilizing iPSC-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) for acute kidney injury (AKI) has attracted substantial interest. A recent study showed that iPSC-CM effectively alleviated ventilator-induced lung injury in rats. It prompts us to assess the therapeutic effects of iPSC-CM on ischemic AKI. First, we assessed the changes in renal function and tubular cell apoptosis by intraperitoneal administration of iPSC-CM to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats...
2016: Cell Transplantation
Sophie Lev, Cecilia Li, Desmarini Desmarini, Adolfo Saiardi, Nicole L Fewings, Stephen D Schibeci, Raghwa Sharma, Tania C Sorrell, Julianne T Djordjevic
UNLABELLED: Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8)...
2015: MBio
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