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Geraldine Macdonald, Nuala Livingstone, Jennifer Hanratty, Claire McCartan, Richard Cotmore, Maria Cary, Danya Glaser, Sarah Byford, Nicky J Welton, Tania Bosqui, Lucy Bowes, Suzanne Audrey, Gill Mezey, Helen L Fisher, Wendy Riches, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Liye Chen, Hui Shi, Jack Yuan, Paul Bowness
OBJECTIVE: Association of position 97 (P97) residue polymorphisms in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B, including HLA-B*27, with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has recently been reported. We studied the effect of P97 variations on cell surface expression of the AS-associated HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, and the AS-protective HLA-B*7. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to measure surface expression of HLA-B*27 in C1R/HeLa cells expressing HLA-B*27 (N97) and six mutants at P97 (N97T, N97S, N97V, N97R, N97W and N97D)...
August 11, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Leilane Larissa Albuquerque do Nascimento, Monica da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, Mariana Quintela, Victor Perez Teixeira, Ana Carolina Costa Mota, Camila Haddad Leal de Godoy, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
Wenjuan Zhang, S Paige Taylor, Lisette Nevarez, Ralph S Lachman, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael Bamshad, Deborah Krakow, Daniel H Cohn
The short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) encompass a radiographically and genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a long narrow chest, short extremities, and variable occurrence of polydactyly. Radiographic abnormalities include undermineralization of the calvarium, shortened and bowed appendicular bones, trident shaped acetabula and polydactyly. In a case of SRPS we identified compound heterozygosity for mutations in IFT52, which encodes a component of the anterograde intraflagellar transport complex...
July 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
M J Bowes, M Loewenthal, D S Read, M G Hutchins, C Prudhomme, L K Armstrong, S A Harman, H D Wickham, E Gozzard, L Carvalho
River phytoplankton blooms can pose a serious risk to water quality and the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Developing a greater understanding of the physical and chemical controls on the timing, magnitude and duration of blooms is essential for the effective management of phytoplankton development. Five years of weekly water quality monitoring data along the River Thames, southern England were combined with hourly chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), flow, temperature and daily sunlight data from the mid-Thames...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Young-Ki Kim, Greta Cukrov, Francesco Vita, Eric Scharrer, Edward T Samulski, Oriano Francescangeli, Oleg D Lavrentovich
The possibility of biaxial orientational order in nematic liquid crystals is a subject of intense current interest. We explore the tendencies toward local and global biaxial ordering in the recently synthesized trimethylated oxadiazole-based bent-core mesogens with a pronounced asymmetric (bow-type) shape of molecules. The combination of x-ray diffraction and optical studies suggests that the biaxial order is expressed differently at the short- and long-range scales. Locally, at the scale of a few molecules, x-ray-diffraction data demonstrate biaxial packing...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
Lulu He, Jason Genin, Patricia Delzell
The purpose of this article is to report 3 cases of Kager's fat pad scarring and tethering to the deep surface of the Achilles tendon in patients with Achilles tendinosis symptomatology. The 3 patients were diagnosed sonographically by the use of a dynamic maneuver we described and named the "Kager's squeeze" technique. The key finding for diagnosis is the deformation and bowing of the deep fibers of the Achilles tendon during dynamic squeezing of Kager's fat pad. After diagnosis, the patients were treated with ultrasound-guided hydrodissection and scar release to restore normal motion between Kager's fat pad and the Achilles tendon...
September 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Cori Feist, Paul Holden, Jamie Fitzgerald
This study aimed to identify the genetic basis of a severe skeletal lethal dysplasia. The main clinical features of two affected fetuses included short limbs with flared metaphyses, bowed radii, femora and tibiae, irregular ossification of hands and feet, and marked platyspondyly. Affected and nonaffected family members were subjected to whole-exome sequencing, followed by immunoblot analysis on amniocytes isolated from one of the affected individuals. Unique compound heterozygous variants in the inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1) gene encoding the SHIP2 protein were identified in both affected individuals...
October 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Viktor Zsolt Kovari
PURPOSE: To detail the management, complications and results of a crossbow arrow injury, where the broadhead went through the mouth, tongue, soft palate, C2 vertebra, spinal canal, dural sack, exiting the neck posteriorly and the arrow shaft lodged in the spine causing mild spinal cord injury. METHODS: Case presentation. RESULTS: A penetrating axial cervical spine crossbow injury was treated successfully in spite of the following interdisciplinary complications: meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, re-bleeding, and cardiac arrest...
May 26, 2016: European Spine Journal
Kojiro Hyodo, Tomofumi Nishino, Hiroshi Kamada, Daisuke Nozawa, Hajime Mishima, Masashi Yamazaki
The purpose of this study was to determine fracture location and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). We studied 38 AFFs in 34 patients admitted to our institution between November 2007 and July 2013. The diagnostic criteria for the AFFs were based on 2014 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research guidelines. We classified the fracture location as proximal, middle, or distal to trisect the femoral diaphysis from just distal to the lesser trochanter to just proximal to the supracondylar flare...
March 29, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Caroline S Chaboo, Megan Biesele, Robert K Hitchcock, Andrea Weeks
The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa...
2016: ZooKeys
Chris L Fryer, F G Oliveira, J A Rueda, R Ruffini
Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB...
December 4, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Xinhua Li, Jim Q Shi, Da Zhang, Sarabjeet Singh, Atul Padole, Alexi Otrakji, Mannudeep K Kalra, X George Xu, Bob Liu
PURPOSE: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. METHODS: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o'clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height...
November 2015: Medical Physics
Atsuhiko Handa, Yuka Okajima, Noriko Izumi, Michiko Yamanaka, Yasuyuki Kurihara
Bent bone dysplasia-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 type (BBD-FGFR2) is a recently identified skeletal dysplasia caused by specific FGFR2 mutations, characterized by craniosynostosis and prenatal bowing of the long bones. Only a few cases have been published. We report an affected fetus terminated at 21 weeks of gestation. The clinical and radiologic manifestations mostly recapitulate previous descriptions; however we suggest additional hallmarks of this disorder in early gestation. These hallmarks include distinctive short, thick clavicles and wavy ribs, as well as vertebral bodies that showed striking anteroposterior shortening...
February 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Assaf Kadar, Ran Ankory, Ronen Karpf, Elhanan Luger, Shlomo Elias
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary screw fixation of fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone may not be satisfactory in comminuted fractures or when the lateral metatarsal bowing has to be restored. We report our experience with plate fixation in these circumstances. METHODS: Between June 1, 2009, and January 31, 2013, 13 patients who had comminuted fracture or nonunion of fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone underwent plate fixation. Study patients were followed up for a mean of 500 days (range, 51-1238 days)...
September 2015: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Waleed Kishta, Fahad H Abduljabbar, Marie Gdalevitch, Frank Rauch, Reggie Hamdy, François Fassier
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and short stature that is usually due to mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for collagen type I α-chains. The association between hip dysplasia and OI has not been systematically investigated. In this single-center study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of OI associated with hip dysplasia to describe clinical characteristics and the effect of therapy. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 687 patients with OI who were seen at the Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal between 1999 and 2013 to identify patients with a diagnosis of hip dysplasia...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Kandan Ramakrishnan, Steven Scholte, Victor Lamme, Arnold Smeulders, Sennay Ghebreab
Biologically inspired computational models replicate the hierarchical visual processing in the human ventral stream. One such recent model, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has achieved state of the art performance on automatic visual recognition tasks. The CNN architecture contains successive layers of convolution and pooling, and resembles the simple and complex cell hierarchy as proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. This makes it a candidate model to test against the human brain. In this study we look at 1) where in the brain different layers of the CNN account for brain responses, and 2) how the CNN network compares against existing and widely used hierarchical vision models such as Bag-of-Words (BoW) and HMAX...
2015: Journal of Vision
Omar R Peña, Amparo Gómez Gélvez, Kristian A Espinosa, José R Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Impingement and penetration of the anterior cortex of the femur have been reported as complications after cephalomedullary nailing. The purpose of this study was to determine factors related to nail impingement in our population of Hispanic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A non-matched case-control study was carried out and 156 patients who underwent cephalomedullary nailing from 2010 and 2013 were included; 78 cases with anterior cortical impingement and 78 control cases without impingement were documented...
November 2015: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Vaibhav Rastogi, Ashley Rawls, Omar Moore, Benjamin Victorica, Sheema Khan, Pradeepan Saravanapavan, Sunitha Midivelli, Prathap Raviraj, Anna Khanna, Sharathchandra Bidari, Vishnumurthy S Hedna
BACKGROUND: Bow Hunter's Syndrome is a mechanical occlusion of the vertebral artery which leads to a reduction in blood flow in posterior cerebral circulation resulting in transient reversible symptomatic vertebrobasilar insufficiency. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of Bow Hunter's syndrome in a 53-year-old male that occurred after the patient underwent surgical correction of a proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm. Shortly after the surgery, the patient began to complain of transient visual changes, presyncopal spells, and dizziness upon turning his head to the left...
July 2015: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
James S Nairne
At its core, episodic memory requires the encoding and retention of occurrence information. One needs to remember that a particular item occurred (what) at a particular time (when) in a particular place (where). These task requirements are scale independent, meaning that they hold regardless of whether one is asked to remember over the short or the long-term. In the present article, written to honor the contributions of Alice Healy, I review evidence suggesting that the benchmark phenomena of short-term memory, including bow-shaped serial position curves, symmetric error gradients, and even our limited memory span, actually arise from processes associated with the recovery of occurrence information...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
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