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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810831/application-of-a-bayesian-non-linear-model-hybrid-scheme-to-sequence-data-for-genomic-prediction-and-qtl-mapping
#1
Tingting Wang, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Iona M MacLeod, Jennie E Pryce, Michael E Goddard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: Using whole genome sequence data might improve genomic prediction accuracy, when compared with high-density SNP arrays, and could lead to identification of casual mutations affecting complex traits. For some traits, the most accurate genomic predictions are achieved with non-linear Bayesian methods. However, as the number of variants and the size of the reference population increase, the computational time required to implement these Bayesian methods (typically with Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling) becomes unfeasibly long...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808353/milk-microbiome-and-bacterial-load-following-dry-cow-therapy-without-antibiotics-in-dairy-cows-with-healthy-mammary-gland
#2
Erika C R Bonsaglia, Marilia S Gomes, Igor F Canisso, Ziyao Zhou, Svetlana F Lima, Vera L M Rall, Georgios Oikonomou, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Fabio S Lima
Preventive infusion of antibiotics in the mammary gland of cows consumes 11 tons/year of medically relevant antimicrobials, yet, this practice might not be critical to prevent new infections in the healthy mammary gland of cows. Here, we used next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR to determine the impact of dry cow therapy without antibiotics on milk microbiome and bacterial load, respectively. Cows diagnosed as negative for mastitis at dry off were randomly allocated to receive antibiotic (intramammary ceftiofur hydrochloride) and teat sealant or just teat sealant...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807278/helminth-infections-on-organic-dairy-farms-in-spain
#3
I Orjales, M Mezo, M Miranda, M González-Warleta, F Rey-Crespo, M Vaarst, S Thamsborg, F J Diéguez, J A Castro-Hermida, M López-Alonso
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807076/review-behavioral-signs-of-estrus-and-the-potential-of-fully-automated-systems-for-detection-of-estrus-in-dairy-cattle
#4
S Reith, S Hoy
Efficient detection of estrus is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance in dairy cattle. In this context, comprehensive knowledge of estrus-related behaviors is fundamental to achieve optimal estrus detection rates. This review was designed to identify the characteristics of behavioral estrus as a necessary basis for developing strategies and technologies to improve the reproductive management on dairy farms. The focus is on secondary symptoms of estrus (mounting, activity, aggressive and agonistic behaviors) which seem more indicative than standing behavior...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806673/preservation-and-reactivation-of-candidatus-jettenia-asiatica-and-anammoxoglobus-propionicus-using-different-preservative-agents
#5
A Viancelli, M C Pra, L A Scussiato, M Cantão, A M G Ibelli, A Kunz
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C)...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806625/association-of-changes-among-body-condition-score-during-the-transition-period-with-nefa-and-bhba-concentrations-milk-production-fertility-and-health-of-holstein-cows
#6
R V Barletta, M Maturana Filho, P D Carvalho, T A Del Valle, A S Netto, F P Rennó, R D Mingoti, J R Gandra, G B Mourão, P M Fricke, R Sartori, E H Madureira, M C Wiltbank
Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805919/cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-during-fetal-life-exhibit-improved-thermal-tolerance
#7
B M S Ahmed, U Younas, T O Asar, S Dikmen, P J Hansen, G E Dahl
Maternal heat stress during late gestation affects calf function during postnatal life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether calves that experience heat stress in utero have altered thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress later in life. Specifically, the hypothesis was that heat stress in utero would improve the response to acute heat stress at maturity. Females were born to dams exposed to heat stress or cooled during late gestation preceding their birth. All animals were raised postnatally under identical management...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805912/prediction-of-fecal-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-for-chinese-holstein-lactating-dairy-cows
#8
Q B Qu, P Yang, R Zhao, S L Zhi, Z W Zhai, F F Ding, K Q Zhang
Mathematical models for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus excretion play a key role in manure application and environment monitoring. An analysis for prediction of fecal nitrogen (FN, g/d) and fecal phosphorus (FP, g/d) excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows was conducted using a data set from 15 dairy farms in northern China. The whole independent-variable data set, obtained with questionnaires, consisted of 110 sets of average diet nutrient compositions, including DMI (kg/d), CP content (% DM), OM intake (OMI, kg/d), nitrogen intake (NI, g/d), and phosphorus intake (PI, g/d), and animal characteristics, including average days in milk (DIM, d), average milk yield (MY, kg/d), and average BW (kg)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#9
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804941/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-gene-expression-and-milk-synthesis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#10
Lian Li, Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804001/production-of-trans-and-conjugated-fatty-acids-in-dairy-ruminants-and-their-putative-effects-on-human-health-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Anne Ferlay, Laurence Bernard, Annabelle Meynadier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère
Consumption of milk and dairy products is important in Western industrialised countries. Fat content is an important constituent contributing to the nutritional quality of milk and dairy products. In order to improve the health of consumers, there is high interest in improving their fatty acid (FA) composition, which depends principally on rumen and mammary metabolism. This paper reviews the lipid metabolism in ruminants, with a particular focus on the production of trans and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) in the rumen...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803585/performance-and-financial-consequences-of-stillbirth-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#12
A Mahnani, A Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, H Keshavarzi
Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803023/consumer-acceptance-of-dairy-products-with-a-saturated-fatty-acid-reduced-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched-content
#13
Oonagh Markey, Kallis Souroullas, Colette C Fagan, Kirsty E Kliem, Dafni Vasilopoulou, Kim G Jackson, David J Humphries, Alistair S Grandison, David I Givens, Julie A Lovegrove, Lisa Methven
Agriculture-based reformulation initiatives, including oleic acid-rich lipid supplementation of the dairy cow diet, provide a novel means for reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) at a population level. In a blinded manner, this study evaluated the consumer acceptance of SFA-reduced, monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched (modified) milk, Cheddar cheese, and butter when compared with control and commercially available comparative samples. The effect of providing nutritional information about the modified cheese was also evaluated...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803021/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-heat-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-nutrient-metabolism-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#14
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803019/daily-lying-behavior-of-lactating-holstein-cows-during-an-estrus-synchronization-protocol-and-its-associations-with-fertility
#15
B F Silper, A M L Madureira, L B Polsky, S Soriano, A F Sica, J L M Vasconcelos, R L A Cerri
Objectives were to quantify lying behavior (LB) during an estradiol and progesterone-based synchronization protocol, to assess risk factors for ovulation, pregnancy per AI (P/AI), and degree of behavioral change at estrus, and to investigate the associations between estrus LB and walking activity. Holstein cows (43.6 ± 11.0 kg of milk/d) were fitted with leg-mounted accelerometers. Total lying time/d (L_time), bout frequency (bout_N), average lying bout duration, and relative increase in walking activity (ACT%) were evaluated for 1,411 timed artificial insemination events...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803018/short-communication-molecular-characteristics-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-pathogenicity-of-clinical-nocardia-cyriacigeorgica-isolates-from-an-outbreak-of-bovine-mastitis
#16
Wei Chen, Yongxia Liu, Herman W Barkema, Jian Gao, Jeroen De Buck, John P Kastelic, Gang Liu, Tariq Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Bo Han
The occurrence of nocardial mastitis, mostly in the context of outbreaks, has been reported in many countries. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding detailed characterization of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine mastitis. Thus, herein we report characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, molecular identification, and pathogenicity of N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from an outbreak of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd in northern China. A total of 182 (80.2%) lactating cows had clinical mastitis with severe inflammation and firmness of the udder, reduced milk production, and anorexia, with no apparent clinical response to common antibiotics...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803016/association-between-ambient-temperature-and-humidity-vaginal-temperature-and-automatic-activity-monitoring-on-induced-estrus-in-lactating-cows
#17
Liam B Polsky, Augusto M L Madureira, Eraldo L Drago Filho, Sergio Soriano, Alex F Sica, José L M Vasconcelos, Ronaldo L A Cerri
The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient temperature and humidity, vaginal temperature, and automated activity monitoring in synchronized cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 641; 41.5 ± 9.4 kg of milk/d) were fitted with leg-mounted pedometers, resulting in 843 evaluated activity episodes of estrus. Vaginal temperature was monitored using thermometers attached to an intravaginal device as part of a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol; vaginal temperature was recorded every 10 min for 3 d...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803014/fertility-of-lactating-holstein-cows-submitted-to-a-double-ovsynch-protocol-and-timed-artificial-insemination-versus-artificial-insemination-after-synchronization-of-estrus-at-a-similar-day-in-milk-range
#18
V G Santos, P D Carvalho, C Maia, B Carneiro, A Valenza, P M Fricke
Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803009/involvement-of-plasma-adipokines-in-metabolic-and-reproductive-parameters-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-with-diets-with-differing-energy-levels
#19
N Mellouk, C Rame, J L Touzé, E Briant, L Ma, D Guillaume, D Lomet, A Caraty, T Ntallaris, P Humblot, J Dupont
This study aimed to investigate the association between plasma adipokine concentrations and metabolic and reproductive parameters in Holstein dairy cows fed diets with different energy levels during the peripartum period. The experiment started 1 mo before first calving and was maintained for 2 lactations. Dry matter intake and energy balance in animals fed a low-energy (LE) diet were significantly lower than that of animals fed a high-energy (HE) diet in the first lactation. Body weight, milk production, back fat thickness, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were not affected by diet, whereas plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower and plasma resistin concentrations higher in animals fed the LE diet...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803007/associations-between-biosecurity-practices-and-bovine-digital-dermatitis-in-danish-dairy-herds
#20
Victor H S Oliveira, Jan T Sørensen, Peter T Thomsen
The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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