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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342973/effects-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-glycosides-for-milk-fever-prevention-on-serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dairy-cows
#1
Heinrich Bachmann, Michael Lanz, Susanne Kehrle, Wolfgang Bittner, Annick Toggenburger, Georg A Mathis, Walter Rambeck
Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342614/genetic-analysis-of-groups-of-mid-infrared-predicted-fatty-acids-in-milk
#2
S G Narayana, F S Schenkel, A Fleming, A Koeck, F Malchiodi, J Jamrozik, J Johnston, M Sargolzaei, F Miglior
The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability of mid-infrared predicted fatty acid groups in Canadian Holstein cattle. Genetic parameters were estimated for 5 groups of fatty acids: short-chain (4 to 10 carbons), medium-chain (11 to 16 carbons), long-chain (17 to 22 carbons), saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids. The data set included 49,127 test-day records from 10,029 first-lactation Holstein cows in 810 herds. The random regression animal test-day model included days in milk, herd-test date, and age-season of calving (polynomial regression) as fixed effects, herd-year of calving, animal additive genetic effect, and permanent environment effects as random polynomial regressions, and random residual effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#3
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342609/randomized-blinded-controlled-clinical-trial-shows-no-benefit-of-homeopathic-mastitis-treatment-in-dairy-cows
#4
Fanny Ebert, Rudolf Staufenbiel, Julia Simons, Laura Pieper
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342607/meta-analysis-of-effects-of-inoculation-with-homofermentative-and-facultative-heterofermentative-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-silage-fermentation-aerobic-stability-and-the-performance-of-dairy-cows
#5
André S Oliveira, Zwi G Weinberg, Ibukun M Ogunade, Andres A P Cervantes, Kathy G Arriola, Yun Jiang, Donghyeon Kim, Xujiao Li, Mariana C M Gonçalves, Diwakar Vyas, Adegbola T Adesogan
Forages are usually inoculated with homofermentative and facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to enhance lactic acid fermentation of forages, but effects of such inoculants on silage quality and the performance of dairy cows are unclear. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of LAB inoculation on silage quality and preservation and the performance of dairy cows. A second objective was to examine the factors affecting the response to silage inoculation with LAB. The studies that met the selection criteria included 130 articles that examined the effects of LAB inoculation on silage quality and 31 articles that investigated dairy cow performance responses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342601/ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-ms-e-based-untargeted-milk-metabolomics-in-dairy-cows-with-subclinical-or-clinical-mastitis
#6
Xiaomin Xi, Lai-Yu Kwok, Yuenan Wang, Chen Ma, Zhihui Mi, Heping Zhang
In this study, a novel metabolomics technique based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry in the MS(E) mode was used to investigate the milk metabolomics of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis cows, which were classified based on somatic cell count and presentation of clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify the significant differences across the 3 groups. Compared with healthy milk samples, less glucose, d-glycerol-1-phosphate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, l-carnitine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, citrate, and hippurate were detected in the clinical mastitic milk samples, whereas less d-glycerol-1-phosphate, benzoic acid, l-carnitine, and cis-aconitate were found in the subclinical mastitic milk samples...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342600/temporal-changes-in-milk-fatty-acid-distribution-due-to-feeding-different-levels-of-rolled-safflower-seeds-to-lactating-holstein-cows
#7
Amir Ahmadpour, Hassan Aliarabi, Mohammad Ghelich Khan, Robert A Patton, Rupert M Bruckmaier
The objective of this experiment was to follow the time-course changes of the milk fatty acids (FA) and particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3, and n-6 FA in response to feeding whole rolled safflower seed (SS). Eighteen cows were blocked by milk production, days in milk, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets by replacing whole cottonseed with SS. The control diet contained no SS (SS0), whereas the other diets contained 3% of dry matter as SS (SS3) or 6% SS (SS6). The study was conducted for 8 wk...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342599/concentrate-supplementation-of-a-diet-based-on-medium-quality-grass-silage-for-4-weeks-prepartum-effects-on-cow-performance-health-metabolic-status-and-immune-function
#8
M W Little, N E O'Connell, M D Welsh, F J Mulligan, C P Ferris
Because negative energy balance (EB) contributes to transition-period immune dysfunction in dairy cows, dietary management strategies should aim to minimize negative EB during this time. Prepartum diets that oversupply energy may exacerbate negative EB in early lactation, with detrimental effects on immune function. However, with lower body condition score (BCS) cows, it has been shown that offering concentrates in addition to a grass silage-based diet when confined during an 8-wk dry period resulted in increased neutrophil function in early lactation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#9
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340261/effect-of-a-high-concentrate-diet-on-milk-components-and-mammary-health-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#10
Z L Xie, J Zhang, D M Zhang, J F Li, Y H Lin
In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P < 0.05), but significantly lower milk protein percentage (P < 0...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339599/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-coq9-affects-mitochondrial-and-ovarian-function-and-fertility-in-holstein-cows%C3%A2
#11
M Sofia Ortega, Stephanie Wohlgemuth, Paula Tribulo, Luiz G B Siqueira, Daniel J Null, John B Cole, Marcus V Da Silva, Peter J Hansen
A single missense mutation at position 159 of coenzyme Q9 (COQ9) (G→A; rs109301586) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondria. Here we tested whether reproductive phenotype is associated with the mutation and evaluated functional consequences for cellular oxygen metabolism, body weight changes, and ovarian function...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337229/allergic-enteritis-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Mieczysława Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Ewa Łoś-Rycharska, Julia Gawryjołek
The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337022/model-explanation-of-the-seasonal-variation-of-%C3%AE-18-o-in-cow-bos-taurus-hair-under-temperate-conditions
#13
Guo Chen, Hans Schnyder, Karl Auerswald
Oxygen isotopes (δ(18)O) in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories. However, seasonal variation of δ(18)O may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of δ(18)O in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, keeping and feeding during five years. A detailed mechanistic model was built to explain this variation. The measured δ(18)O in hair significantly related (p < 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335726/analysis-of-hepatic-transcript-profile-and-plasma-lipid-profile-in-early-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-grape-seed-and-grape-marc-meal-extract
#14
Denise K Gessner, Anne Winkler, Christian Koch, Georg Dusel, Gerhard Liebisch, Robert Ringseis, Klaus Eder
BACKGROUND: It was recently reported that dairy cows fed a polyphenol-rich grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) during the transition period had an increased milk yield, but the underlying reasons remained unclear. As polyphenols exert a broad spectrum of metabolic effects, we hypothesized that feeding of GSGME influences metabolic pathways in the liver which could account for the positive effects of GSGME in dairy cows. In order to identify these pathways, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling in the liver and lipid profiling in plasma of dairy cows fed GSGME during the transition period at 1 week postpartum...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335483/land-use-for-edible-protein-of-animal-origin-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions...
March 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332639/evaluation-of-the-bacteriological-quality-of-raw-cow-s-milk-at-various-stages-of-the-milk-production-chain-on-farms-in-algeria-%C3%A2-oie-world-organisation-for-animal-health-2016
#16
M Hamiroune, A Berber, S Boubekeur
This study evaluates hygiene practices on 53 dairy farms in the Jijel and Blida regions of Algeria. A survey questionnaire was drawn up covering milking conditions and cleaning of the equipment. In parallel, bacteriological analyses were carried out to estimate the rate, source and development of bacterial contamination in raw milk produced on the farm. In addition, screening was performed to detect the presence of inhibitor residues. The results of the survey revealed poor livestock conditions and milking practices that could explain the presence of bacteria in cow's milk...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332294/farm-level-risk-factors-associated-with-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-dairy-sector-in-eritrea
#17
M K Ghebremariam, A L Michel, M Nielen, J C M Vernooij, V P M G Rutten
The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately...
March 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331053/acetate-dose-dependently-stimulates-milk-fat-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
Natalie L Urrutia, Kevin J Harvatine
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330895/speciation-and-strain-typing-of-staphylococcus-agnetis-and-staphylococcus-hyicus-isolated-from-bovine-milk-using-a-novel-multiplex-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#19
P R F Adkins, J R Middleton, M J Calcutt, G C Stewart, L K Fox
Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325170/rapid-discrimination-between-buffalo-and-cow-milk-and-detection-of-adulteration-of-buffalo-milk-with-cow-milk-using-synchronous-fluorescence-spectroscopy-in-combination-with-multivariate-methods
#20
Serap Durakli Velioglu, Elif Ercioglu, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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