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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155807/a-synbiotic-containing-amino-acid-based-formula-improves-gut-microbiota-in-non-ige-mediated-allergic-infants
#1
David C A Candy, Marleen T J Van Ampting, Manon M Oude Nijhuis, Harm Wopereis, Assad M Butt, Diego G Peroni, Yvan Vandenplas, Adam T Fox, Neil Shah, Christina E West, Johan Garssen, Lucien F Harthoorn, Jan Knol, Louise J Michaelis
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154742/variation-in-the-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-gene-affects-milk-traits-in-dairy-cows
#2
Huitong Zhou, Long Cheng, Hua Gong, Seung O Byun, Grant R Edwards, Jon G H Hickford
The objective of this Research Communication was to use polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to investigate a region of the bovine TLR4 gene (TLR4) in pasture-fed New Zealand (NZ) Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) cross dairy cows and to determine whether gene variation was associated with milk production traits. Genetic variation was observed, with two variants (A and B) containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.2021C/T) that was non-synonymous and putatively results in a p...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154739/oxidative-stress-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-bovine-mammary-alveolar-cells
#3
Hyojin Bae, Chang Hee Jeong, Wei Nee Cheng, Kwonho Hong, Han Geuk Seo, Sung Gu Han
Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the udder, results in reduced milk production and poor milk quality. Mastitis is usually, but not always, a response to pathogen infection. High milk yield can produce oxidative stress in the mammary tissue. High milk yield is also known to be associated with bovine mastitis. Thus, in the current study, we hypothesised that oxidative stress increases inflammatory responses in bovine mammary cells. To examine the hypothesis, we produced cellular oxidative stress and investigated resulting inflammatory responses in bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T)...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154737/significant-changes-in-itih4-ahsg-orm1-and-cd46-content-in-milk-fat-globule-membrane-proteins-of-ketotic-dairy-cows
#4
Sansi Gao, Wei Yang, Hongjiang Yu, Runqi Liu, Zhihao Dong, Hongyou Zhang, Cheng Xia, Chuang Xu
High concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in cows' blood caused by ketosis are associated with inflammatory states. We hypothesised that ketosis in postparturient dairy cows would result in altered levels on inflammation-related proteins not only in plasma but also in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). Thirty cows were selected from a dairy farm in Heilongjiang, China. Inflammatory milk fat globule membrane proteins were detected using ELISA kits, and a fully automatic biochemical analyser was used to measure the concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, glucose (GLU) and triglyceride (TG) in plasma...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154736/lactobacilli-fermented-cow-s-milk-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-memory-impairment-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Nurul Huda Musa, Vasudevan Mani, Siong Meng Lim, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154734/effect-of-physical-activity-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-of-dairy-cows-on-commercial-dairy-farms
#6
Fruzsina Luca Kézér, János Tőzsér, Mikolt Bakony, Ottó Szenci, Viktor Jurkovich, Levente Kovács
Interbeat interval data were collected from 219 Holstein cows in 2 smaller-scale farms and 3 larger-scale farms to investigate the effects of posture (standing vs. lying), rumination (rumination vs. no rumination) and feeding on baseline values of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters reflecting vagal and sympathetic activity. A General Linear Model was used for detecting factors (parity, milking technology, herd size) having possible effects on HRV calculated for undisturbed lying posture...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154732/cd49f-mammary-epithelial-cells-decrease-in-milk-from-dairy-cows-stressed-by-overstocking-during-the-dry-period
#7
Mario Baratta, Silvia Miretti, Paolo Accornero, Giovanna Galeati, Andrea Formigoni, Gianfranco Gabai, Daniele Nucera, Eugenio Martignani
The work reported in this Research Communication describes the modification in epithelial cell populations during the first and the last month of milking in Holstein Friesian cows that have undergone different management during the dry period, and we report the differential expression of CD49f+ and cytokeratin18+ cell subpopulations. Twenty six cows were randomly divided into 2 balanced groups that were housed at stocking density of either 11 m2 (CTR) or 5 m2 from 21 ± 3 d before the expected calving until calving...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154730/effect-of-increased-milking-frequency-and-residual-milk-removal-on-milk-production-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-lactating-cows
#8
Sabine Ferneborg, Lucia Kovac, Kevin J Shingfield, Sigrid Agenäs
It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153525/association-of-milking-interval-and-milk-production-rate-in-an-automatic-milking-system
#9
J F Penry, P M Crump, L L Hernandez, D J Reinemann
The primary aim of this research was to describe the association between milking interval (MI) and milk production rate (MPR) at the quarter level in a large commercial farm using an automatic milking system. A secondary aim was to determine whether a 2-h decrease in MI would increase MPR at the cow level in midlactation multiparous cows. Six months of data from 1,280 cows were used to assess the association between MI (h) and quarter MPR (kg/h). Increasing MI was associated with decreased MPR for early, mid, and late lactation, both primiparous and multiparous cows, and all 4 quarter positions and across time...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153524/minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-frequently-used-antibiotics-against-escherichia-coli-and-trueperella-pyogenes-isolated-from-uteri-of-postpartum-dairy-cows
#10
A Pohl, A Lübke-Becker, W Heuwieser
The objective of this study was to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of frequently used antimicrobials for Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes isolated from postpartum bovine uteri of cows with acute puerperal metritis (APM, n = 67), cows suspected to have APM (n = 37), and healthy cows (n = 37) and to evaluate possible differences in MIC according to clinical signs. Cows with APM had reddish-brown, fetid vaginal discharge and rectal temperature (RT) ≥39.5°C within 21 d in milk; cows suspected to have APM had either reddish-brown, fetid vaginal discharge or RT ≥39...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153520/retrospective-analysis-of-austrian-health-recording-data-of-antibiotic-or-nonantibiotic-dry-off-treatment-on-milk-yield-somatic-cell-count-and-frequency-of-mastitis-in-subsequent-lactation
#11
T Wittek, A Tichy, B Grassauer, C Egger-Danner
Typically, dairy cows are dried off at the end of lactation. During the dry period, intramammary infections may be cured or persist, and new infections may occur. Traditionally, antibiotics (AB) have been used at dry-off. However, blanket antibiotic dry-off treatment may no longer be justifiable and, recently, selective use of antibiotics at dry off has been proposed and different decision criteria suggested. The objective of the study was to evaluate cows receiving antibiotic treatment at dry off (AB group) compared with cows dried off without antibiotics (non-AB group) using a large data set...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#12
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153515/daily-and-seasonal-trends-of-electricity-and-water-use-on-pasture-based-automatic-milking-dairy-farms
#13
J Shortall, B O'Brien, R D Sleator, J Upton
The objective of this study was to identify the major electricity and water-consuming components of a pasture-based automatic milking (AM) system and to establish the daily and seasonal consumption trends. Electricity and water meters were installed on 7 seasonal calving pasture-based AM farms across Ireland. Electricity-consuming processes and equipment that were metered for consumption included milk cooling components, air compressors, AM unit(s), auxiliary water heaters, water pumps, lights, sockets, automatic manure scrapers, and so on...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153512/dose-and-type-dependent-effects-of-long-chain-fatty-acids-on-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-of-bovine-adipocytes
#14
Chen Yanting, Q Y Yang, G L Ma, M Du, J H Harrison, E Block
Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153180/a-100-year-review-progress-on-the-chemistry-of-milk-and-its-components
#15
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153173/a-100-year-review-lactating-dairy-cattle-housing-management
#16
J M Bewley, L M Robertson, E A Eckelkamp
Since the mid-1800s, farmers have been housing livestock. What began as a part-time solution for cold winters, stormy days, or injured animals has evolved into the main or only area in which cows spend their adult lives. With this change, farmers, academic researchers, and industry innovators have shaped the farm landscape, literally. Over the last 100 years, changes have been made for productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. We review a snapshot of those changes and look ahead to the future of lactating dairy cattle housing...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153172/a-100-year-review-metabolic-health-indicators-and-management-of-dairy-cattle
#17
T R Overton, J A A McArt, D V Nydam
Our aim in this Journal of Dairy Science centennial review is to describe the evolution of focus on metabolic indicators, from discovery and description to evaluation at the individual cow and subsequently herd levels, over the past 100 yr. Furthermore, we discuss current and future technologies that will be used in the dairy industry to utilize these indicators widely going forward. Knowledge of chemical changes in various fluids (e.g., blood, urine, and milk) accompanying numerous metabolic disease states in the dairy cow has existed since almost the beginning of the Journal of Dairy Science 100 yr ago...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153171/a-100-year-review-mastitis-detection-management-and-prevention
#18
Pamela L Ruegg
Mastitis is the most frequent disease of dairy cows and has well-recognized detrimental effects on animal wellbeing and dairy farm profitability. Since the beginning of modern dairy farming, producers have sought effective methods to minimize the occurrence of mastitis in their herds. The objective of this paper is to review and highlight important advances in detection, management, and prevention of mastitis that have occurred since the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published in 1917. Initial research efforts were directed at understanding the nature of pathogenic bacteria that were responsible for most intramammary infections...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153169/a-100-year-review-regulation-of-nutrient-partitioning-to-support-lactation
#19
L H Baumgard, R J Collier, D E Bauman
We have seen remarkable advances in animal productivity in the last 75 years, with annual milk yield per cow increasing over 4-fold and no evidence of nearing a plateau. Because of these gains in productive efficiency, there have been dramatic reductions in resource inputs and the carbon footprint per unit of milk produced. The primary source for the historic gains relates to animal variation in nutrient partitioning. The regulation of nutrient use for productive functions has the overall goal of maintaining the cow's well-being regardless of the physiological or environmental challenges...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153168/a-100-year-review-mammary-development-and-lactation
#20
R Michael Akers
What is old is new again-and with respect to the study of the mammary development and function in dairy animals, the expression resonates. Many of the mammary and milk production questions raised in the early years of the Journal of Dairy Science apply today. To be sure, scientists have filled in many details regarding, for example, identification of hormones and growth factors important in the control of mammary growth, the onset of copious milk production at calving, and maintenance of lactation. Early years focused on identification and subsequent availability of classic mammogenic, lactogenic, and galactopoietic hormones (e...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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