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Cytomegalovirus infection neonatal

Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Qian Dong, Stephanie Leroux, Hai-Yan Shi, Hai-Yan Xu, Chen Kou, Muhammad Wasim Khan, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Wei Zhao
Background: Newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are at high risk for developing permanent sequelae. Intravenous ganciclovir therapy is frequently used for the treatment of congenital CMV infection. Target area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC0-24 ) of 40-50 μg·h/mL is recommended. The standard dose resulted in a large variability in ganciclovir exposure in newborns, indicating the unmet need of dosage individualization in this vulnerable population, but the implementation of this strategy remains challenging in clinical practice...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Friedrich Hahn, Tony Fröhlich, Theresa Frank, Luca D Bertzbach, Stephan Kohrt, Benedikt B Kaufer, Thomas Stamminger, Svetlana B Tsogoeva, Manfred Marschall
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen and is associated with severe pathology, such as life-threatening courses of infection in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. Currently, antiviral therapy is still hampered by a considerable toxicity of the available drugs and induction of viral resistance. Recently, we and others reported the very potent antiviral activity of the broad antiinfective drug artesunate in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated further optimized analogs including monomeric, dimeric and trimeric derivatives belonging to this highly interesting chemical group of experimental drugs (sesquiterpenes/trioxanes) and compared these to the previously identified trimeric artesunate compound TF27...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Paul Edgar Gray, Bella Shadur, Susan Russell, Richard Mitchell, Kerri Gallagher, Kevin Thia, Pamela Palasanthiran, Ilia Voskoboinik
Single gene defects that impair lymphocyte cytotoxicity can predispose to severe viral infection that normally remains subclinical. The classic severe presentation is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Here, we report the case of a neonate who presented with cytomegalovirus palatal ulceration and bocavirus pneumonitis secondary to impaired cytotoxicity caused by biallelic mutations in the UNC13D gene.
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Loredana Delle Chiaie, Patrick Neuberger, Matthias Vochem, Angela Lihs, Ulrich Karck, Martin Enders
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of obstetrical adverse events and clinical outcome in infants following antenatal hyperimmune globulin (HIG) treatment for primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Data from 50 women including three twin pregnancies were retrospectively evaluated. Primary infection was defined by seroconversion or the presence of CMV-specific IgM and low IgG avidity. All women received two or more infusions of HIG (200 U/kg)...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Akshat Goel, Sneha Chaudhari, Jyoti Sutar, Gauri Bhonde, Sushmita Bhatnagar, Vainav Patel, Vikrant Bhor, Ira Shah
AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with neonatal cholestasis (NC). Diagnosis of CMV infection is most often based upon either positive blood CMV IgM or CMV blood PCR. Isolation of CMV in liver tissues in patients with NC has rarely been reported. This study was undertaken to see if CMV is present in liver tissues of patients with NC and evaluate the correlation between positive CMV PCR in liver tissue with the serology and blood PCR. METHODS: This study was conducted in 31 infants with NC from June 2015-Dec 2016...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marjolein J Korndewal, Marlies Weltevrede, M Elske van den Akker-van Marle, Anne Marie Oudesluys-Murphy, Hester E de Melker, Ann C T M Vossen
OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) can cause symptoms at birth as well as long-term impairment. This study estimates cCMV-related healthcare costs in the Netherlands in early childhood. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: In a nationwide retrospective cohort study, 156 children with cCMV were identified by testing 31 484 neonatal dried blood spots for cCMV. Use of healthcare resources in the first 6 years of life by children with cCMV and a matched cCMV-negative control group were analysed...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Akila Subramaniam, William J Britt
Bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens add significant morbidity and even mortality to pregnancy-with adverse effects extending to both the gravida and the newborn. Three herpesviruses deserve considerable attention given the effects of perinatal infection on obstetric outcomes, specifically maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the following review, we will provide a description of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella zoster virus. For each viral pathogen, we will describe the epidemiology, natural history, screening and diagnosis modalities, treatments, and implications for antepartum care...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Zoi Christoni, Christianna Vliora, Christine Kottaridi, Aikaterini Fotiou, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner, Andreas Mentis, Petros Karakitsos, Angeliki Syggelou
AIM AND METHODS: Dried blood spots from 2149 newborns were examined to diagnose congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV). RESULTS: Prenatal CMV-IgG antibodies had been measured during prenatal care in 1287 (60.3%) of mothers and 980 (76.1%) of them were found seropositive. cCMV incidence was 0.47%. All newborns were asymptomatic; 9/10 were born post nonprimary maternal infection; two developed sensorineural hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: In a country where prenatal CMV testing is common and therefore a false sense of control might prevail, nonprimary maternal infection should not be overlooked...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rahul Mittal, Desiree Nguyen, Luca H Debs, Amit P Patel, George Liu, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In S Kay, Jeenu Mittal, Emmalee S Bandstra, Ramzi T Younis, Prem Chapagain, Dushyantha T Jayaweera, Xue Zhong Liu
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rachelle Findley, Victoria M Allen, Jo-Ann K Brock
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the association of adverse perinatal outcomes with pregnancies complicated by fetal echogenic bowel. METHODS: Data for pregnancies complicated with echogenic bowel identified in the second trimester were derived from the tertiary referral IWK Health Centre (Halifax, NS) Viewpoint Ultrasound Database augmented by medical chart review. The study was undertaken between 2003 and 2014. Rates of positive cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis infection were determined using maternal serology and amniocentesis results...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Florian Kipfmueller, Kira Jungbluth, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Ulrike Reber, Stefan Holdenrieder, Ulrich Gembruch, Peter Bartmann, Andreas Mueller
Background Several approaches exist to screen neonates for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. We here describe a new method using cellulose pads for urine collection and its evaluation in an experimental and a clinical setting. Methods We systematically tested the effect of storage duration of the pads after exposure to cytomegalovirus-positive urine, meconium contamination and specimen handling on the cytomegalovirus load and the detection rate. Further, the method was tested in clinical practice in a cohort of 500 neonates...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
S De Carolis, S Tabacco, F Rizzo, G Perrone, C Garufi, A Botta, S Salvi, P Benedetti Panici, A Lanzone
The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. In the presence of IgM positivity, when indicated (CMV, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex virus), IgG avidity was evaluated and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction was performed on an amniotic fluid sample in order to distinguish between primary infection or false positivity...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
Maria Grazia Capretti, Concetta Marsico, Simonetta Guidelli Guidi, Antonio Ciardella, Giuliana Simonazzi, Silvia Galletti, Liliana Gabrielli, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Giacomo Faldella
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is responsible of a high burden of neurosensory impairment in children. OBJECTIVES: To report incidence and consequences of ophthalmological abnormalities in infants with cCMV infection and better define their long-term ophthalmological management. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with cCMV infection were enrolled in a 6-year follow-up. Infants were classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic based on complete clinical, laboratory and instrumental evaluations...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Guoyu Liu, Rong Hai, Fenyong Liu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus, is an important human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infections in healthy or immunocompetent individuals but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals such as neonates or immune-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. Congenital HCMV infection represents a significant public health issue and poses substantial healthcare and economic burden to society. This virus causes the most common viral congenital infection worldwide, and is the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children in developed countries...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
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