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trophoblastic disease hormone

Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Sudipa Sarkar, Lindsay A Bischoff
Hyperthyroidism can occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and the treatment of hyperthyroidism should be considered in the preconception phase. Pregnancy has multiple normal physiologic effects on thyroid hormone, which is a separate process distinct from syndromes such as transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. The rationale regarding antithyroid drug use during different stages of pregnancy is reviewed, including the literature regarding adverse neonatal outcomes such as aplasia cutis and methimazole embryopathy in the setting of first trimester maternal methimazole use...
November 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Tamara Veiga-Parga, Krista M D La Perle, Shelley J Newman
Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24)...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Bogusław Okopień
Thyrotoxicosis is a pathological syndrome in which tissue is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Including its subclinical form, it is considered as one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the general population. If not detected in a timely fashion, thyrotoxicosis can have serious health consequences. The most common forms of thyrotoxicosis include diffuse toxic goiter (Graves' disease), toxic multinodular goiter (Plummer's disease), and toxic adenoma (Goetsch's disease). The significant progress in the fields of hormonal assessment, imaging procedures and molecular biology made in recent years has brought about great improvement in the identification, differentiation and treatment of many other disorders associated with thyrotoxicosis...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Kirk P Conrad
BACKGROUND: Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1)...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Mariko Horii, Yingchun Li, Anna K Wakeland, Donald P Pizzo, Katharine K Nelson, Karen Sabatini, Louise Chang Laurent, Ying Liu, Mana M Parast
Trophoblast is the primary epithelial cell type in the placenta, a transient organ required for proper fetal growth and development. Different trophoblast subtypes are responsible for gas/nutrient exchange (syncytiotrophoblasts, STBs) and invasion and maternal vascular remodeling (extravillous trophoblasts, EVTs). Studies of early human placental development are severely hampered by the lack of a representative trophoblast stem cell (TSC) model with the capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into both STBs and EVTs...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Milo C Wiltbank, Giovanni M Baez, Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, Mateus Z Toledo, Pedro L J Monteiro, Leonardo F Melo, Julian C Ochoa, José E P Santos, Roberto Sartori
Loss of pregnancy can occur at many different stages of gestation and for a variety of causes but clearly produces a negative impact for reproductive and economic performances of dairy herds. This review describes four pivotal periods for pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation and discusses possible causes for pregnancy failure during these periods. The first period occurs during the first week after breeding with lack of fertilization and death of the early embryo producing major losses in pregnancy, particularly under specific environmental and hormonal conditions...
July 1, 2016: Theriogenology
E Jauniaux, G J Burton
In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O2) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O2free radicals. Oxidative stress is manifested at the maternal-fetal interface from early pregnancy onwards. In early pregnancy, a well-controlled oxidative stress plays a role in modulating placental development, functions and remodelling. Focal trophoblastic oxidative damage and progressive villous degeneration trigger the formation of the fetal membranes, which is an essential developmental step enabling vaginal delivery...
October 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Yasuhiko Ebina, Hidetaka Katabuchi, Mikio Mikami, Satoru Nagase, Nobuo Yaegashi, Yasuhiro Udagawa, Hidenori Kato, Kaneyuki Kubushiro, Kiyoshi Takamatsu, Kazuhiko Ino, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa
The third version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms was published in 2013. The guidelines comprise nine chapters and nine algorithms. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. This revision was intended to collect up-to-date international evidence. The highlights of this revision are to (1) newly specify costs and conflicts of interest; (2) describe the clinical significance of pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, including variant histologic types; (3) describe more clearly the indications for laparoscopic surgery as the standard treatment; (4) provide guidelines for post-treatment hormone replacement therapy; (5) clearly differentiate treatment of advanced or recurrent cancer between the initial treatment and the treatment carried out after the primary operation; (6) collectively describe fertility-sparing therapy for both atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (corresponding to G1) and newly describe relapse therapy after fertility-preserving treatment; and (7) newly describe the treatment of trophoblastic disease...
June 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Zachary Anderson, Eric Larson, Muhammad Khan, Maria Bell
INTRODUCTION: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) encompasses a group of tumors derived from trophoblasts, which normally form the placenta during pregnancy. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein composed of an alpha subunit identical to that of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Detection of beta-hCG is achievable in both urine and serum samples, proving useful for the detection of normal pregnancy and GTD...
February 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Goran Lakisic, Alice Lebreton, Renaud Pourpre, Olivia Wendling, Emanuele Libertini, Elizabeth J Radford, Morwenna Le Guillou, Marie-France Champy, Marie Wattenhofer-Donzé, Guillaume Soubigou, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Jean Feunteun, Tania Sorg, Jean-Yves Coppée, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne
BAHD1 is a vertebrate protein that promotes heterochromatin formation and gene repression in association with several epigenetic regulators. However, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ablation of the Bahd1 gene results in hypocholesterolemia, hypoglycemia and decreased body fat in mice. It also causes placental growth restriction with a drop of trophoblast glycogen cells, a reduction of fetal weight and a high neonatal mortality rate. By intersecting transcriptome data from murine Bahd1 knockout (KO) placentas at stages E16...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Roberto Maggi, Anna Maria Cariboni, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Roberta Manuela Moretti, Valentina Andrè, Monica Marzagalli, Patrizia Limonta
BACKGROUND: Human reproduction depends on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been recognized, since its identification in 1971, as the central regulator of the production and release of the pituitary gonadotrophins that, in turn, regulate the gonadal functions and the production of sex steroids. The characteristic peculiar development, distribution and episodic activity of GnRH-producing neurons have solicited an interdisciplinary interest on the etiopathogenesis of several reproductive diseases...
April 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Ryszard Mordak, Peter Anthony Stewart, Stewart Peter Anthony
The immune system during the periparturient period is impaired. At this time the most important factor causing immune-suppression in highly productive cows is metabolic stress resulting from hormonal and metabolic fluctuations, a negative energy balance, shortage of proteins, minerals and vitamins which are required to meet the demands of the fetus as well as the onset of lactation. This stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA), which results in increase plasma corticosteroids...
December 2, 2015: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Lucien Marchand, Paul Chabert, Elise Chaudesaygues, Mélanie Grasse, Stephan Bretones, Julia Graeppi-Dulac, Jean-François Aupetit
Severe hyperthyroidism can cause cardiac complications, such as severe rhythm disturbances, heart failure and angina. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy, ranging from benign hydatidiform mole to malignant form. Clinical hyperthyroidism may occur in GTD, as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by molar tissue is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone. Cardiothyreosis in this context is exceptional. We report the case of a nulligravida 42-year-old woman without thyroid or cardiac history who presented to the emergency department for dyspnoea...
2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Lorenza Sisinni, Matteo Landriscina
Tumor markers are biological substances that are produced/released mainly by malignant tumor cells, enter the circulation in detectable amounts and are potential indicators of the presence of a tumor. The most useful biochemical markers are the tumor-specific molecules, i.e., receptors, enzymes, hormones, growth factors or biological response modifiers that are specifically produced by tumor cells and not, or minimally, by the normal counterpart (Richard et al. Principles and practice of gynecologic oncology...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A Braga, I Maestá, D Short, P Savage, R Harvey, M J Seckl
OBJECTIVE: To re-evaluate the safety of hormonal contraceptives (HC) after uterine evacuation of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). DESIGN: Historical database review. SETTING: Charing Cross Hospital Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Centre, London, United Kingdom. POPULATION: Two thousand four hundred and twenty-three women with CHM of whom 154 commenced HC while their human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was still elevated, followed between 2003 and 2012...
July 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Hui Li, Yu-Han Meng, Wen-Qing Shang, Li-Bing Liu, Xuan Chen, Min-Min Yuan, Li-Ping Jin, Ming-Qing Li, Da-Jin Li
Chemokine CCL24, acting through receptor CCR3, is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophil in allergic diseases and parasitic infections. We recently reported that CCL24 and CCR3 are co-expressed by trophoblasts in human early pregnant uterus. Here we prove with evidence that steroid hormones estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), as well as decidual stromal cells (DSCs) could regulate the expression of CCL24 and CCR3 of trophoblasts. We further investigate how trophoblast-derived CCL24 mediates the function of trophoblasts in vitro, and conclude that CCL24/CCR3 promotes the proliferation, viability and invasiveness of trophoblasts...
November 2015: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Cécile Choux, Virginie Carmignac, Céline Bruno, Paul Sagot, Daniel Vaiman, Patricia Fauque
Today, there is growing interest in the potential epigenetic risk related to assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Much evidence in the literature supports the hypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes linked to ART are associated with abnormal trophoblastic invasion. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between epigenetic dysregulation caused by ART and subsequent placental response. The dialogue between the endometrium and the embryo is a crucial step to achieve successful trophoblastic invasion, thus ensuring a non-complicated pregnancy and healthy offspring...
2015: Clinical Epigenetics
Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Masoumeh Mirzamoradi, Parichehr Kimyaiee, Abbas Aghaie, Mohammd Ali Mansournia, Sepideh Ashrafi-Vand, Fatemeh Sadat Sarfjoo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the slope of linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG as an independent risk factor for postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic referral health care centers. PATIENT(S): All subjects with confirmed hydatidiform mole and at least four measurements of β-hCG titer. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Type and magnitude of the relationship between the slope of linear regression of β-hCG as a new risk factor and GTN using Bayesian logistic regression with penalized log-likelihood estimation...
September 2015: Fertility and Sterility
Christina M Duzyj, Michael J Paidas, Lellean Jebailey, Jing Shun Huang, Eytan R Barnea
BACKGROUND: Intimate embryo-maternal interaction is paramount for pregnancy success post-implantation. The embryo follows a specific developmental timeline starting with neural system, dependent on endogenous and decidual factors. Beyond altered genetics/epigenetics, post-natal diseases may initiate at prenatal/neonatal, post-natal period, or through a continuum. Preimplantation factor (PIF) secreted by viable embryos promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Synthetic PIF reverses neuroinflammation in non-pregnant models...
2014: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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