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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777601/-informed-consent-something-unresolved-in-the-penitentiary-setting
#1
Julio García Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: The exercise of Informed Consent within the penitentiary environment contradicts the ordinary exercise of the same towards the rest of the population. METHODOLOGY: review of legal regulations and constitutional doctrine on IC. Review of the judicial outcomes when a prisoner refuses medical treatment. RESULTS: Normative on IC (Ley 41/2002 y Convenio de Oviedo, Spanish legal framework): with the exception of cases in which IC cannot be taken or under the risk of causong damage to third parties, competent and capable persons can decide over their life and health, and such decisions need to be respected...
May 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776688/naloxone-laws-facilitate-the-establishment-of-overdose-education-and-naloxone-distribution-programs-in-the-united-states
#2
Barrot H Lambdin, Corey S Davis, Eliza Wheeler, Stephen Tueller, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose crisis in the United States continues to worsen. Opioid overdose mortality is entirely preventable with timely administration of naloxone. Since 2001, many states have passed laws to create an enabling environment for the implementation of overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. We assessed whether state-level naloxone laws and their provisions stimulated the implementation of OEND programs in the United States. METHODS: Covering the period from 2000 to 2014, we utilized five data sources including the Westlaw legal database, the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System, the Harm Reduction Coalition's OEND database, National Center of Health Statistics and the United States Census...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774623/medical-service-provider-networks
#3
Michel Mougeot, Florence Naegelen
In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null...
May 17, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774273/uk-birth-registration-and-its-present-discontents
#4
Edward Higgs
Calls for reform of the United Kingdom (UK) birth registration system to allow it to be more flexible regarding subsequent name changes, gender recording and to contain information about 'third parties' involved in procreation are justified and important. However, we need to ask exactly when discussions about the birth registration system in the country became primarily about the welfare of the individual child being registered? This was hardly the case at the system's inception in 1836, or during much of its history...
April 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771103/-an-introduction-to-the-thought-of-emmanuel-levinas-the-care-or-irreducible-worry-of-infinite-responsibility
#5
Philippe Svandra
Despite a particularly difficult approach, Emmanuel Levinas remains a philosopher who « speaks » quite naturally to caregivers. The reason is simple ; he is interested in an issue that has long been hidden in philosophy, but that directly affects care : vulnerability.However, it seems that his thinking has too often been watered down. By presenting it as a form of benevolent altruism, the radical, even subversive, aspect of the approach that he proposes to us is erased. Indeed, Levinassian responsibility is experienced first of all as a rupture, a violence that makes me the « hostage of others...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769117/a-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-interventions-to-treat-patients-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#6
Nadera Ahmadzai, Shaun Kilty, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Bonaparte, David Schramm, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Vincent Lin, Wei Cheng, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Brian Hutton
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, with greater than 20% of Canadian adults having measurable hearing loss in at least one ear. Patients with hearing loss experience impaired quality of life, and emotional and financial consequences that affect themselves and their families. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common but difficult to treat form of hearing loss that has a sudden onset of ≤ 72 h associated with various etiologies, with the majority of cases being idiopathic...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#7
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755674/infusion-of-bone-marrow-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-the-treatment-of-steroid-refractory-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#8
Sophie Servais, Frédéric Baron, Chantal Lechanteur, Laurence Seidel, Dominik Selleslag, Johan Maertens, Etienne Baudoux, Pierre Zachee, Michel Van Gelder, Lucien Noens, Tessa Kerre, Philippe Lewalle, Wilfried Schroyens, Aurélie Ory, Yves Beguin
The prognosis of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains poor and better treatments are urgently needed. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy emerged as a promising approach but response rates were highly variable across studies. We conducted a multicenter prospective study assessing the efficacy of 1-2 infusion(s) of cryopreserved, third-party donor bone marrow-derived MSCs for treating grade II-IV steroid-refractory or -dependent aGVHD in a series of 33 patients...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751812/negotiating-health-patients-and-guardians-perspective-on-failed-patient-professional-interactions-in-the-context-of-the-swedish-health-care-system
#9
Roland Koch, Stefanie Joos, Elsa-Lena Ryding
BACKGROUND: Sweden has a largely tax-funded health care system that aims at providing equal access for everyone. However, the individual's perception and experience of the health care system remains a relevant topic for researchers. The aim of this study is to learn the patient's perspective on how patients and professionals negotiate in the social context of the Swedish health care system. METHODS: Eight essays that had spontaneously been contributed to a medical writing contest were analyzed using narrative methods...
May 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750120/changing-trends-in-eye-related-complaints-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-in-beirut-lebanon-over-15-years
#10
Haytham I Salti, Carl-Joe Mehanna, Bachir Abiad, Nicola Ghazi, Samih Raad, Anita Barikian, Randa Haddad, Adnan Ashkar, Elie Harmouche, Elie Zaghrini, Afif Mufarrij
Objective: To report the 15-year trend in ophthalmic presentations to the emergency department (ED) at the only medical center in Lebanon that provides 24-hour ophthalmologic care. Methods: Retrospective review of 1967 patients presenting to the ED with eye-related complaints between September 1997 and August 1998 and between September 2012 and August 2013. Diagnoses were classified into 4 categories according to the International Society of Ocular Trauma and include penetrating eye injuries, nonpenetrating eye trauma, nontraumatic ophthalmic emergencies, and nontraumatic, nonurgent ophthalmic conditions...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746490/clinical-evaluation-of-semi-automatic-open-source-algorithmic-software-segmentation-of-the-mandibular-bone-practical-feasibility-and-assessment-of-a-new-course-of-action
#11
Jürgen Wallner, Kerstin Hochegger, Xiaojun Chen, Irene Mischak, Knut Reinbacher, Mauro Pau, Tomislav Zrnc, Katja Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Wolfgang Zemann, Dieter Schmalstieg, Jan Egger
INTRODUCTION: Computer assisted technologies based on algorithmic software segmentation are an increasing topic of interest in complex surgical cases. However-due to functional instability, time consuming software processes, personnel resources or licensed-based financial costs many segmentation processes are often outsourced from clinical centers to third parties and the industry. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to assess the practical feasibility of an easy available, functional stable and licensed-free segmentation approach to be used in the clinical practice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746185/an-argument-for-competency-based-training-in-pelvic-floor-physiotherapy-practice
#12
Helena C Frawley, Patricia Neumann, Clare Delany
Pelvic floor dysfunction has been described as "a silent epidemic," affecting many people in the community yet under-recognized and insufficiently managed. There is evidence that pelvic floor physiotherapy can manage many of these disorders, however a competency framework to guide and inform pelvic floor physiotherapy training and practice is lacking. The assessment and management of the pelvic floor complex is not addressed as a core component of most entry-to-practice physiotherapy programs despite being within the scope of physiotherapy practice which is in contrast with the knowledge and skills that physiotherapists graduate with in core areas of clinical practice...
May 10, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744694/is-there-a-duty-to-participate-in-digital-epidemiology
#13
Brent Mittelstadt, Justus Benzler, Lukas Engelmann, Barbara Prainsack, Effy Vayena
This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first describe traditional justifications for epidemiology that imply a duty to participate for the general public, which take account of the immediacy and plausibility of threats, and the identifiability of data...
May 9, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739410/the-relationship-between-hospital-and-ehr-vendor-market-dynamics-on-health-information-organization-presence-and-participation
#14
Sunny C Lin, Julia Adler-Milstein
BACKGROUND: Health Information Organizations (HIOs) are third party organizations that facilitate electronic health information exchange (HIE) between providers in a geographic area. Despite benefits from HIE, HIOs have struggled to form and subsequently gain broad provider participation. We sought to assess whether market-level hospital and EHR vendor dynamics are associated with presence and level of hospital participation in HIOs. METHODS: 2014 data on 4523 hospitals and their EHR vendors were aggregated to the market level...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736611/men-s-interest-in-allying-with-a-previous-combatant-for-future-group-combat
#15
Nicole Barbaro, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Michael N Pham
Intra- and intergroup conflict are likely to have been recurrent features of human evolutionary history; however, little research has investigated the factors that affect men's combat alliance decisions. The current study investigated whether features of previous one-on-one combat with an opponent affect men's interest in allying with that opponent for future group combat. Fifty-eight undergraduate men recruited from a psychology department subject pool participated in a one-on-one laboratory fight simulation...
May 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734570/a-historical-review-of-the-u-s-navy-s-busiest-recompression-chamber-in-the-pacific-theater-with-a-current-perspective-on-caring-for-civilian-divers-within-its-area-of-responsibility-short-communication
#16
Christopher Rendina
On the island Nation of Guam, the United States Department of Defense has stationed military personnel from every service branch. Guam is utilized as a strategic waypoint for the U.S. military in the Pacific theater. As the largest service branch in the region, the Navy has placed a few Diving Medical Officers in Guam to collectively manage and treat patients with recompression therapy. Guam is also a popular tourist destination, with multiple recreational diving companies certifying individuals who are looking to take advantage of the beautiful warm water and exotic marine life...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728452/ethical-implications-of-medical-crowdfunding-the-case-of-charlie-gard
#17
Gabrielle Dressler, Sarah A Kelly
Patients are increasingly turning to medical crowdfunding as a way to cover their healthcare costs. In the case of Charlie Gard, an infant born with encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, crowdfunding was used to finance experimental nucleoside therapy. Although this treatment was not provided in the end, we will argue that the success of the Gard family's crowdfunding campaign reveals a number of potential ethical concerns. First, this case shows that crowdfunding can change the way in which communal healthcare resources are allocated...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728401/immune-regulatory-cell-infusion-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prevention-and-therapy
#18
Bruce R Blazar, Kelli P A MacDonald, Geoffrey R Hill
Current approaches to prevent and treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after stem cell transplantation rely principally on pharmacological immune suppression. Such approaches are limited by drug toxicity, non-specific immune suppression and a requirement for long-term therapy. Our increased understanding of the regulatory cells and molecular pathways involved in limiting pathogenic immune responses opens the opportunity for the use of these cell subsets to prevent and/or GVHD. The theoretical advantages of this approach is permanency of effect, potential for facilitating tissue repair, and induction of tolerance that obviates a need for ongoing drug therapy...
May 4, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724236/patient-consent-to-publication-and-data-sharing-in-industry-and-nih-funded-clinical-trials
#19
O'Mareen Spence, Richie Onwuchekwa Uba, Seongbin Shin, Peter Doshi
BACKGROUND: Participants are recruited into clinical trials under the assumption that the research will contribute to medical knowledge. Therefore, non-publication trials-and, more recently, lack of data sharing-are widely considered to violate the trust of trial participants. Existing practices regarding patient consent to publication and data sharing have not been evaluated. Analyzing informed consent forms (ICFs), we studied what trial participants were told regarding investigators' intention to contribute to medical knowledge, publish trial results, and share de-identified trial data...
May 3, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723255/why-we-sometimes-punish-the-innocent-the-role-of-group-entitativity-in-collective-punishment
#20
Andrea Pereira, Jan-Willem van Prooijen
Because punishments are expected to give offenders what they deserve proportionally to the severity of their offenses, the punishment of an entire group because of the misdeed of a few of its members is generally considered as unfair. Group entitativity might increase support for such collective punishment, because members of highly entitative groups are perceived as more similar and interchangeable. We designed three experiments comparing support for third-party collective punishment of low versus high entitative groups...
2018: PloS One
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