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Caroline Oakland, Jaymie R Meliker
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. METHODS: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990-2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017...
March 16, 2018: Toxics
Marcia C Inhorn, Pasquale Patrizio
Reproductive health services, including infertility care, are important in countries with infrastructure deficits, such as Lebanon, which now hosts more than one million Syrian refugees. Islamic prohibitions on child adoption and third-party reproductive assistance (donor eggs, sperm, embryos, and surrogacy) mean that most Muslim couples must turn to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to overcome their childlessness. Attempts to bring low-cost IVF-ICSI to underserved populations might help infertile couples where no other services are available...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Taigo Kato, Tatsuo Matsuda, Yuji Ikeda, Jae-Hyun Park, Matthias Leisegang, Sachiko Yoshimura, Tetsuro Hikichi, Makiko Harada, Makda Zewde, Sho Sato, Kosei Hasegawa, Kazuma Kiyotani, Yusuke Nakamura
Neoantigens are the main targets of tumor-specific T cells reactivated by immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies or when using tumor-infiltrating T cells for adoptive therapy. While cancers often accumulate hundreds of mutations and harbor several immunogenic neoantigens, the repertoire of mutation-specific T cells in patients might be restricted. To bypass suboptimal conditions, which impede the reactivation of existing T cells or the priming of neoantigen-specific T cells in a patient, we employ T cells of healthy donors with an overlapping HLA repertoire to target cancer neoantigens...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Hossein Zanjanian, Hamid Abdolabadi, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Amin Sarang
Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sathvik X Palakurty, John R Stinchcombe, Michelle E Afkhami
A mechanistic understanding of community ecology requires tackling the nonadditive effects of multispecies interactions, a challenge that necessitates integration of ecological and molecular complexity- namely moving beyond pairwise ecological interaction studies and the 'gene at a time' approach to mechanism. Here, we investigate the consequences of multispecies mutualisms for the structure and function of genome-wide differential coexpression networks for the first time, using the tractable and ecologically-important interaction between legume Medicago truncatula, rhizobia, and mycorrhizal fungi...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Michael A Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
Our research brings to light features of the social world that impact moral judgments and how they do so. The moral vignette data presented were collected in rural and urban Croatian communities that were involved to varying degrees in the Croatian Homeland War. We argue that rapid shifts in moral accommodations during periods of violent social strife can be explained by considering the role that coordination and social agents' ability to reconfigure their social network (i.e., relational mobility) play in moral reasoning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Marianne Azevedo-Silva, Marlies Sazima
Nursery pollination involves pollinators that lay eggs on the flowers they pollinate and have their brood fed on flower parts or developing ovules [1-4]. Active pollination, a ritualistic behavioral sequence shown by nursery pollinators when transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas, is known in only four plant lineages [5-8], including the classical examples of fig trees-fig wasps and yuccas-yucca moths [5, 6]. We report in detail a system in which weevils actively pollinate orchids prior to having their larvae fed on the developing fruits...
March 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Daphne Halikiopoulou
Speed and Mannion make a good case that the rise of populism poses significant challenges for health policy. This commentary suggests that the link between populism and health policy should be further nuanced in four ways. First, a deconstruction of the term populism itself and a focus on the far right dimension of populist politics; second, a focus on the supply side and more specifically the question of nationalism and the 'national preference'; third, the dynamics of party competition during economic crisis; and fourth the question of policy, and more specifically the extent to which certain labour market policies are able to mediate demand for the far right...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Benjamin M Hunter
In many contexts there are a range of individuals and organisations offering healthcare services that differ widely in cost, quality and outcomes. This complexity is exacerbated by processes of healthcare commercialisation. Yet reliable information on healthcare provision is often limited, and progress to and through the healthcare system may depend on knowledge drawn from prior experiences, social networks and the providers themselves. It is in these contexts that healthcare brokerage emerges and third-party actors facilitate access to healthcare...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Tomohiro Morio, Yuriko Fujita, Satoshi Takahashi
Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Jennifer M Serico, Amanda NeMoyer, Naomi E S Goldstein, Mark Houck, Stephen S Leff
Unlike the overt nature of physical aggression, which lends itself to simpler and more direct methods of investigation, the often-masked nature of relational aggression has led to difficulties and debate regarding the most effective tools of study. Given concerns with the accuracy of third-party relational aggression reports, especially as individuals age, self-report measures may be particularly useful when assessing experiences with relational aggression. However, it is important to recognize validity concerns-in particular, the potential effects of item order presentation-associated with self-report of relational aggression perpetration and victimization...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Floortje B Moes, Eddy S Houwaart, Diana M J Delnoij, Klasien Horstman
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: This paper examines a remarkable dispute between Dutch insurers, hospitals, doctors, and patients about a set of quality indicators. In 2013, private insurers planned to drastically reform Dutch emergency care using quality indicators they had formulated drawing from clinical guidelines, RCTs, and systematic reviews. Insurers' plans caused much debate in the field of emergency care. As quality indicators have come to play a more central role in health care governance, the questions what constitutes good evidence for them, how they ought to be used, and who controls them have become politically and morally charged...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Oliver J Gagné, Andrea Veljkovic, Mark Glazebrook, Timothy R Daniels, Murray J Penner, Kevin J Wing, Alastair S E Younger
BACKGROUND: People who are affected by end-stage ankle arthritis are as disabled as those suffering from arthritis in other main articulations of the lower extremity. Once these patients become unable to perform their job duties, they leave the workforce and require financial aid from government agencies, which represents a considerable economic burden. Regardless of whether arthrodesis or arthroplasty is performed, we hypothesized that patients younger than 55 years at the time of surgery should be able to return to work within 2 years and require less social assistance...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
L Fidalgo Domingos, E M San Norberto García, D Gutiérrez Castillo, C Flota Ruiz, I Estévez Fernández, C Vaquero Puerta
BACKGROUND: Endovascular procedures come with a potential risk of radiation hazards both to patients and to the vascular staff. Classically, most endovascular interventions took place in regular operating rooms using a fluoroscopy C-arm unit controlled by a third party. Hybrid operating rooms (HOR) provide an optimal surgical suit with all the qualities of a fixed C-arm device, while allowing the device to be controlled by the surgical team. The latest studies suggest that an operator-controlled system may reduce the radiation dose...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Gillian Harper
OBJECTIVES: To quality assure a Trusted Third Party linked data set to prepare it for analysis. SETTING: Birth registration and notification records from the Office for National Statistics for all births in England 2005-2014 linked to Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) delivery records by NHS Digital using mothers' identifiers. PARTICIPANTS: All 6 676 912 births that occurred in England from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Every link between a registered birth and an HES delivery record for the study period was categorised as either the same baby or a different baby to the same mother, or as a wrong link, by comparing common baby data items and valid values in key fields with stepwise deterministic rules...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Nina Müller, Katharina Landwehr, Kirsten Langeveld, Joanna Stenzel, Walter Pouwels, Menno A W G van der Hoorn, Erhard Seifried, Halvard Bonig
BACKGROUND AIMS: For patients needing allogeneic stem cell transplantation but lacking a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donor, haplo-identical (family) donors may be an alternative. Stringent T-cell depletion required in these cases to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can delay immune reconstitution, thus impairing defense against virus reactivation and attenuating graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Several groups reported that GVHD is caused by cells residing within the naive (CD45RA+ ) T-cell compartment and proposed use of CD45RA-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to accelerate immune reconstitution...
February 28, 2018: Cytotherapy
Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Rosemirta Birungi, Peter Lule, Lawrence Mayega, Kanar Dizyee
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sunny C Lin, Jordan Everson, Julia Adler-Milstein
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. STUDY SETTING: A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers...
February 28, 2018: Health Services Research
Jennifer Danielson, Courtney Kraus, Curtis G Jefferson, Anita J Cleven, Luke E Rice, Teresa A O'Sullivan
Health system human resource departments are putting new requirements, paperwork, and processes in place to meet new Joint Commission standards for treating students like employees who onboard at the beginning of employment. These processes have significantly increased the workload of experiential education offices and present an additional burden to students. In an attempt to streamline these processes, health systems are contracting with third-party tracking and placement organizations. Converting this process to an electronic one (such as what third-party organizations offer) could present advantages; however, there are many concerns about going through a third-party organization that could control placement decisions...
February 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Dario Nalis, Astrid Schütz, Alexander Pastukhov
In win-win solutions, all parties benefit more from the solution than they would if they each pursued their own individual goals. Such solutions are beneficial at individual and collective levels and thus represent optimal solutions. Win-win solutions are desirable but often difficult to find. To allow the study of individual differences and situational factors that help or hinder the detection of win-win solutions, we created a paradigm that fills a gap in the repertoire of psychological instruments used to assess collaboration, cooperation, negotiation, and prosocial behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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