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NADH supplement

Antonino Baez, Joseph Shiloach
The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Gaoxiang Qi, Lian Xiong, Xiaoqing Lin, Chao Huang, Hailong Li, Xuefang Chen, Xinde Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibiting effect of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation and explain the mechanism of the alleviation in the inhibiting effect under CaCO3 supplementation condition. RESULTS: From the medium containing 50 g sugars l(-1) and 0.5 g formic acid l(-1), only 0.75 g ABE l(-1) was produced when pH was adjusted by KOH and fermentation ended prematurely before the transformation from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In contrast, 11...
October 6, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Pasquale Filannino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Rocco Addante, Erica Pontonio, Marco Gobbetti
: Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are strongly associated to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Apis mellifera L. worker bees due to the consumption of fructose as a major carbohydrate. Seventy-seven presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from GIT of healthy A. mellifera L. adults, which were collected from 5 different geographical locations of Apulia region (Italy). Almost all the isolates showed fructophilic tendencies, which were identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei (69%) or Fructobacillus fructosus (31%)...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Takushi Hachiya, Nanae Ueda, Munenori Kitagawa, Guy Hanke, Akira Suzuki, Toshiharu Hase, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Ferredoxin : NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Golam M Uddin, Neil A Youngson, David A Sinclair, Margaret J Morris
Obesity is well known to be a major cause of several chronic metabolic diseases, which can be partially counteracted by exercise. This is due, in part, to an upregulation of mitochondrial activity through increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). Recent studies have shown that NAD(+) levels can be increased by using the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) leading to the suggestion that NMN could be a useful intervention in diet related metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic, and especially mitochondrial-associated, effects of exercise and NMN in ameliorating the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Christian Bergamini, Noah Moruzzi, Francesco Volta, Laura Faccioli, Jantje Gerdes, Maria Cristina Mondardini, Romana Fato
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is an anaesthetic widely used for human sedation. Due to its intrinsic antioxidant properties, rapid induction of anaesthesia and fast recovery, it is employed in paediatric anaesthesia and in the intensive care of premature infants. Recent studies have pointed out that exposure to anaesthesia in the early stage of life might be responsible of long-lasting cognitive impairment. The apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by general anaesthetics (GA) involves mitochondrial impairment due to the inhibition of the OXPHOS machinery...
August 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Eun Jung Park, Young Min Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Se-Yun Jang, Moo Hyun Oh, Duck-Hyung Lee, Ki Churl Chang
Obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases coagulation and inflammation. We hypothesized that (S)YS-51, an agent found to be beneficial in animal models of sepsis, may reduce NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD) mice by reducing coagulation and inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a chow diet or HFD and each was supplemented with or without (S)YS-51 (10mg/kg, daily, i.p.) for 16 weeks. The results showed that HFD caused significant increases in lipogenesis [CD36, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol response element binding protein (SREBP)-1c mRNA and protein], inflammation [monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), TGF-β, and procollagen type 1 mRNA, macrophage infiltration] and coagulation [tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT)] in the liver, adipose tissue and serum, which were significantly reduced by (S)YS-51...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xinhe Zhao, Stefan Condruz, Jingkui Chen, Mario Jolicoeur
Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (-19...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gou-Chun Chen, Hui-Min Su, Yu-Shun Lin, Po-Yen Tsou, Jong-Ho Chyuan, Pei-Min Chao
α-Eleostearic acid (α-ESA), or the cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid, is a special fatty acid present at high levels in bitter melon seed oil. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of α-ESA on hepatic lipid metabolism. Using H4IIEC3 hepatoma cell line, we showed that α-ESA significantly lowered intracellular triglyceride accumulation compared to α-linolenic acid (LN), used as a fatty acid control, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of α-ESA on enzyme activities and mRNA profiles in H4IIEC3 cells suggested that enhanced fatty acid oxidation and lowered lipogenesis were involved in α-ESA-mediated triglyceride lowering effects...
July 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Mariel Perez-Zabaleta, Gustav Sjöberg, Mónica Guevara-Martínez, Johan Jarmander, Martin Gustavsson, Jorge Quillaguamán, Gen Larsson
BACKGROUND: In a recently discovered microorganism, Halomonas boliviensis, polyhydroxybutyrate production was extensive and in contrast to other PHB producers, contained a set of alleles for the enzymes of this pathway. Also the monomer, (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), possesses features that are interesting for commercial production, in particular the synthesis of fine chemicals with chiral specificity. Production with a halophilic organism is however not without serious drawbacks, wherefore it was desirable to introduce the 3HB pathway into Escherichia coli...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Yu-Cai He, Zhi-Cheng Tao, Jun-Hua Di, Liang Chen, Lin-Bing Zhang, Dan-Ping Zhang, Gang-Gang Chong, Feng Liu, Yun Ding, Chun-Xia Jiang, Cui-Luan Ma
It was the first report that the concentrated hydrolyzates from the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute NaOH (3wt%)-soaking rice straw at 30°C was used to form [Bmim]PF6-hydrolyzate (50:50, v/v) media for bioconverting ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (>99% e.e.) with recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with pure glucose, the hydrolyzates could promote both initial reaction rate and the intracellular NADH content. Furthermore, emulsifier OP-10 (20mM) was employed to improve the reductase activity...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Irene Llorente-Folch, Carlos B Rueda, Irene Pérez-Liébana, Jorgina Satrústegui, Beatriz Pardo
UNLABELLED: ARALAR/AGC1/Slc25a12, the aspartate-glutamate carrier from brain mitochondria, is the regulatory step in the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle, MAS. MAS is used to oxidize cytosolic NADH in mitochondria, a process required to maintain oxidative glucose utilization. The role of ARALAR was analyzed in two paradigms of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cortical neurons: glucose deprivation and acute glutamate stimulation. ARALAR deficiency did not aggravate glutamate-induced neuronal death in vitro, although glutamate-stimulated respiration was impaired...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hongyin Zhang, Qiya Yang, Lingling Ge, Guochao Zhang, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhang
Biological control using microbial antagonists is a promising alternative approach to synthetic fungicides. However, effective biological control requires enhancing the consistency and efficacy of the antagonists used to control postharvest diseases. This study investigated the effect of chitin on the biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against blue mold and Rhizopus decay of peaches and on the protein expression profiles of R. mucilaginosa. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa harvested from the nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) with 0...
July 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xinyao Lu, Xiaomeng Fu, Hong Zong, Bin Zhuge
1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is a valuable platform compound. Many studies have shown that the supplement of NADH plays a key role in the bioproduction of 1,3-PD from Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, the xylA and xylB genes from Escherichia coli were overexpressed individually or simultaneously in K. pneumoniae to improve the production of 1,3-PD by cofermentation of glycerol and xylose. Compared with the parent strain, the xylose consumption was significantly increased by the introduction of these two genes...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhu-Qing Yang, Lin-Bin Bao, Xiang-Hui Zhao, Can-Yu Wang, Shan Zhou, Lu-Hua Wen, Chuan-Bian Fu, Jian-Ming Gong, Ming-Ren Qu
Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA)...
June 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jin-Sung Park, Brianada Koentjoro, Ryan L Davis, Carolyn M Sue
BACKGROUND: Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) caused by loss-of-function mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9). Impaired energy metabolism is considered a pathogenic mechanism in PD and mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from Zn(2+) dyshomeostasis has been found in KRS patient-derived cells. In addition to mitochondrial energy production, glycolysis plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and glucose hypometabolism has been reported in PD...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Virginia Schadeweg, Eckhard Boles
BACKGROUND: Butanol isomers are regarded as more suitable fuel substitutes than bioethanol. n-Butanol is naturally produced by some Clostridia species, but due to inherent problems with clostridial fermentations, industrially more relevant organisms have been genetically engineered for n-butanol production. Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae holds significant advantages in terms of scalable industrial fermentation, n-butanol yields and titers obtained so far are only low. RESULTS: Here we report a thorough analysis and significant improvements of n-butanol production from glucose with yeast via the acetoacetyl-CoA-derived pathway...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Punit Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey
This work investigated the potential of medium engineering to obtain maximum biomass, non-conventional carbon sources for lipstatin production and modulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to promote lipstatin synthesis. It was found that 2:3 carbon and nitrogen ratio, produced maximum biomass of 7.9g/L in growth medium and 6.6g/L in pre-seed medium. Among the studied non-conventional carbon sources i.e., soya flour 40g/L and sesame oil 30mL/L were found producing 1109.37mg/L (1.24-fold of control) and 1196...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yuru Zhang, Haizhen Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Ying Hu, Linqiang Zhang, Xiaoyun Wu, Xiong Su, Tingting Li, Xiaoju Zou, Bin Liang
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
E Mariotti, M R Orton, O Eerbeek, J F Ashruf, C J Zuurbier, R Southworth, T R Eykyn
Hyperpolarized (13)C MR measurements have the potential to display non-linear kinetics. We have developed an approach to describe possible non-first-order kinetics of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate employing a system of differential equations that agrees with the principle of conservation of mass of the hyperpolarized signal. Simultaneous fitting to a second-order model for conversion of [1-(13)C] pyruvate to bicarbonate, lactate and alanine was well described in the isolated rat heart perfused with Krebs buffer containing glucose as sole energy substrate, or glucose supplemented with pyruvate...
April 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
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