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nutritional biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#1
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223451/mineralization-in-newborn-calves-contributes-to-health-improve-the-antioxidant-system-and-reduces-bacterial-infections
#2
Patrícia Glombowsky, Aleksandro S da Silva, Natan M Soldá, Gabriela M Galli, Angelisa H Biazus, Gabriela Campigotto, Nathieli B Bottari, Rejane S Sousa, Maiara C Brisola, Lenita M Stefani, Matheus D Baldissera, Marta L R Leal, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Gustavo Machado
The first phase of life of dairy calves has elevated mortality indices linked with low immunity and sanitary challenges, mainly bacterial infections are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the leading cause of death. Also, other important problem is the nutritional deficiencies, such as the mineral deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an intramuscular mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus possess beneficial effects on health of dairy calves...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215197/enrichment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-bean-sprouts-exploring-biosynthesis-of-plant-metabolite-using-common-household-reagents
#3
Theerasak Rojanarata, Samarwadee Plianwong, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based on the GABA biosynthesis pathways, two key factors, being the availability of l-glutamic acid and the acidification of the germination environment, were chosen for the study of the effects on the enhancement of GABA levels...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189140/polyphenols-effect-on-circulating-lipids-and-lipoproteins-from-biochemistry-to-clinical-evidence
#4
Arrigo Fg Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are a family of natural antioxidants that in recent years have been studied and tested for their potential benefits towards cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the presumed lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects of polyphenols, administered either as individual molecules (nutritional supplements) and as functional foods, on the basis of the evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their meta-analyses...
November 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183037/efficacy-of-a-new-post-mouthwash-intervention-wiping-plus-oral-nutritional-supplements-for-preventing-aspiration-pneumonia-in-elderly-people-a-multicenter-randomized-comparative-trial
#5
Takashi Higashiguchi, Hiroshi Ohara, Yayoi Kamakura, Takeshi Kikutani, Masafumi Kuzuya, Hiromi Enoki, Hiromi Sanada, Masami Matsuzaki, Michio Maruyama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death among the elderly (≥90-year-old) in nursing homes. Studies suggest that its incidence could be reduced by oral care interventions. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new oral care intervention: wiping plus oral nutritional supplements (ONS). METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in 252 patients (age 88.0 ± 6.5 years) in 75 nursing homes, rehabilitation hospitals, and other care facilities...
November 28, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152248/nutritional-management-of-search-and-rescue-dogs
#6
G Vassalotti, N Musco, P Lombardi, S Calabrò, R Tudisco, V Mastellone, R Grazioli, S Bianchi, M I Cutrignelli
Dogs used for search and rescue (SAR) may experience continuous micro-traumas that predispose them to skeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diet on osteo-articular apparatus in healthy SAR dogs. A total of sixteen SAR dogs were divided into two groups (low supplementation (LS) and high supplementation (HS)) and were fed for 3 months with two experimental diets, characterised by the same protein and energy density, but different in n-3 PUFA (6·2 v. 8·4 % of metabolisable energy), chondroitin sulfate (219·8 v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140435/hmdb-4-0-the-human-metabolome-database-for-2018
#7
David S Wishart, Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Ana Marcu, An Chi Guo, Kevin Liang, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Tanvir Sajed, Daniel Johnson, Carin Li, Naama Karu, Zinat Sayeeda, Elvis Lo, Nazanin Assempour, Mark Berjanskii, Sandeep Singhal, David Arndt, Yonjie Liang, Hasan Badran, Jason Grant, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Yifeng Liu, Rupa Mandal, Vanessa Neveu, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, Michael Wilson, Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert
The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122851/guidelines-on-the-management-of-abnormal-liver-blood-tests
#8
Philip N Newsome, Rob Cramb, Suzanne M Davison, John F Dillon, Mark Foulerton, Edmund M Godfrey, Richard Hall, Ulrike Harrower, Mark Hudson, Andrew Langford, Anne Mackie, Robert Mitchell-Thain, Karen Sennett, Nicholas C Sheron, Julia Verne, Martine Walmsley, Andrew Yeoman
These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine...
November 9, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122740/the-perceptions-of-medical-school-students-and-faculty-toward-obesity-medicine-education-survey-and-needs-analysis
#9
Mary Metcalf, Karen Rossie, Katie Stokes, Bradley Tanner
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in obesity show that over two-thirds of US adults are considered at least overweight (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2) and of those, about one-third are categorized as obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Physicians can address the health impacts of obesity; yet research has suggested that physicians-in-training frequently fail to recognize obesity, are not properly educated regarding treatment options, and spend relatively little clinic time treating obesity. Medical school is a unique opportunity to address this area of need so that the doctors of tomorrow are prepared to treat obesity appropriately...
November 9, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103035/immunotherapy-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-by-%C3%AF-3-supplementation-why-are-amyloid-%C3%AE-antibodies-and-%C3%AF-3-not-working-in-clinical-trials
#10
Milan Fiala, Lucas Restrepo, Matteo Pellegrini
This article reviews the basic tenets of a clinical approach to effective immunotherapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Although one randomized controlled study in early MCI patients by fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) showed slowing of disease progression, large clinical trials with different products have failed to show cognitive effects. Macrophages of healthy subjects phagocytize and degrade amyloid-β1 - 42 (Aβ) in the brain tissues, whereas macrophages of patients with AD and MCI are functionally defective...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#11
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039050/the-protective-effect-of-fish-oil-lipid-emulsions-on-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#12
Seiro Machigashira, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Waka Yamada, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Takafumi Kawano, Kazuhiko Nakame, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Pediatric patients with intestinal failure need long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), but this nutritional support causes liver dysfunction, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Several studies have shown that the lipid emulsion produced by soybean oil (SO) is associated with the occurrence of IFALD. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SO and fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into three groups: sham operation with normal chow (Sham group), 80% small bowel resection (80% SBR) + TPN with SO lipid emulsion (SO group), and 80% SBR + TPN with FO lipid emulsion (FO group)...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034175/refining-low-protein-modular-feeds-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#13
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988003/folate-deficiency-in-patients-seeking-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
Arantza Sanvisens, Paola Zuluaga, Miriam Pineda, Daniel Fuster, Ferran Bolao, Jordi Juncà, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional deficiency is frequent in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). We aimed to analyze serum and erythrocyte folate deficiency in a case series of patients that initiated treatment of AUD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in patients admitted for detoxification between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Sociodemographic characteristics, history of alcohol consumption, type of alcohol, and medical co-morbidity were assessed at admission...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986179/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-studies-of-seabuckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-oil-in-rodents
#15
Peng Zhao, Shaolong Wang, Chuan Liang, Yanwu Wang, Pingjing Wen, Fang Wang, Guangqiu Qin
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has been traditionally used as medicine and nutritional supplement for a long period of time. However, information on the systemic toxicity and safety evaluation of seabuckthorn and its extracts is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of seabuckthorn oil by an acute oral toxicity study in mice and a 90-day repeated oral toxicity study in rats. No mortality or signs of toxicity was observed in mice treated with 20 mL/kg body weight seabuckthorn oil in the acute toxicity study...
October 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948239/beyond-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-pathway-interactions-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-and-related-compounds
#16
Kelly A Fader, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the prototypical ligand for a group of environmental halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants which elicit hepatotoxicity and other toxic responses through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Despite the conservation of the AhR and its signaling pathway, TCDD-elicited differential gene expression networks are species-specific, consistent with differences in sensitivity and toxic responses between species. This review integrates gene expression studies with complementary phenotypic analyses (e...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923343/association-among-total-serum-isomers-of-perfluorinated-chemicals-glucose-homeostasis-lipid-profiles-serum-protein-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-adults-nhanes-2013-2014
#17
Hui-Shan Liu, Li-Li Wen, Pei-Lun Chu, Chien-Yu Lin
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products manufacture. Recent in vitro as well as animal studies have found that there are different toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles between isomers of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and/or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). However, the differential effects of linear or branched PFOA/PFOS isomers on human beings have never been reported. Herein, we examined 1871 adult subjects (age older than 18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 to determine the association between the isomers of PFOA/PFOS and serum biochemistry profiles, including glucose, lipids, protein and components of metabolic syndrome (MS)...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917225/appropriate-nutritional-management-in-patients-with-impaired-mastication-and-those-with-mild-dysphagia-a-multicenter-study-of-the-usefulness-of-novel-foods-processed-and-softened-by-enzymes
#18
Takashi Higashiguchi, Akihiro Ito, Hirofumi Nishiyama, Takashi Shigematsu, Atsuko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Kato, Shohei Iijima, Nobuyuki Kikuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the safety of iEAT (a food that is softened by heat and enzyme homogeneous permeation) and iEAT-affected nutrition parameters, e.g., nutrition intake (calculated from the consumption rate in patients with impaired mastication and those with mild dysphagia). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, cross-over study of iEAT was conducted in 50 patients (mean age 77.0±11.0 years) with dysphagia due to Occasional aspiration (4 points on the Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]) or Oral problems (5 points) randomly assigned to the study diet (iEAT) or its opposite (the modified traditional [control] diet) for 1 week and then switched for 1 week to the opposing diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911127/nutritional-status-of-children-from-low-income-countries-arriving-in-spain
#19
Moncef Belhassen-García, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Amparo Lopez-Bernus, Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido, Antonio Muro, Miguel Cordero, Javier Pardo-Lledias
Background: Nutritional problems, anaemia and infectious diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents in tropical and subtropical areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status in children from low-income countries who migrated to Spain and the value of the usual biochemistry markers of nutrition in these children, as well as to evaluate the nutritional status associated with imported infectious diseases. Moreover, we evaluated the association between anaemia and nutrition problems...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#20
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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