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nutritional biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#1
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039050/the-protective-effect-of-fish-oil-lipid-emulsions-on-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Seiro Machigashira, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Waka Yamada, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Takafumi Kawano, Kazuhiko Nakame, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Pediatric patients with intestinal failure need long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), but this nutritional support causes liver dysfunction, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Several studies have shown that the lipid emulsion produced by soybean oil (SO) is associated with the occurrence of IFALD. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SO and fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into three groups: sham operation with normal chow (Sham group), 80% small bowel resection (80% SBR) + TPN with SO lipid emulsion (SO group), and 80% SBR + TPN with FO lipid emulsion (FO group)...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034175/refining-low-protein-modular-feeds-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#3
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988003/folate-deficiency-in-patients-seeking-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#4
Arantza Sanvisens, Paola Zuluaga, Miriam Pineda, Daniel Fuster, Ferran Bolao, Jordi Juncà, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional deficiency is frequent in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). We aimed to analyze serum and erythrocyte folate deficiency in a case series of patients that initiated treatment of AUD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in patients admitted for detoxification between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Sociodemographic characteristics, history of alcohol consumption, type of alcohol, and medical co-morbidity were assessed at admission...
September 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986179/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-studies-of-seabuckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-oil-in-rodents
#5
Peng Zhao, Shaolong Wang, Chuan Liang, Yanwu Wang, Pingjing Wen, Fang Wang, Guangqiu Qin
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has been traditionally used as medicine and nutritional supplement for a long period of time. However, information on the systemic toxicity and safety evaluation of seabuckthorn and its extracts is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of seabuckthorn oil by an acute oral toxicity study in mice and a 90-day repeated oral toxicity study in rats. No mortality or signs of toxicity was observed in mice treated with 20 mL/kg body weight seabuckthorn oil in the acute toxicity study...
October 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948239/beyond-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-pathway-interactions-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-and-related-compounds
#6
Kelly A Fader, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the prototypical ligand for a group of environmental halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants which elicit hepatotoxicity and other toxic responses through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Despite the conservation of the AhR and its signaling pathway, TCDD-elicited differential gene expression networks are species-specific, consistent with differences in sensitivity and toxic responses between species. This review integrates gene expression studies with complementary phenotypic analyses (e...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923343/association-among-total-serum-isomers-of-perfluorinated-chemicals-glucose-homeostasis-lipid-profiles-serum-protein-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-adults-nhanes-2013-2014
#7
Hui-Shan Liu, Li-Li Wen, Pei-Lun Chu, Chien-Yu Lin
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products manufacture. Recent in vitro as well as animal studies have found that there are different toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles between isomers of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and/or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). However, the differential effects of linear or branched PFOA/PFOS isomers on human beings have never been reported. Herein, we examined 1871 adult subjects (age older than 18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 to determine the association between the isomers of PFOA/PFOS and serum biochemistry profiles, including glucose, lipids, protein and components of metabolic syndrome (MS)...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917225/appropriate-nutritional-management-in-patients-with-impaired-mastication-and-those-with-mild-dysphagia-a-multicenter-study-of-the-usefulness-of-novel-foods-processed-and-softened-by-enzymes
#8
Takashi Higashiguchi, Akihiro Ito, Hirofumi Nishiyama, Takashi Shigematsu, Atsuko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Kato, Shohei Iijima, Nobuyuki Kikuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the safety of iEAT (a food that is softened by heat and enzyme homogeneous permeation) and iEAT-affected nutrition parameters, e.g., nutrition intake (calculated from the consumption rate in patients with impaired mastication and those with mild dysphagia). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, cross-over study of iEAT was conducted in 50 patients (mean age 77.0±11.0 years) with dysphagia due to Occasional aspiration (4 points on the Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]) or Oral problems (5 points) randomly assigned to the study diet (iEAT) or its opposite (the modified traditional [control] diet) for 1 week and then switched for 1 week to the opposing diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911127/nutritional-status-of-children-from-low-income-countries-arriving-in-spain
#9
Moncef Belhassen-García, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Amparo Lopez-Bernus, Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido, Antonio Muro, Miguel Cordero, Javier Pardo-Lledias
Background: Nutritional problems, anaemia and infectious diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents in tropical and subtropical areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status in children from low-income countries who migrated to Spain and the value of the usual biochemistry markers of nutrition in these children, as well as to evaluate the nutritional status associated with imported infectious diseases. Moreover, we evaluated the association between anaemia and nutrition problems...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#10
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832575/using-judgement-analysis-to-identify-dietitians-referral-prioritisation-for-assessment-in-adult-acute-services
#11
M Hickson, M Davies, H Gokalp, P Harries
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietitians need to prioritise referrals in order to manage their work load. Novice dietitians may not receive training on prioritisation and could be helped with an evidence-based, effective decision-making training tool. To develop such a tool, it is necessary to understand how experts make prioritisation decisions. This study aimed to model expert decision-making policy for prioritising dietetic referrals in adult acute-care services. METHODS/SUBJECTS: Social judgement theory was used to model expert decision-making policy...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814581/hyperammonaemic-encephalopathy-following-an-uncomplicated-surgery
#12
Stuart McIntosh, Karima Medjoub, Kevin Deans, Sara Sexton
A 59-year-old woman who underwent an uncomplicated exploratory laparotomy, adhesiolysis, small bowel resection and anterolateral thigh flap had a complicated postoperative period characterised by wound dehiscence and poor nutritional intake. 29 days postoperatively, a tremor developed in her upper limbs associated with weakness. Her Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) fell to 4 and she was transferred to the intensive care unit. The patient was reviewed by multiple specialists and multiple differentials were considered and eliminated...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798910/changes-in-acylglycerols-composition-quality-characteristics-and-in-vivo-effects-of-dietary-pumpkin-seed-oil-upon-thermal-oxidation
#13
Alam Zeb, Sultan Ahmad
This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics, and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in rabbits. PSO was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for 2 weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759091/fundamentals-for-an-osteopathic-obesity-designed-study-the-effects-of-education-on-osteopathic-medical-students-attitudes-regarding-obesity
#14
Gregory G Gayer, Jennifer Weiss, Michael Clearfield
Context: Obesity is a major health concern in the United States, and its prevalence continues to rise. Although it is a common health issue, many people, including health care professionals, are biased against people with obesity. Objective: To determine whether a comprehensive obesity curriculum presented to students in medical school can positively influence their attitudes toward obesity. Methods: The study was designed around a comprehensive educational obesity curriculum at Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine-CA, involving the classes of 2013 through 2018...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747984/annual-tendency-of-research-papers-used-icr-mice-as-experimental-animals-in-biomedical-research-fields
#15
Ji Eun Kim, Jung Hoon Nam, Joon Young Cho, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727654/growth-and-nutritional-biomarkers-of-preterm-infants-fed-a-new-powdered-human-milk-fortifier-a-randomized-trial
#16
Jacques Rigo, Jean-Michel Hascoët, Claude Billeaud, Jean-Charles Picaud, Fabio Mosca, Amandine Rubio, Elie Saliba, Michaël Radkë, Umberto Simeoni, Bernard Guillois, Virginie de Halleux, Jonathan Jaeger, Laurent Ameye, Nicholas P Hays, Johannes Spalinger
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess growth and nutritional biomarkers of preterm infants fed human milk (HM) supplemented with a new powdered HM fortifier (nHMF) or a control HM fortifier (cHMF). The nHMF provides similar energy content, 16% more protein (partially hydrolyzed whey), and higher micronutrient levels than the cHMF, along with medium-chain triglycerides and docosahexaenoic acid. METHODS: In this controlled, multicenter, double-blind study, a sample of preterm infants ≤32 weeks or ≤1500 g were randomized to receive nHMF (n = 77) or cHMF (n = 76) for a minimum of 21 days...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720541/biological-sources-of-variation-of-serum-adiponectin-among-healthy-individuals-in-comparison-with-related-nutritional-and-inflammatory-markers
#17
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin (AN) is a nutritional and inflammatory marker of various diseases. Its biological sources of variation (SVs) have been widely evaluated, but its relationships with other related markers remain to be studied comprehensibly by use of multivariate analyses including factor analysis. METHODS: Serum specimens from 752 well-defined healthy subjects (295 males; 457 females) obtained from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Vietnam were tested for total AN (tAN) and high-molecular-weight AN (hmAN) together with 71 major analytes...
July 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689603/small-bowel-dilation-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome-is-associated-with-mucosal-damage-bowel-derived-bloodstream-infections-and-hepatic-injury
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Maria Hukkinen, Annika Mutanen, Mikko P Pakarinen
BACKGROUND: Liver disease occurs frequently in short bowel syndrome. Whether small bowel dilation in short bowel syndrome could influence the risk of liver injury through increased bacterial translocation remains unknown. Our aim was to analyze associations between small bowel dilation, mucosal damage, bloodstream infections, and liver injury in short bowel syndrome patients. METHODS: Among short bowel syndrome children (n = 50), maximal small bowel diameter was measured in contrast series and expressed as the ratio to the height of the fifth lumbar vertebra (small bowel diameter ratio), and correlated retrospectively to fecal calprotectin and plasma citrulline-respective markers of mucosal inflammation and mass-bloodstream infections, liver biochemistry, and liver histology...
September 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686269/iron-homeostasis-in-plants-a-brief-overview
#19
James M Connorton, Janneke Balk, Jorge Rodríguez-Celma
Iron plays a crucial role in biochemistry and is an essential micronutrient for plants and humans alike. Although plentiful in the Earth's crust it is not usually found in a form readily accessible for plants to use. They must therefore sense and interact with their environment, and have evolved two different molecular strategies to take up iron in the root. Once inside, iron is complexed with chelators and distributed to sink tissues where it is used predominantly in the production of enzyme cofactors or components of electron transport chains...
July 19, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665717/hematology-and-serum-biochemistry-reference-intervals-for-six-week-old-farm-reared-chinese-ring-necked-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus-from-minnesota
#20
R S Dzikamunhenga, R W Griffith, S Hostetter, P Fisher, W Larson
Chinese ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) are commonly farmed in intensive operations for purposes such as meat production, hunting preserves, or research. Under these conditions, pheasants frequently suffer medical ailments such as bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections or nutritional or metabolic disorders. Relatively little scientific information exists regarding clinical pathology reference intervals (RIs) for farm-reared pheasants. The objective of this study was to determine RIs for hematologic and serum biochemical variables for Chinese ring-necked pheasants from Minnesota at 6 wk of age...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
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