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nutritional biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614102/does-growth-path-influence-beef-lipid-deposition-and-fatty-acid-composition
#1
Ana S H Costa, Paulo Costa, Susana P Alves, Cristina M Alfaia, José A M Prates, Veronica Vleck, Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Jean-François Hocquette, Rui J B Bessa
Despite the recent advances in transcriptomics, gene expression studies addressing cattle´s skeletal muscle adaptations in response to compensatory growth are warranted, particularly regarding lipid metabolism due to its impact in meat sensory and nutritional traits. In the present study, in comparison to ad libitum feeding, a period of feed restriction was used in order to understand the changes in bull´s lipid metabolism and gene expression of the adipogenic and lipogenic pathways after re-alimentation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576361/can-energy-intake-alter-clinical-and-hospital-outcomes-in-picu
#2
Bodil M K Larsen, Megan R Beggs, Amanda Y Leong, Sung Hyun Kang, Rabin Persad, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Energy is essential for the treatment and recovery of children admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). There are significant immediate and long-term health consequences of both under- and over-feeding in this population. Energy requirements of critically ill children vary depending on age, nutritional status, sepsis, fever, pharmacotherapy, and duration and stage of critical illness. This study aimed to determine the incidence of over- and under-feeding and to compare hospital outcomes between these feeding categories...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568768/experimental-nanopulse-ablation-of-multiple-membrane-parasite-on-ex-vivo-hydatid-cyst
#3
Xinhua Chen, Ruiqing Zhang, Hao Wen
The impact of ultrashort nanopulse on cellular membrane is of biological significance and thus has been studied intensively. Different from cell study, this ex vivo study aims to investigate the biological effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) on an independent multimembrane parasite, human hydatid cyst, to observe the unique influence of nanopulse on macromembrane structure, permeabilization, and biochemistry. The 300 ns nsPEF was delivered on an experimental model of single human hydatid cyst ex vivo with eight different parameters...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562121/competition-for-vitamin-b1-thiamin-structures-numerous-ecological-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Clifford E Kraft, Esther R Angert
Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460798/major-liver-resection-reduces-nonprotein-respiratory-quotient-and-increases-nonesterified-fatty-acid-at-postoperative-day-14-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Shoko Wada, Hisami Yamanaka-Okumura, Takafumi Katayama, Yuji Morine, Satoru Imura, Mitsuo Shimada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We reported decreased nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) after liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, whether liver resection volume affects energy metabolism in these patients is unclear. We aimed to examine the relationship between liver resection and energy metabolism indices. METHODS: NpRQ was measured in 53 patients with HCC and seven with at the pre- and postoperative days. Patients were classified into four groups: Minor-lowICG group (n = 17): minor (subsegment or less) resection and low indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) (<15%); Minor-highICG group (n = 18): minor resection and high ICGR15 (≥15%) and Major-lowICG group (n = 18): major (lobe) resection and low ICGR15 (<15%)...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428453/us-military-dietetic-internship-and-graduate-program-retrospective-analysis-of-selection-criteria-and-student-success
#6
Heidi L Clark, Renee E Cole, LesLee K Funderburk
BACKGROUND: The US Military-Baylor Graduate Program in Nutrition (GPN) has a 10% 7-year attrition rate representing wasted military resources. Evidence-based selection criteria for dietetics masters of science (MS) programs do not exist, nor does descriptive information of successful students. OBJECTIVE: Identify GPN student characteristics predicting program success in the didactic and internship phases. DESIGN: Retrospective study using demographic, academic, and nonacademic data extracted from existing files...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#7
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280410/iron-balance-and-iron-supplementation-for-the-female-athlete-a-practical-approach
#8
Charles R Pedlar, Carlo Brugnara, Georgie Bruinvels, Richard Burden
Maintaining a positive iron balance is essential for female athletes to avoid the effects of iron deficiency and anaemia and to maintain or improve performance. A major function of iron is in the production of the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying molecule, haemoglobin, via erythropoiesis. Iron balance is under the control of a number of factors including the peptide hormone hepcidin, dietary iron intake and absorption, environmental stressors (e.g. altitude), exercise, menstrual blood loss and genetics. Menstruating females, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding are at an elevated risk of iron deficiency...
March 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#9
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223451/mineralization-in-newborn-calves-contributes-to-health-improve-the-antioxidant-system-and-reduces-bacterial-infections
#10
Patrícia Glombowsky, Aleksandro S da Silva, Natan M Soldá, Gabriela M Galli, Angelisa H Biazus, Gabriela Campigotto, Nathieli B Bottari, Rejane S Sousa, Maiara C Brisola, Lenita M Stefani, Matheus D Baldissera, Marta L R Leal, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Gustavo Machado
The first phase of life of dairy calves has elevated mortality indices linked with low immunity and sanitary challenges, mainly bacterial infections are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the leading cause of death. Also, other important problem is the nutritional deficiencies, such as the mineral deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an intramuscular mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus possess beneficial effects on health of dairy calves...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215197/enrichment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-bean-sprouts-exploring-biosynthesis-of-plant-metabolite-using-common-household-reagents
#11
Theerasak Rojanarata, Samarwadee Plianwong, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based on the GABA biosynthesis pathways, two key factors, being the availability of l-glutamic acid and the acidification of the germination environment, were chosen for the study of the effects on the enhancement of GABA levels...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189140/polyphenols-effect-on-circulating-lipids-and-lipoproteins-from-biochemistry-to-clinical-evidence
#12
Arrigo Fg Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are a family of natural antioxidants that in recent years have been studied and tested for their potential benefits towards cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the presumed lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects of polyphenols, administered either as individual molecules (nutritional supplements) and as functional foods, on the basis of the evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their meta-analyses...
November 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183037/efficacy-of-a-new-post-mouthwash-intervention-wiping-plus-oral-nutritional-supplements-for-preventing-aspiration-pneumonia-in-elderly-people-a-multicenter-randomized-comparative-trial
#13
Takashi Higashiguchi, Hiroshi Ohara, Yayoi Kamakura, Takeshi Kikutani, Masafumi Kuzuya, Hiromi Enoki, Hiromi Sanada, Masami Matsuzaki, Michio Maruyama
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death among the elderly (≥90-year-old) in nursing homes. Studies suggest that its incidence could be reduced by oral care interventions. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new oral care intervention: wiping plus oral nutritional supplements (ONS). METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in 252 patients (age 88.0 ± 6.5 years) in 75 nursing homes, rehabilitation hospitals, and other care facilities...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152248/nutritional-management-of-search-and-rescue-dogs
#14
G Vassalotti, N Musco, P Lombardi, S Calabrò, R Tudisco, V Mastellone, R Grazioli, S Bianchi, M I Cutrignelli
Dogs used for search and rescue (SAR) may experience continuous micro-traumas that predispose them to skeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diet on osteo-articular apparatus in healthy SAR dogs. A total of sixteen SAR dogs were divided into two groups (low supplementation (LS) and high supplementation (HS)) and were fed for 3 months with two experimental diets, characterised by the same protein and energy density, but different in n -3 PUFA (6·2 v . 8·4 % of metabolisable energy), chondroitin sulfate (219·8 v ...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140435/hmdb-4-0-the-human-metabolome-database-for-2018
#15
David S Wishart, Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Ana Marcu, An Chi Guo, Kevin Liang, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Tanvir Sajed, Daniel Johnson, Carin Li, Naama Karu, Zinat Sayeeda, Elvis Lo, Nazanin Assempour, Mark Berjanskii, Sandeep Singhal, David Arndt, Yonjie Liang, Hasan Badran, Jason Grant, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Yifeng Liu, Rupa Mandal, Vanessa Neveu, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, Michael Wilson, Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert
The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122851/guidelines-on-the-management-of-abnormal-liver-blood-tests
#16
Philip N Newsome, Rob Cramb, Suzanne M Davison, John F Dillon, Mark Foulerton, Edmund M Godfrey, Richard Hall, Ulrike Harrower, Mark Hudson, Andrew Langford, Anne Mackie, Robert Mitchell-Thain, Karen Sennett, Nicholas C Sheron, Julia Verne, Martine Walmsley, Andrew Yeoman
These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine...
January 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122740/the-perceptions-of-medical-school-students-and-faculty-toward-obesity-medicine-education-survey-and-needs-analysis
#17
Mary Metcalf, Karen Rossie, Katie Stokes, Bradley Tanner
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in obesity show that over two-thirds of US adults are considered at least overweight (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2 ) and of those, about one-third are categorized as obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2 ). Physicians can address the health impacts of obesity; yet research has suggested that physicians-in-training frequently fail to recognize obesity, are not properly educated regarding treatment options, and spend relatively little clinic time treating obesity. Medical school is a unique opportunity to address this area of need so that the doctors of tomorrow are prepared to treat obesity appropriately...
November 9, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103035/immunotherapy-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-by-%C3%AF-3-supplementation-why-are-amyloid-%C3%AE-antibodies-and-%C3%AF-3-not-working-in-clinical-trials
#18
Milan Fiala, Lucas Restrepo, Matteo Pellegrini
This article reviews the basic tenets of a clinical approach to effective immunotherapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Although one randomized controlled study in early MCI patients by fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) showed slowing of disease progression, large clinical trials with different products have failed to show cognitive effects. Macrophages of healthy subjects phagocytize and degrade amyloid-β1 - 42 (Aβ) in the brain tissues, whereas macrophages of patients with AD and MCI are functionally defective...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#19
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039050/the-protective-effect-of-fish-oil-lipid-emulsions-on-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#20
Seiro Machigashira, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Waka Yamada, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Takafumi Kawano, Kazuhiko Nakame, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Pediatric patients with intestinal failure need long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), but this nutritional support causes liver dysfunction, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Several studies have shown that the lipid emulsion produced by soybean oil (SO) is associated with the occurrence of IFALD. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SO and fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into three groups: sham operation with normal chow (Sham group), 80% small bowel resection (80% SBR) + TPN with SO lipid emulsion (SO group), and 80% SBR + TPN with FO lipid emulsion (FO group)...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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