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Clinical neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#1
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#2
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414105/functional-reorganization-after-hemispherectomy-in-humans-and-animal-models-what-can-we-learn-about-the-brain-s-resilience-to-extensive-unilateral-lesions
#3
REVIEW
Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Alexandra Taylor, Francesco Brigo, Wolfgang Nothdurfter, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies dealing with the reorganizational processes that occur after HS...
April 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413892/amyloid-detection-in-the-transverse-carpal-ligament-of-patients-with-hereditary-attr-v30m-amyloidosis-and-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#4
Raquel Samões, Ricardo Taipa, Kátia Valdrez, Isabel Gonçalves, Manuel Melo Pires, Ana Martins da Silva, Teresa Coelho
INTRODUCTION: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a nonspecific manifestation of hereditary ATTR amyloidosis (ATTRm). Amyloid deposition of wild-type TTR (WT-ATTR) has been found in transverse carpal ligament (TCL) in idiopathic CTS. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with ATTRm and CTS submitted to carpal tunnel release surgery (CTRS). METHODS: From the nerve conduction studies performed in our Clinical Unit dedicated to hereditary amyloidosis between July 2009 and October 2013, we selected patients who fulfilled neurophysiological criteria for CTS, had been submitted to CTRS and whose TCL was available for pathology...
April 16, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409827/topiramate-for-essential-tremor
#5
REVIEW
Elisa Bruno, Alessandra Nicoletti, Graziella Quattrocchi, Roberta Allegra, Graziella Filippini, Carlo Colosimo, Mario Zappia
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. The management is primarily based on pharmacological agents and in clinical practice propranolol and primidone are considered the first-line therapy. However, these treatments can be ineffective in 25% to 55% of people and are frequently associated with serious adverse events (AEs). For these reasons, it is worthwhile evaluating other treatments for ET. Topiramate has been suggested as a potentially useful agent for the treatment of ET but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety...
April 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407266/hereditary-neuropathy-with-liability-to-pressure-palsy-in-patients-under-thirty-neurophysiological-data-and-proposed-electrodiagnostic-criteria
#6
Florence Robert-Varvat, Guillemette Jousserand, Françoise Bouhour, Christophe Vial, Pascal Cintas, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Emilien Delmont, Pierre Clavelou, Guy Chauplannaz, Laurent Jomir, Yann Péreon, Sarah Léonard-Louis, Véronique Manel, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Arnaud Lacour, Jean-Philippe Camdessanché
INTRODUCTION: In young patients with mononeuropathy who lack family history and precipitating factors, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) may be a possibility. Our objective is to propose neurophysiological criteria for HNPP in patients aged <30 years. METHODS: We conducted a national multicenter retrospective clinical and neurophysiological study in patients under 30 with genetically confirmed HNPP. RESULTS: All of the 51 included patients had at least 1 demyelinating pattern in 2 asymptomatic nerves, and 3 abnormalities were found in almost 90%, including slowed motor nerve conduction velocity across the elbow in at least 1 ulnar nerve (97...
April 13, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406812/electroencephalography-predicts-poor-and-good-outcomes-after-cardiac-arrest-a-two-center-study
#7
Andrea O Rossetti, Diego F Tovar Quiroga, Elsa Juan, Jan Novy, Roger D White, Nawfel Ben-Hamouda, Jeffrey W Britton, Mauro Oddo, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic role of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management in postcardiac arrest patients, relatively to other predictors, is incompletely known. We assessed performances of electroencephalography during and after targeted temperature management toward good and poor outcomes, along with other recognized predictors. DESIGN: Cohort study (April 2009 to March 2016). SETTING: Two academic hospitals (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN)...
April 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400283/the-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors-in-short-and-long-term-fear-recall
#8
Eva Mikics, Mate Toth, Laszlo Biro, Biborka Bruzsik, Boglarka Nagy, Jozsef Haller
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are crucial synaptic elements in long-term memory formation, including the associative learning of fearful events. Although NMDA blockers were consistently shown to inhibit fear memory acquisition and recall, the clinical use of general NMDA blockers is hampered by their side effects. Recent studies revealed significant heterogeneity in the distribution and neurophysiological characteristics of NMDA receptors with different GluN2 (NR2) subunit composition, which may have differential role in fear learning and recall...
April 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400096/the-evolution-of-motor-cortical-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Kazumoto Shibuya, Neil G Simon, Nimeshan Geevasinga, Parvathi Menon, James Howells, Susanna B Park, William Huynh, Yu-Ichi Noto, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate alterations in cortical function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) related to disease progression. METHODS: In total, clinical assessments were evaluated in 189 ALS patients, combined with assessment of cortical function utilising threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results were compared with disease stage. Disease stage was defined in three ways: (1) as a proportion of disease duration in deceased patients; (2) from the time of ALS onset; and (3) using the ALS rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399932/guideline-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-ring14-syndrome-first-report-of-an-ad-hoc-task-force
#10
REVIEW
Berardo Rinaldi, Alessandro Vaisfeld, Sergio Amarri, Chiara Baldo, Giuseppe Gobbi, Pamela Magini, Erto Melli, Giovanni Neri, Francesca Novara, Tommaso Pippucci, Romana Rizzi, Annarosa Soresina, Laura Zampini, Orsetta Zuffardi, Marco Crimi
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by early onset refractory epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and a number of diverse health issues. RESULTS: The aim of this work is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of persons affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome based on evidence from literature and experience of health professionals from different medical backgrounds who have followed for several years subjects affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome...
April 11, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399873/influence-of-functional-task-oriented-mental-practice-on-the-gait-of-transtibial-amputees-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Rodrigo Gontijo Cunha, Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos Couto Paz, Ana Carolina da Silva Ferreira, Carlos Julio Tierra-Criollo
BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP) through motor imagery is a cognitive training strategy used to improve locomotor skills during rehabilitation programs. Recent works have used MP tasks to investigate the neurophysiology of human gait; however, its effect on functional performance has not been evaluated. In the present study, the influence of gait-oriented MP tasks on the rehabilitation process of gait in transtibial amputees was investigated by assessing the vertical (V), anterior-posterior (AP), and medio-lateral (ML) ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the time duration of the support phase of the prosthetic limb...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397671/-flibanserin-as-pharmacological-therapy-of-inhibited-sexual-desire-in-women
#12
Anne Sofie Eldon, Annamaria Giraldi
Flibanserin was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA in August 2015 as the first drug for the treatment of American women with the dysfunction hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and is a 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist. The neurophysiological effects of flibanserin on these receptors are consistent with the clinical effects, i.e. significantly increasing sexual desire and frequency of satisfying sexual experiences. As such, shifting the balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of importance to sexual desire, flibanserin pharmacologically broaches a possible new approach to the treatment of HSDD...
February 13, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394438/stimulus-processing-and-error-monitoring-in-more-able-kindergarteners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-a-short-review-and-a-preliminary-erp-study
#13
So Hyun Kim, Jennie Grammer, Nurit Benrey, Frederick Morrison, Catherine Lord
Deficits in executive functions (EF) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. However, there is limited evidence about patterns of deficits in EF-related skills, especially at the neurobiological level, in young children with ASD and little is known about how these skills are related to other domains of functioning and symptom severity. In this study, we provide a focused review of EF-related Event-Related Potentials (ERP) studies in children with ASD, accompanied by preliminary data for neurophysiological correlates of EF on a child-friendly Go/No-go task...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393349/multiple-biomarkers-improve-the-prediction-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-clinically-isolated-syndromes
#14
V Martinelli, G Dalla Costa, M J Messina, G Di Maggio, F Sangalli, L Moiola, M Rodegher, B Colombo, R Furlan, L Leocani, A Falini, G Comi
OBJECTIVES: Since its introduction, MRI had a major impact on the early and more precise diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), and the 2010 diagnostic criteria even allow a diagnosis to be made just after a single attack if stringent MRI criteria are met. Several other clinical and paraclinical markers have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of MS independently of MRI in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), but the incremental usefulness of adding them to the current criteria has not been evaluated...
April 9, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390003/modifying-motor-unit-territory-placement-in-the-fuglevand-model
#15
Jason W Robertson, Jamie A Johnston
The Fuglevand model is often used to address challenging questions in neurophysiology; however, there are elements of the neuromuscular system unaccounted for in the model. For instance, in some muscles, slow and fast motor units (MUs) tend to reside deep and superficially in the muscle, respectively, necessarily altering the development of surface electromyogram (EMG) power during activation. Thus, the objective of this study was to replace the randomized MU territory (MUT) placement algorithm in the Fuglevand model with an optimized method capable of reflecting these observations...
April 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382808/weaning-of-neurological-early-rehabilitation-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-observational-study
#16
Jens D Rollnik, Joachim K Krauss, Christoph Gutenbrunner, Claus Wallesch, Thomas Münte, Martin Stangel
BACKGROUND: There is little known about the factors influencing the weaning process of long-term mechanically ventilated patients in the neurological early rehabilitation. AIM: To identify salient clinical and neurophysiological variables with impact upon weaning from mechanical ventilation during neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective data analysis. POPULATION: A sample of 65 mechanically ventilated neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation patients of the BDH-Clinic Hessisch Oldendorf in Northern Germany...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#17
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379572/risk-factors-for-ineffectiveness-of-posterior-decompression-and-dekyphotic-corrective-fusion-with-instrumentation-for-beak-type-thoracic-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-a-single-institute-study
#18
Shiro Imagama, Kei Ando, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Hiroaki Nakashima, Norimitsu Wakao, Yoshihiro Nishida, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Naoki Ishiguro
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) is treated surgically with instrumented posterior decompression and fusion. However, the factors determining the outcome of this approach and the efficacy of additional resection of T-OPLL are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify these factors in a prospective study at a single institution. METHODS: The subjects were 70 consecutive patients with beak-type T-OPLL who underwent posterior decompression and dekyphotic fusion and had an average of 4...
March 30, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377039/novel-presentation-of-rosai-dorfman-histiocytosis-with-a-prolonged-course-of-cranial-and-peripheral-neuropathies
#19
Richa Tripathi, Fatema Serajee, Huiyuan Jiang, A H M Mahbubul Huq
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease is a form of histiocytosis affecting the systemic lymph nodes. Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease is rare and presents with extra-parenchymal or intraparenchymal proliferative mass lesions. Cranial neuropathy has not been reported in Rosai-Dorfman disease except when caused by mass effect by an adjacent lesion. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a girl with Rosai-Dorfman disease who presented with peripheral and multiple cranial neuropathies...
March 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375727/self-regulation-and-psychopathology-toward-an-integrative-translational-research-paradigm
#20
Timothy J Strauman
This article presents a general framework in which different manifestations of psychopathology can be conceptualized as dysfunctions in one or more mechanisms of self-regulation, defined as the ongoing process of managing personal goal pursuit in the face of internal, interpersonal, and environmental forces that would derail it. The framework is based on the assertion that self-regulation is a critical locus for the proximal influence on motivation, cognition, emotion, and behavior of more distal factors such as genetics, temperament, socialization history, and neurophysiology...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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