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Clinical neurophysiology

Cristina Meregalli, Giulia Fumagalli, Paola Alberti, Annalisa Canta, Valentina Alda Carozzi, Alessia Chiorazzi, Laura Monza, Eleonora Pozzi, Åsa Sandelius, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Paola Marmiroli, Guido Cavaletti
The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of using serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a disease biomarker in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) since this easy accessible biological test may have a large impact on clinical management and safety of cancer patients. We performed this preclinical study using a well-characterized rat model based on repeated administration of the cytostatic drug vincristine (VCR, 0.2 mg/kg intravenously via the tail vein once/week for 4 times)...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Domenico Chirchiglia, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Domenico Murrone, Francesco Signorelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Z M Campbell, J M Hyer, S Lauzon, L Bonilha, M V Spampinato, M Yazdani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Temporal encephaloceles are increasingly visualized during neuroimaging assessment of individuals with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, and their identification could indicate an intracranial abnormality that may be related to a potential seizure focus. Careful review by an experienced neuroradiologist may yield improved detection of TEs, and other clinical, neurophysiologic, and radiologic findings may predict their presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were reviewed retrospectively in patients at our institution who were presented at a multidisciplinary conference for refractory epilepsy between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016...
June 14, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Mariano Serrao, Alberto Ranavolo, Carlo Casali
Beyond the classic clinical description, recent studies have quantitatively evaluated gait and balance dysfunction in cerebellar ataxias by means of modern motion analysis systems. These systems have the aim of clearly and quantitatively describing the differences, with respect to healthy subjects, in kinematic, kinetic, and surface electromyography variables, establishing the basis for a rehabilitation strategy and assessing its efficacy. The main findings which characterize the gait pattern of cerebellar patients are: increased step width, reduced ankle joint range of motion with increased coactivation of the antagonist muscles, and increased stride-to-stride variability...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ricardo Galhardoni, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Mariana Yt Puerta, Andre R Brunoni, Bruna Lr Varotto, José Tt de Siqueira, Manoel J Teixeira, Silvia Rdt Siqueira
Introduction Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a refractory and disabling condition of unknown mechanism and etiology. It has been suggested that persistent idiopathic facial pain patients have not only peripheral generators of pain, but also central nervous system changes that would contribute to the persistence of symptoms. We hypothesized that persistent idiopathic facial pain would have changes in brain cortical excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation compared to healthy controls...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Jean Schoenen, Gianluca Coppola
Available preventive drug treatments for migraine lack complete efficacy and often have unpleasant adverse effects. Hence their clinical utility and therapeutic adherence are limited. Hence, non-invasive neurostimulation methods applied over various peripheral sites (forehead, mastoid, upper arm, cervical vagus nerve) have raised great interest because of their excellent efficacy/tolerance profile. Amongst them external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) was first to obtain FDA approval for migraine therapy...
June 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Sofia Backman, Ingmar Rosén, Mats Blennow, Thomas Andersson, Marita Englund, Roland Flink, Boubou Hallberg, Lars-Johan Liedholm, Elisabeth Norman, Alexandra Sailer, Magnus Thordstein
Continuous monitoring of electroencephalography (EEG), with a focus on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), has been used in neonatal intensive care for decades. A number of systems have been suggested for describing and quantifying aEEG patterns. Extensive full-montage EEG monitoring is used in specialised intensive care units. The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society published recommendations for defining and reporting EEG findings in critically ill adults and infants. Swedish neonatologists and clinical neurophysiologists collaborated to optimise simplified neonatal continuous aEEG and EEG recordings based on these American documents...
June 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Silvia Parra, Jose V Orenga, Alina D Ghinea, Maria J Estarelles, Angel Masoliver, Ines Barreda, F Javier Puertas
INTRODUCTION Sensory innervation of the dorsomedial surface of the hand usually depends on the dorsal ulnar nerve (DUN). Innervation in this area by the superficial radial nerve (SRN) has been described as a normal variant. METHODS We studied 358 patients using nerve conduction of the DUN and SRN with dorsomedial recording. Each hand was classified into usual innervation (only DUN response), mixed variant (response of both nerves) or complete variant (only SRN response). RESULTS Mixed innervation was found in 14...
June 12, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Plínio Luna Albuquerque, Thyciane Mendonça, Mayara Campêlo, Lívia Shirahige, Kátia Monte-Silva
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on spinal monosynaptic circuit excitability in healthy individuals. SETTING: Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Brazil. METHODS: Abstract screening was performed independently by two authors for studies found in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Matteo Bologna, Alfredo Berardelli
Dystonia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, twisting movements, and abnormal postures in various body regions. It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia are involved in the pathogenesis of dystonia. A growing body of evidence, however, is challenging the traditional view and suggest that the cerebellum may also play a role in dystonia. Studies on animals indicate that experimental manipulations of the cerebellum lead to dystonic-like movements. Several clinical observations, including those from secondary dystonia cases as well as neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in human patients, provide further evidence in humans of a possible relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and dystonia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Radoje D Čobeljić, Ksenija Ribarič-Jankes, Antonina Aleksić, Lana Z Popović-Maneski, Laszlo B Schwirtlich, Dejan B Popović
The aim of this study was to determine changes in clinical and biomechanical measures of spasticity after administering galvanic vestibular stimulation in patients with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI). The spasticity in the lower limbs was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the pendulum test in seven SCI patients (grade A on the ASIA Impairment Scale) before (0), immediately after (0), and at 5 and 30 min after the real versus sham galvanic vestibular stimulation (15 s each, anode over the right mastoid)...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Tina Balletta, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The central nervous system involvement, in terms of a maladaptive sensory-motor plasticity, is well known in patients with dystrophic myotonias (DMs). To date, there are no data suggesting a central nervous system involvement in non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate sensory-motor plasticity in patients with Myotonia Congenita (MC) and Paramyotonia Congenita (PMC) with or without mexiletine. METHODS: Twelve patients with a clinical, genetic, and electromyographic evidence of MC, fifteen with PMC, and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hidehiko Okamoto
Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Irena Balzekas, Charles P Lewis, Julia Shekunov, John D Port, Gregory A Worrell, Hang Joon Jo, Paul E Croarkin
Connectivity features based on resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) demonstrate great promise as biomarkers to guide diagnosis and treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is a pressing need for valid, reliable biomarkers closer to the bedside for clinical research and practice. This study directly compared RS-fMRI connectivity features with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) neurophysiological measures, long interval cortical inhibition (LICI) and cortical silent period (CSP), in female adolescents with MDD...
May 31, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Gennarina Arabia, Angela Lupo, Lucia Ilaria Manfredini, Basilio Vescio, Rita Nisticò, Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Salsone, Maurizio Morelli, Fabiana Novellino, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Andrea Quattrone, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Elan D Louis, Aldo Quattrone
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor-Parkinson's disease (ET-PD) syndrome is a clinical condition in which individuals with a long-lasting history of Essential tremor (ET) eventually develop Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy performances of clinical, neurophysiological, and imaging biomarkers in differentiating patients affected by ET-PD syndrome from patients with ET or PD. METHODS: Nineteen patients affected by ET-PD syndrome, 48 ET patients, and 37 tremor-dominant PD (t-PD) patients were included...
June 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Morgado, Carlos Casimiro, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. However, few studies have used EEG in the prediction of poststroke seizures. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether early EEG abnormalities can predict poststroke epilepsy. Methods: A prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, without previous epileptic seizures, who were admitted to a stroke unit over 24 months and followed for 1 year...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
Grzegorz M Wojcik, Jolanta Masiak, Andrzej Kawiak, Piotr Schneider, Lukasz Kwasniewicz, Nikodem Polak, Anna Gajos-Balinska
The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However, psychiatry lacks effective quantitative methods to support of diagnosis. A novel neuroinformatic approach to help clinical patients by means of electroencephalographic technology in order to build foundations for finding neurophysiological biomarkers of psychiatric disorders is proposed. A cohort of 30 right-handed patients (21 males, 9 females) with psychiatric disorders (mainly with panic and anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome as well as with phobic anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, nonorganic hypersomnia, and moderate depressive episode) were examined using the dense array EEG amplifier in the P300 experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Juan Avendano-Coy, Diego Serrano-Munoz, Julian Taylor, Carlos Goicoechea-Garcia, Julio Gomez-Soriano
Numerous neurological dysfunctions are accompanied by an undesirable increase of nerve activity, such as neuropathic pain or spasticity. There have been several studies over the last years on peripheral nerve block using high-frequency alternating currents, which could become a therapeutic alternative for such nerve hyperactivity. The main aim of this systematic review was to determine the optimal parameters of the electrical currents for producing peripheral nerve conduction block, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms, and their possible adverse effects...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Sophie Blanchet, Samy Chikhi, Désirée Maltais
Aging is associated with a decreased efficiency of different cognitive functions as well as in the perceptive, physical and physiological changes. The age-related cognitive decline concerns mainly attention, executive control and episodic memory. Some factors such as being physically active protect against the age-related decline. This review will discuss how physical activity can positively affect the cognitive efficiency and mental health of older healthy individuals, and possibly reduces the risk of progression into dementia, and depression...
June 1, 2018: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
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