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Clinical neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#1
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726235/-54-%C3%A2%C2%AA-reunion-anual-de-la-sociedad-espa%C3%A3-ola-de-neurofisiologia-clinica-meeting-with-the-british-society-for-clinical-neurophysiology-communications-ii
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719456/warning-criteria-for-intraoperative-neurophysiologic-monitoring
#3
Quanmeng Liu, Qinzhou Wang, Hongen Liu, William K K Wu, Matthew T V Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intraoperative changes in somatosensory (SEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) may indicate potential injury to the spinal cord and will require timely intervention to prevent permanent damage. This review focuses on the validity of currently recommended warning criteria for intraoperative evoked potential monitoring. RECENT FINDINGS: Current guideline recommends a decrease in SEP amplitude by 50% and MEP amplitude by 50-100% as warning signals for injury to the ascending sensory and descending motor pathway, respectively...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717604/central-vestibular-syndrome-in-a-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-with-presumptive-right-caudal-cerebral-artery-ischemic-infarct-and-prevalent-midbrain-involvement
#4
Mario Ricciardi, Floriana Gernone, Antonio De Simone, Pasquale Giannuzzi
A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715273/physiological-effects-of-physical-therapy-interventions-on-lumbar-intervertebral-discs-a-systematic-review
#5
Ulrike H Mitchell, Kevin Helgeson, Paul Mintken
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The use of physical therapy has been recommended in the treatment of low back pain based on primarily mechanical and neurophysiological effects. Recent studies have measured the physiological effects of physical therapy interventions, including manual therapy and traction, on the intervertebral discs (IVD), and these findings may have implications for the long-term management or even prevention of low back pain. PURPOSE: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the literature regarding possible physiological effects of physical therapy interventions on the intervertebral disc (IVD)...
July 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713238/targeting-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-road-toward-an-imaging-based-biomarker
#6
Jeroen Van Schependom, Guy Nagels
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuro-degenerative and -inflammatory disease leading to physical and cognitive impairment, pathological fatigue and depression, and affecting patients' quality of life and employment status. The combination of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration leads to the emergence of MS lesions, reduced white and gray matter brain volumes, a reduced conduction velocity and microstructural changes in the so-called Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM). Currently, there are very limited options to treat cognitive impairment and its origin is only poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710326/cortical-influences-drive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Andrew Eisen, Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici, Roger Lemon, Albert C Ludolph, Matthew C Kiernan
The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710191/unusual-sensory-variant-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#8
Milena Semproni, Gillian Gibson, Laura Kuyper, Penny Tam
We describe a 52-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of severe burning paraesthesia in the hands and feet associated with allodynia and antalgic gait. At the time of admission to hospital no motor weakness was present. A diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was considered when neurophysiological studies were completed showing convincing evidence of demyelination on motor conduction studies and sural sparing on sensory nerve studies.(1) We describe this case as a sensory variant of GBS. Clinical improvement followed treatment with a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704626/the-effectiveness-of-neural-mobilization-for-neuro-musculoskeletal-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Annalie Basson, Benita Olivier, Richard Ellis, Michel Coppieters, Aimee Stewart, Witness Mudzi
Study Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Background Neural mobilization (NM) or neurodynamics is a movement-based intervention aimed at restoring the homeostasis in and around the nervous system. The current level of evidence for NM is largely unknown. Objectives To determine the efficacy of NM for musculoskeletal conditions with a neuropathic component. Methods Databases were searched for randomised trials investigating the effect of NM for neuro-musculoskeletal conditions. Standard methods for article identification, selection and quality appraisal were used...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699155/-54-%C3%A2%C2%AA-reunion-anual-de-la-sociedad-espanola-de-neurofisiologia-clinica-meeting-with-the-british-society-for-clinical-neurophysiology-communications-i
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694674/mechanisms-of-chronic-pain-key-considerations-for-appropriate-physical-therapy-management
#11
Carol A Courtney, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Samantha Bond
In last decades, knowledge of nociceptive pain mechanisms has expanded rapidly. The use of quantitative sensory testing has provided evidence that peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms play a relevant role in localized and widespread chronic pain syndromes. In fact, almost any patient suffering with a chronic pain condition will demonstrate impairments in the central nervous system. In addition, it is accepted that pain is associated with different types of trigger factors including social, physiological, and psychological...
July 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691593/electrographic-seizures-in-preterm-neonates-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
Ersida Buraniqi, Arnold J Sansevere, Kush Kapur, Ann M Bergin, Phillip L Pearl, Tobias Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: Characterize clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics of preterm neonates undergoing continuous EEG in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Retrospective study of preterm neonates born less than 37 weeks' gestational age undergoing continuous EEG in the neonatal intensive care unit at Boston Children's Hospital over a 2-year period. RESULTS: Fifty-two preterms (46% male) had a mean gestational age of 32.8 weeks (standard deviation = 4...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691517/migraine-triggers-and-habituation-of-visual-evoked-potentials
#13
Marco Lisicki, Emiliano Ruiz-Romagnoli, Raúl Piedrabuena, Roberto Giobellina, Jean Schoenen, Delphine Magis
Background Identifying specific subsets of patients within the clinical spectrum of migraine could help in personalizing migraine treatment. Profiling patients by combining clinical characteristics and neurophysiological biomarkers is largely unexplored. We studied the association between migraine attack triggers and habituation of visual evoked potentials. Methods We personally interviewed 25 patients about their migraine triggers following a structured list, and measured the N1-P1 habituation slope over six blocks of 100 averaged pattern-reversal VEP afterwards...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690392/congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-phenotypic-variability-in-patients-harbouring-p-t159p-mutation-in-chrne-gene
#14
Anna Ardissone, Isabella Moroni, Pia Bernasconi, Raffaella Brugnoni
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are rare and heterogeneous genetic diseases characterized by compromised neuromuscular transmission and clinical features of fatigable weakness; age at onset, presenting symptoms, distribution of weakness, and response to treatment differ depending on the underlying molecular defect. Mutations in one of the multiple genes, encoding proteins expressed at the neuromuscular junction, are currently known to be associated with subtypes of CMS. The most common CMS syndrome identified is associated with mutation in the CHRNE gene, causing principally muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor deficiency, that results in reduced receptor density on the postsynaptic membrane...
March 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688606/a-clinical-and-neurophysiological-motor-signature-of-unverricht-lundborg-disease
#15
E Hainque, A Blancher, V Mesnage, S Rivaud-Pechoux, A Bertrand, S Dupont, V Navarro, E Roze, I Gourfinkel-An, E Apartis
OBJECTIVES: Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Cerebellar dysfunction may appear over time, contributing along with myoclonus to motor disability. The purpose of the present work was to clarify the motor and neurophysiological characteristics of ULD patients. METHODS: Nine patients with genetically proven ULD were evaluated clinically (medical history collected from patient charts, the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale)...
July 5, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680405/cannabinoids-and-vanilloids-in-schizophrenia-neurophysiological-evidence-and-directions-for-basic-research
#16
REVIEW
Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Jana B De Ross, Jaime E C Hallak, Joao P Leite, Lezio S Bueno-Junior
Much of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia comes from behavioral measures in rodents, like prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle and open-field locomotion, which are commonly used along with neurochemical approaches or drug challenge designs. Such methods continue to map fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor gating, hyperlocomotion, social interaction, and underlying monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic disturbances. These strategies will require, however, a greater use of neurophysiological tools to better inform clinical research...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679198/post-anoxic-status-epilepticus-which-variable-could-modify-prognosis-a-single-centre-experience
#17
Christian Lettieri, Grazia Devigili, Giada Pauletto, Miriam Isola, Sara Rinaldo, Riccardo Budai, Roberto Eleopra
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with high mortality in post-anoxic coma despite antiepileptic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the percentage of awakening in a consecutive series of post-anoxic comatose patients with an EEG pattern consistent with SE and to verify any correlation with clinical, neurophysiological or pharmacological parameters. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data collected from seventeen patients affected by post- anoxic SE matching them with outcome scores by means of univariate statistical analysis...
July 5, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678060/association-between-clinical-and-neurophysiological-outcomes-in-patients-with-mechanical-neck-pain-and-whiplash-associated-disorders
#18
Matteo Castaldo, Antonella Catena, Alessandro Chiarotto, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between pain, disability, trigger points (TrPs) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with mechanical (MNP) or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). METHODS: Forty-six MNP and fifty-one WAD patients underwent a physical examination consisting of cervical range of motion, PPTs in the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, TrPs examination in the upper trapezius, and collection of clinical data including disability, pain intensity and spontaneous symptomatic pain area...
July 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677352/cough-hypersensitivity-syndrome-a-few-more-steps-forward
#19
REVIEW
Woo Jung Song, Alyn H Morice
Cough reflex is a vital protective mechanism against aspiration, but when dysregulated, it can become hypersensitive. In fact, chronic cough is a significant medical problem with a high degree of morbidity. Recently, a unifying paradigm of cough hypersensitivity syndrome has been proposed. It represents a clinical entity in which chronic cough is a major presenting problem, regardless of the underlying condition. Although it remains a theoretical construct, emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neurophysiology is the common etiology of this syndrome...
September 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673764/how-to-assess-sensory-recovery-after-breast-reconstruction-surgery
#20
Helena K Puonti, Taina A Broth, Seppo O Soinila, Helena K Hallikainen, Satu K Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical against psychophysical (tactile and thermal quantitative sensory test [QST]), neurophysiologic (somatosensory evoked potential [SEP]), and epithelial nerve fiber density (ENFD) examinations in detection and follow-up of sensory alterations after breast reconstruction done with or without nerve anastomoses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective 2-year follow-up design, 56 breast cancer patients underwent innervated and 20 patients noninnervated free rectus abdominis muscle-sparing flap (ms-TRAM) breast reconstruction...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
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