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Clinical neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457912/decreased-resting-gamma-activity-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
László Tombor, Brigitta Kakuszi, Szilvia Papp, János Réthelyi, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
OBJECTIVES: To delineate task-free gamma activity in adult ADHD and healthy control subjects based on high-density EEG recordings. Relationship of gamma activity with symptom severity was also examined, since gamma activity is considered as an index of network functions in the brain that underlie higher-order cognitive processes. METHODS: Spontaneous-EEG was recorded in adult ADHD subjects (N = 42;25 methylphenidate-naïve and 17 on methylphenidate treatment) and controls (N = 59) with eyes open...
February 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455369/intradural-spinal-tumors-in-adults-update-on-management-and-outcome
#2
REVIEW
Malte Ottenhausen, Georgios Ntoulias, Imithri Bodhinayake, Finn-Hannes Ruppert, Stefan Schreiber, Annette Förschler, John A Boockvar, Andreas Jödicke
Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spinal tumors, in some cases CT scans, angiography, CSF analyses, and neurophysiological examination can be valuable. The management of these lesions depends not only on the histopathological diagnosis but also on the clinical presentation and the anatomical location, allowing either radical resection as with most extramedullary lesions or less invasive strategies as with intramedullary lesions...
February 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449828/understanding-spreading-depression-from-headache-to-sudden-unexpected-death
#3
REVIEW
Olga Cozzolino, Maria Marchese, Francesco Trovato, Enrico Pracucci, Gian Michele Ratto, Maria Gabriella Buzzi, Federico Sicca, Filippo M Santorelli
Spreading depression (SD) is a neurophysiological phenomenon characterized by abrupt changes in intracellular ion gradients and sustained depolarization of neurons. It leads to loss of electrical activity, changes in the synaptic architecture, and an altered vascular response. Although SD is often described as a unique phenomenon with homogeneous characteristics, it may be strongly affected by the particular triggering event and by genetic background. Furthermore, SD may contribute differently to the pathogenesis of widely heterogeneous clinical conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444973/eight-hours-adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#4
Mattia Arlotti, Sara Marceglia, Guglielmo Foffani, Jens Volkmann, Andres M Lozano, Elena Moro, Filippo Cogiamanian, Marco Prenassi, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Paolo Rampini, Sergio Barbieri, Alberto Priori
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and clinical efficacy of local field potentials (LFPs)-based adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) during daily activities in an open-label, nonblinded study. METHODS: We monitored neurophysiologic and clinical fluctuations during 2 perioperative experimental sessions lasting for up to 8 hours. On the first day, the patient took his/her daily medication, while on the second, he/she additionally underwent subthalamic nucleus aDBS driven by LFPs beta band power...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435856/modern-theories-of-pelvic-floor-support-a-topical-review-of-modern-studies-on-structural-and-functional-pelvic-floor-support-from-medical-imaging-computational-modeling-and-electromyographic-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Yun Peng, Brandi D Miller, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions...
February 12, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433111/-acute-flaccid-myelitis
#6
Ryutaro Kira
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a newly defined, rare, but clinically distinct syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis with spinal motor neuron involvement of unknown etiology. Clusters of AFM coincided with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United States during autumn to winter of 2014 and in Japan during the autumn of 2015. Although EV-D68 was detected in only 20% of the AFM patients, mainly from respiratory specimens without apparent viral detection from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, strong temporal associations were noted...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428122/depressive-disorder-anxiety-disorder-and-chronic-pain-multiple-manifestations-of-a-common-clinical-and-pathophysiological-core
#7
Cesar A Arango-Dávila, Hernán G Rincón-Hoyos
INTRODUCTION: A high proportion of depressive disorders are accompanied by anxious manifestations, just as depression and anxiety often present with many painful manifestations, or conversely, painful manifestations cause or worsen depressive and anxious expressions. There is increasingly more evidence of the pathophysiological, and neurophysiological and technical imaging similarity of pain and depression. METHODS: Narrative review of the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of depression and chronic pain comorbidity...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425940/rehabilitation-course-and-specification-of-dysmetria-of-a-patient-with-ataxia-dysmetria-and-hemiparesis-following-a-stroke-in-the-corona-radiata-a-case-presentation
#8
Monir Mohar, Kosandra Hartman, Bronwyn Long, Peter Lee, Adrian Didita, Eric L Altschuler
We present a case of a patient with ataxia, dysmetria and hemiparesis following a stroke in the corona radiata. The patient had an excellent clinical course with near resolution of symptoms in two and a half weeks, and returned and back to work fully duty and full-time a couple of weeks later. We use a video of severeal neurological tests to demonstrate and characterize the dysmetria. Interestingly, a key characteristic of the dysmetria appears to be different from that seen in patients with dysmetria arising from a cerebellar, thalamic or pontine lesion...
February 6, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423615/defining-spasticity-a-new-approach-considering-current-movement-disorders-terminology-and-botulinum-toxin-therapy
#9
Dirk Dressler, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Saeed Bohlega, Pedro Chana, Hsin Fen Chien, Tae Mo Chung, Carlo Colosimo, Markus Ebke, Klemens Fedoroff, Bernd Frank, Ryuji Kaji, Petr Kanovsky, Serdar Koçer, Federico Micheli, Olga Orlova, Sebastian Paus, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Maja Relja, Raymond L Rosales, José Alberto Sagástegui-Rodríguez, Paul W Schoenle, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Sofia Timerbaeva, Uwe Walter, Fereshte Adib Saberi
Spasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. It affects large numbers of patients and may cause major disability. So far, spasticity has merely been described as part of the upper motor neurone syndrome or defined in a narrowed neurophysiological sense. This consensus organised by IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group Movement Disorders wants to provide a brief and practical new definition of spasticity-for the first time-based on its various forms of muscle hyperactivity as described in the current movement disorders terminology...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422722/sleeping-in-a-brave-new-world-opportunities-for-improving-learning-and-clinical-outcomes-through-targeted-memory-reactivation
#10
Ken A Paller
Neuroscientific insights into learning and memory have mostly concerned input and output, but intervening processing during the time between acquisition and retrieval is also critical. Indeed, intervening memory reactivation may regulate memory longevity, and a growing body of evidence implicates sleep in changing memory storage. For example, subtle auditory stimulation can be used experimentally to selectively encourage memory reactivation during sleep, which thereby improves learning. Much remains to be elucidated about how learning depends on sleep...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414550/clinical-aspects-neuroimaging-and-electroencephalography-of-35-cases-of-hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-syndrome
#11
Mohamed Albakaye, Halima Belaïdi, Fatiha Lahjouji, Leila Errguig, Callixte Kuate, Youssoufa Maiga, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Najib Kissani, Reda Ouazzani
INTRODUCTION: The hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a rare consequence of febrile seizures during childhood. It is characterized by the presence of prolonged unilateral clonic seizures occurring during febrile illness in a child less than 4years of age. Then, a flaccid unilateral hemiplegia with variable duration occurs. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging treatment and outcome of series of cases of HHE syndrome followed for 10years in our clinical neurophysiology department of the specialty hospital of Rabat...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411189/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-following-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#12
Badrul Islam, Zhahirul Islam, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Israt Jahan, Hubert P Endtz, Quazi D Mohammad, Bart C Jacobs
We describe the frequency, clinical features, and electrophysiological and immunological phenotypes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) patients treated at a single institution in Bangladesh who had preceding chicken pox (primary Varicella-zoster virus [VZV] infection) within 4 weeks of GBS onset. A literature review of GBS cases preceding VZV infection is also provided. Diagnosis of GBS was based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS. Serum anti-VZV IgM and IgG antibodies were quantified by indirect chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA); anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies and anti-ganglioside GM1 IgM and IgG antibodies, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408593/acute-compartment-syndrome-as-a-complication-of-the-use-of-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-needle-electrodes
#13
Ilyas M Eli, Nicholas T Gamboa, Jian Guan, Philipp Taussky
BACKGROUND: The use of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IOM) has become commonplace in many neurosurgical procedures as a tool to reduce the risk of complications through the early identification of reversible neurologic compromise. Although complications related to IOM itself are exceedingly rare, recognizing their clinical presentation in the postoperative neurosurgical patient is essential for the early identification and implementation of appropriate treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present a case report of a patient who developed postoperative acute compartment syndrome in the right arm after placement of neuromonitoring needles for routine IOM during endovascular treatment of a left internal carotid artery aneurysm...
February 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402512/paradoxical-insomnia-and-subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Leeba Rezaie, Aaron D Fobian, William Vaughn McCall, Habibolah Khazaie
Paradoxical insomnia is characterized by discrepancy between subjective and objective assessments of sleep and is challenging to diagnosis and treat. Typically, polysomnographic (PSG) findings show significantly longer total sleep time than patients' report of sleep, and the difference between subjective and PSG sleep is greater than that seen in other insomnia subtypes. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy may also present in different clinical pictures, as marked discrepancies between patients' perception of sleep and objective findings are common in a variety of medical, sleep and psychiatric disorders...
January 6, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396602/subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-under-general-anesthesia-and-neurophysiological-guidance-while-on-dopaminergic-medication-comparative-cohort-study
#15
Mohammed Jamil Asha, Benjamin Fisher, Jamilla Kausar, Hayley Garratt, Hari Krovvidi, Colin Shirley, Anwen White, Ramesh Chelvarajah, Ismail Ughratdar, James A Hodson, Hardev Pall, Rosalind D Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: The authors have previously reported on the technical feasibility of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) under general anesthesia (GA) with microelectrode recording (MER) guidance in Parkinsonian patients who continued dopaminergic therapy until surgery. This paper presents the results of a prospective cohort analysis to verify the outcome of the initial study, and report on wider aspects of clinical outcome and postoperative recovery. METHODS: All patients in the study group continued dopaminergic therapy until GA was administered...
February 2, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396360/effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-action-myoclonus-a-pilot-study-in-patients-with-epm1
#16
Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Adriana Magaudda, Angelo Quartarone, Teresa Brizzi, Elisa Visani, Giuseppe Capovilla, Francesca Beccaria, Paola Anversa, Silvana Franceschetti, Laura Canafoglia
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on action myoclonus. METHODS: Nine patients with Unverricht-Lundborg (EPM1) progressive myoclonus epilepsy type underwent two series of 500 stimuli at 0.3Hz through round coil twice a day for five consecutive days. Clinical and neurophysiological examinations were performed two hours before starting the first rTMS session and two hours after the end of the last rTMS session...
January 21, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396176/the-relevance-of-gene-panels-in-movement-disorders-diagnosis-a-lab-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Chiara Reale, Celeste Panteghini, Miryam Carecchio, Barbara Garavaglia
Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a group of new methods that allow sequencing a variable number of known genes (targeted resequencing) or even the whole human genome (whole genome sequencing-WGS) and have contributed to an exponential genetic knowledge growth, especially in rare diseases, in the past few years. Since 2015, in the Molecular Neurogenetics Unit of Neurological Institute "Carlo Besta", some gene panels have become available to screen all the known genes associated with Movement Disorders (MD) in children and adults as a diagnostic package...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392210/corticospinal-excitability-as-a-biomarker-of-myofascial-pain-syndrome
#18
Aurore Thibaut, Dian Zeng, Wolnei Caumo, Jianhua Liu, Felipe Fregni
Introduction: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain disorder that lacks effective diagnostic criteria. To better understand neurophysiological changes in chronic pain, several trials exploring corticospinal excitability in different populations of patients with chronic pain have been performed. Objectives: In this systematic review, we aimed to investigate the current literature on MPS and intracortical disinhibition, by means of increased intracortical facilitation and decreased intracortical inhibition (ICI)...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390267/rehabilitation-program-based-on-sensorimotor-recovery-improves-the-static-and-dynamic-balance-and-modifies-the-basal-ganglia-neurochemistry-a-pilot-1h-mrs-study-on-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#19
Stefano Delli Pizzi, Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Simona Maria Carmignano, Emilio Ancona, Raffaella Franciotti, Marco Supplizi, Giovanni Barassi, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni, Raoul Saggini
Rehabilitation interventions represent an alternative strategy to pharmacological treatment in order to slow or reverse some functional aspects of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying rehabilitation-mediated improvement in PD patients are still poorly understood. Interestingly, growing evidence has highlighted a key role of the glutamate in neurogenesis and brain plasticity. The brain levels of glutamate, and of its precursor glutamine, can be detected in vivo and noninvasively as "Glx" by means of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388926/-the-role-of-the-neurophysiological-methods-in-the-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-rehabilitation-of-sensorimotor-disturbances-associated-with-the-lesions-of-the-central-nervous-system-at-the-spinal-cord-level
#20
E V Ekusheva, V B Voitenkov, N V Skripchenko, I G Samoilova, V A Filimonov
AIM: The objective of the present study was the evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness of the differential approaches to the neurorehabilitation of the somatosensory disturbances in the patients presenting with the spinal cord lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 patients with spinal cord lesions were enrolled in the study, including 38 suffering from vascular myelopathy, 18 with the consequences of extramedullar meningioma surgery, 12 with the sequelae of acute transverse myelitis...
December 28, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
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