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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646561/pathways-to-arithmetic-fact-retrieval-and-percentage-calculation-in-adolescents
#1
Ulf Träff, Kenny Skagerlund, Linda Olsson, Rickard Östergren
BACKGROUND: Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge. AIMS: The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646471/decoding-early-myelopoiesis-from-dynamics-of-core-endogenous-network
#2
Hang Su, Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Junqiang Wang, Ying Tang, Ping Ao, Xiaomei Zhu
A decade ago mainstream molecular biologists regarded it impossible or biologically ill-motivated to understand the dynamics of complex biological phenomena, such as cancer genesis and progression, from a network perspective. Indeed, there are numerical difficulties even for those who were determined to explore along this direction. Undeterred, seven years ago a group of Chinese scientists started a program aiming to obtain quantitative connections between tumors and network dynamics. Many interesting results have been obtained...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645707/syndemic-factors-mediate-the-relationship-between-sexual-stigma-and-depression-among-sexual-minority-women-and-gender-minorities
#3
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Tonia Poteat, Anne C Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM...
June 20, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644997/first-episode-psychosis-moderates-the-effect-of-gray-matter-volume-on-cognition
#4
Luis F S Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A A Kanaan
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644927/testing-an-integrative-model-of-affect-regulation-and-avoidance-in-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-disordered-eating
#5
Nicholas L Anderson, Kathryn E Smith, Tyler B Mason, Janis H Crowther
This research tested a model that integrates risk factors among NSSI and eating disorder (ED) behaviors to elucidate possible shared and unique mechanisms underlying both behaviors. Emotional distress, limited access to emotion regulation (ER) strategies, avoidance, and NSSI/ED frequency were examined in a sample of 230 female undergraduates. Structural equation modeling indicated that emotional distress had direct and positive associations with limited access to ER strategies and avoidance, and limited access to ER strategies mediated the relationship between emotional distress and avoidance...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644777/transitional-instability-predicts-polymorphous-distress-in-emerging-adults
#6
Chris Segrin, Corey A Pavlich, Melissa McNelis
The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the extent to which transitional instability can predict diverse markers of distress in emerging adults. Participants were 210 emerging adults, aged 18-25 who completed measures of distress that included loneliness, stress, problem drinking, and prescription medication use. One year later, they returned to complete these same measures of distress along with a measure of significant life transitions that they encountered during the past year in such domains as education, employment, residence, and relationships...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644017/spectrally-undiscerned-isomers-might-lead-to-erroneous-determination-of-water-exchange-rates-of-paracest-eu-iii-agents
#7
Nevenka Cakić, Ben Tickner, Moritz Zaiss, David Esteban-Gómez, Carlos Platas-Iglesias, Goran Angelovski
We report a detailed study of the solution structure and water exchange rate of a Eu(III) complex with the cyclen-based ligand L(1), containing (S)-2-(2-acetamido)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)propanoate pendant arms at positions 1 and 7 of the cyclen ring and acetylglycinate pendants at positions 4 and 10. The EuL(1) complex was characterized by a combination of NMR and luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) spectra obtained at different temperatures and saturation powers present a CEST signal attributed to the coordinated water molecule...
June 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643884/learning-climate-and-feedback-as-predictors-of-dental-students-self-determined-motivation-the-mediating-role-of-basic-psychological-needs-satisfaction
#8
C Orsini, V Binnie, S Wilson, M J Villegas
AIM: The aim of this study was to test the mediating role of the satisfaction of dental students' basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness on the association between learning climate, feedback and student motivation. The latter was based on the self-determination theory's concepts of differentiation of autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted where 924 students completed self-reported questionnaires measuring motivation, perception of the learning climate, feedback and basic psychological needs satisfaction...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642727/-learning-science-is-about-facts-and-language-learning-is-about-being-discursive-an-empirical-investigation-of-students-disciplinary-beliefs-in-the-context-of-argumentation
#9
Patricia Heitmann, Martin Hecht, Ronny Scherer, Julia Schwanewedel
Argumentation is considered crucial in numerous disciplines in schools and universities because it constitutes an important proficiency in peoples' daily and professional lives. However, it is unclear whether argumentation is understood and practiced in comparable ways across disciplines. This study consequently examined empirically how students perceive argumentation in science and (first) language lessons. Specifically, we investigated students' beliefs about the relevance of discourse and the role of facts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641867/motivational-pathways-of-occupational-and-organizational-turnover-intention-among-newly-registered-nurses-in-canada
#10
Claude Fernet, Sarah-Geneviève Trépanier, Mireille Demers, Stéphanie Austin
BACKGROUND: Staff turnover is a major issue for health care systems. In a time of labor shortage, it is critical to understand the motivational factors that underlie turnover intention in newly licensed nurses. PURPOSE: To examine whether different forms of motivation (the reasons for which nurses engage in their work) predict intention to quit the occupation and organization through distinct forms (affective and continuance) and targets (occupation and organization) of commitment...
May 26, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641256/a-novel-fast-tensor-based-preconditioner-for-image-restoration
#11
Mansoor Rezghi
Image restoration is one of the main parts of image processing. Mathematically, this problem can be modeled as a large scale structured ill-posed linear system. Ill-posedness of this problem results in low convergence rate of iterative solvers. For speeding up the convergence, preconditioning usually is used. Despite the existing preconditioners for image restoration which are constructed based on approximations of the blurring matrix, in this paper, we propose a novel preconditioner with a different viewpoint...
June 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641090/injunctive-safety-norms-young-worker-risk-taking-behaviors-and-workplace-injuries
#12
Simon Pek, Nick Turner, Sean Tucker, E Kevin Kelloway, Jayne Morrish
Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others' expectations of one's safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n=11,986;M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers' self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640810/lassim-a-network-inference-toolbox-for-genome-wide-mechanistic-modeling
#13
Rasmus Magnusson, Guido Pio Mariotti, Mattias Köpsén, William Lövfors, Danuta R Gawel, Rebecka Jörnsten, Jörg Linde, Torbjörn Nordling, Elin Nyman, Sylvie Schulze, Colm E Nestor, Huan Zhang, Gunnar Cedersund, Mikael Benson, Andreas Tjärnberg, Mika Gustafsson
Recent technological advancements have made time-resolved, quantitative, multi-omics data available for many model systems, which could be integrated for systems pharmacokinetic use. Here, we present large-scale simulation modeling (LASSIM), which is a novel mathematical tool for performing large-scale inference using mechanistically defined ordinary differential equations (ODE) for gene regulatory networks (GRNs). LASSIM integrates structural knowledge about regulatory interactions and non-linear equations with multiple steady state and dynamic response expression datasets...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638362/basic-psychological-needs-satisfaction-mediates-the-association-between-self-control-skills-and-subjective-well-being
#14
Hod Orkibi, Tammie Ronen
Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs) are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students' SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB) in school may be mediated by students' perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637811/bayesian-networks-illustrate-genomic-and-residual-trait-connections-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#15
Katrin Töpner, Guilherme J M Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Chris-Carolin Schön
Relationships among traits were investigated on the genomic and residual levels using novel methodology. This included inference on these relationships via Bayesian networks and an assessment of the networks with structural equation models. The methodology employed three steps. First, a Bayesian multiple-trait Gaussian model was fitted to the data to decompose phenotypic values into their genomic and residual components. Second, genomic and residual network structures among traits were learned from estimates of these two components...
June 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637279/high-dimensional-multivariate-mediation-with-application-to-neuroimaging-data
#16
Oliver Y Chén, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Brian S Caffo, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist
Mediation analysis is an important tool in the behavioral sciences for investigating the role of intermediate variables that lie in the path between a treatment and an outcome variable. The influence of the intermediate variable on the outcome is often explored using a linear structural equation model (LSEM), with model coefficients interpreted as possible effects. While there has been significant research on the topic, little work has been done when the intermediate variable (mediator) is a high-dimensional vector...
June 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636724/temporal-relationships-between-job-strain-and-low-back-pain
#17
Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Ida Eh Madsen, Reiner Rugulies, Paraskevi Peristera, Hugo Westerlund, Alexis Descatha
Objectives Psychosocial working conditions are suggested risk factors for low-back pain, but it is unclear whether these associations are causal. The present study examined whether there are lagged and bidirectional associations between job strain and low-back pain and further controlled for unmeasured time-invariant confounding. Methods The study was based on four biennial waves of data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), including 3084 men and women. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted on job strain, a combination of high job demands and low control, and any as well as low-back pain severity (how much any problems affected the respondents life)...
June 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633571/the-role-of-peri-traumatic-stress-and-disruption-distress-in-predicting-symptoms-of-major-depression-following-exposure-to-a-natural-disaster
#19
Caroline J Bell, Joseph M Boden, L John Horwood, Roger T Mulder
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the contribution of specific disaster-related experiences to symptoms of depression. The aims of this study were to do this by examining the roles of peri-traumatic stress and distress due to lingering disaster-related disruption in explaining linkages between disaster exposure and major depressive disorder symptoms among a cohort exposed to the 2010-2011 Canterbury (New Zealand) earthquakes. METHODS: Structural equation models were fitted to data obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study at age 35 ( n = 495), 20-24 months following the onset of the disaster...
July 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633558/an-introduction-to-bayesian-statistics-in-health-psychology
#20
Sarah Depaoli, Holly M Rus, James P Clifton, Rens van de Schoot, Jitske Tiemensma
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of Health Psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries...
June 20, 2017: Health Psychology Review
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