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Michele Protti, James Rudge, Angelo Eliseo Sberna, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiangmeng Qu, Dan Zhu, Guangbao Yao, Shao Su, Jie Chao, Huajie Liu, Xiaolei Zuo, Lihua Wang, Jiye Shi, Lianhui Wang, Wei Huang, Hao Pei, Chunhai Fan
DNA-based machines have attracted rapidly growing interest owing to their potential in drug delivery, biocomputing, and diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a type of exonuclease III (Exo III)-powered stochastic DNA walker that can autonomously move on a spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-based 3D track. The motion is propelled by unidirectional Exo III digestion of hybridized DNA tracks in a burnt-bridge mechanism. The operation of this Exo III-propelled DNA walker was monitored in real time and at the single-particle resolution using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF)...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Ahmed Ali Badran, Sergi Morais, Ángel Maquieira
A multiplex competitive microimmunoassay for the simultaneous determination of gliadin, casein, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin is presented. The assay in microarray format is performed on a DVD where the allergens are physisorbed on the polycarbonate surface of the disc. The immunointeraction is detected using a mixture of specific gold-labeled antibodies and the signal amplified with the silver enhancement method. The optical density of the precipitate, read by a DVD drive, is related to the concentration of the four allergens in sample...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Joseph D Manna, Samantha J Richardson, Mehran F Moghaddam
AIM: Increasing numbers of compounds requiring stability data means highly optimized methods capable of rapid turnaround are desirable during early discovery. Materials and methods/results: An advanced, generic analytical workflow for metabolic stability has been developed that utilizing ballistic gradient LC (sub 1 min run times), exact mass TOF-MS (Waters Xevo-G2-XS Q-TOF) and automated data processing (Waters UNIFI software) allowed for rapid integration and interpretation of all data produced, eliminating the need for method development and manual processing...
January 11, 2017: Bioanalysis
Chengsen Zhang, Brandon J Bills, Nicholas E Manicke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Bioanalysis
Hyeon Kim, Hyeong Jun Kim, Min Sun Choi, In Sook Kim, Myung Chan Gye, Hye Hyun Yoo
Alcohol ethoxylates (AEs) are a major class of non-ionic surfactants, which are widely used in household, institutional and industrial cleaners, and they are considered as an alternative of nonylphenol. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and reliable bioanalytical method was developed for the determination of octaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E8, an AE) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column (2...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Scott G Harroun, Yaoting Zhang, Tzu-Heng Chen, Ching-Rong Ku, Huan-Tsung Chang
3-Methyladenine and 7-methyladenine are biomarkers of DNA damage from exposure to methylating agents. For example, the concentration of 3-methyladenine increases significantly in the urine of cigarette smokers. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown much potential for detection of biomolecules, including DNA. Much work has been dedicated to the canonical nucleobases, with comparatively fewer investigations of modified DNA and modified DNA nucleobases. Herein, Raman spectroscopy and SERS are used to examine the adsorption orientations of 3-methyladenine and 7-methyladenine on Ag nanoparticles...
December 15, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Selvakumar Kanthiah, Kannappan Valliappan
This present study describes a specific, precise, sensitive and accurate method for simultaneous determination of hydroxyzine, loratadine, terfenadine, rupatadine and their main active metabolites cetirizine, desloratadine and fexofenadine in serum and urine by using meclizine as an internal standard. Solid phase extraction method for sample clean-up and preconcentration of analytes was carried out by using Phenomenex Strata-X-C and Strata X polymeric cartridges. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Phenomenex cyano (150 mm x 4...
January 6, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Eric Harstad, Roxanne Andaya, Jessica Couch, Xiao Ding, Xiaorong Liang, Bianca M Liederer, Kirsten Messick, Trung Nguyen, Michelle Schweiger, Jacqueline Tarrant, Shelly Zhong, Brian Dean
Improved small molecule bioanalytical sensitivity and concomitant decreased sample volume requirements provide an opportunity to reconsider how toxicokinetic (TK) data are collected in rat toxicity studies. Often, satellite groups of rats are designated to separate procedural effects of TK blood collection from the primary toxicity evaluation. Blood microsampling (i.e., ≤50 μL) decreases the blood volume collected such that TK samples can be collected from toxicity groups without impacting toxicity assessment...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
S de Krou, H Rosing, B Nuijen, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
BACKGROUND: Z-endoxifen (further referred to as endoxifen, unless stated otherwise) is proposed as the most important metabolite of tamoxifen. Patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment with endoxifen levels below the threshold of 5.9 ng/mL may have an increased risk of breast cancer recurrence. Several factors, such as genetic polymorphisms, drug interactions, and (non-)adherence, lead to large inter-patient variability in endoxifen exposure, resulting in a substantial number of patients showing sub therapeutic levels...
December 30, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Emil Joseph, Ranendra N Saha
The present study focuses on the effect of material used for the preparation of nanoparticulate systems (NP) and surface modification on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of atypical antipsychotic, Olanzapine (OLN). Nanoparticulate carriers of OLN were prepared from two different materials such as polymer (polycaprolactone) and solid lipid (Glyceryl monostearate). These systems were further surface modified with surfactant, Polysorbate 80 and studied for pharmacokinetics-biodistribution in wistar rats using in-house developed bioanalytical methods...
January 3, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Najmeh Karimian, Ligia M Moretto, Paolo Ugo
Since the first reports dating back to the mid-1990s, ensembles and arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEEs and NEAs, respectively) have gained an important role as advanced electroanalytical tools thank to their unique characteristics which include, among others, dramatically improved signal/noise ratios, enhanced mass transport and suitability for extreme miniaturization. From the year 2000 onward, these properties have been exploited to develop electrochemical biosensors in which the surfaces of NEEs/NEAs have been functionalized with biorecognition layers using immobilization modes able to take the maximum advantage from the special morphology and composite nature of their surface...
December 30, 2016: Sensors
Megha H Unhelkar, Vy T Duong, Kaosoluchi N Enendu, John E Kelly, Seemal Tahir, Carter T Butts, Rachel W Martin
BACKGROUND: Carnivorous plants possess diverse sets of enzymes with novel functionalities applicable to biotechnology, proteomics, and bioanalytical research. Chitinases constitute an important class of such enzymes, with future applications including human-safe antifungal agents and pesticides. Here, we compare chitinases from the genome of the carnivorous plant Drosera capensis to those from related carnivorous plants and model organisms. METHODS: Using comparative modeling, in silico maturation, and molecular dynamics simulation, we produce models of the mature enzymes in aqueous solution...
December 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Isabelle Fourel, Marlène Damin-Pernik, Etienne Benoit, Virginie Lattard
Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), pesticides used worldwide to control rodent populations, exist in two diastereoisomer chemical species because they own two stereogenic centers. A core-shell LC-MS/MS multi-residue method for comprehensive quantitative analysis of the diastereoisomers of five SGARs as well as three first generation anticoagulant rodenticide molecules has been fully validated in liver of rats according to a bioanalytical guideline. A core-shell column (superficially porous particles) has been chosen for its ability to separate the diastereomers of bromadiolone, difenacoum, brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone and for its robustness to rat liver extracts...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yuan-Cheng Zhu, Fei Xu, Nan Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
This work reports the use of compositionally heterogeneous asymmetric Ag@Au core-satellite nanoassembly functionalized with DNA sequence as unique signaling nanoprobes for the realization of new energy-transfer-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of prostate- specific antigen (PSA). Specifically, the Ag@Au asymmetric core-satellite nanoassemblies (Ag@Au ACS) were fabricated on a two-dimensional glass substrate by a modified controlled assembly technique, and then functionalized with DNA sequences containing PSA aptamers as signaling nanoprobes...
December 20, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Peta A Neale, Maud E S Achard, Beate I Escher, Frederic D L Leusch
Environmental waters can contain a wide range of micropollutants. Bioanalytical test batteries using assays indicative of different stages of cellular toxicity pathways, such as adaptive stress responses, have been applied to a range of water samples. Oxidative stress response assays have proven to be sensitive tools, but the mechanism by which water samples are inducing the oxidative stress response remains unclear because both electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may activate the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway...
December 22, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Zitian Chen, Peiyu Liao, Fangli Zhang, Mengcheng Jiang, Yusen Zhu, Yanyi Huang
Stable water-in-oil emulsion is essential to digital PCR and many other bioanalytical reactions that employ droplets as microreactors. We developed a novel technology to produce monodisperse emulsion droplets with high efficiency and high throughput using a bench-top centrifuge. Upon centrifugal spinning, the continuous aqueous phase is dispersed into monodisperse droplet jets in air through a micro-channel array (MiCA) and then submerged into oil as a stable emulsion. We performed dPCR reactions with a high dynamic range through the MiCA approach, and demonstrated that this cost-effective method not only eliminates the usage of complex microfluidic devices and control systems, but also greatly suppresses the loss of materials and cross-contamination...
December 22, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Khai Tuck Lee, Jacob W Coffey, Kye J Robinson, David A Muller, Lisbeth Grondahl, Mark A F Kendall, Paul R Young, Simon Robert Corrie
Immunoassays are ubiquitous across research and clinical laboratories, yet little attention is paid to the effect of the substrate material on the assay performance characteristics. Given the emerging interest in "wearable" immunoassay formats, investigations into substrate materials that provide an optimal mix of mechanical and bioanalytical properties is paramount. In the course of our research in developing "wearable immunoassays" which can penetrate skin to selectively capture disease antigens from the underlying blood vessels, we recently identified significant differences in immunoassay performance between gold and polycarbonate surfaces, even with a consistent surface modification procedure...
December 22, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Virginia VanDelinder, Peter G Adams, George D Bachand
The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christelle Haziza, Guillaume de La Bourdonnaye, Dimitra Skiada, Jacek Ancerewicz, Gizelle Baker, Patrick Picavet, Frank Lüdicke
Levels of biomarkers of exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents found in cigarette smoke, in addition to nicotine were measured in 160 smokers randomized for 5 days to continuing smoking conventional cigarettes (41 participants), switching to Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) (80 participants), or abstaining from smoking (39 participants). The data reported here are descriptive statistics of the levels of each biomarker of exposure expressed as concentrations adjusted to creatinine; at baseline, and at the end of the study, and their relative change from baseline...
February 2017: Data in Brief
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