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Autoimmune Disease and CV disease

Julie A Birt, YingMeei Tan, Neelufar Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the real-world characteristics and costs of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Analysing the MarketScan Commercial Claims database from Jan. 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2011, we identified 10,414 patients ≥18 years old newly diagnosed with SS. Patient characteristics, drugs (commonly used for SS), resource utilisation, and medical costs were evaluated for 12 months pre- and post-diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean age was 55 years; 90% were female...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Eleonora Bellucci, Riccardo Terenzi, Giuliana Maria Concetta La Paglia, Stefano Gentileschi, Alessandra Tripoli, Chiara Tani, Alessia Alunno
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic synovial inflammation leading to joint destruction and bone erosions. Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease are not fully elucidated, it is known that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors trigger an abnormal autoimmune response. Potentially, any organ and tissue could be affected by RA and the increased cardiovascular (CV) risk represents the major complication responsible for a worse prognosis. In this setting, the shared pathogenic mechanisms between RA pathogenesis and accelerated atherosclerosis further strengthen the rationale for a treat-to-target strategy with synthetic and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Zhigang Hu, Xiaoying Jing, Jie Liu, Mei Li, Yan Ye, Yu Chen
The autoimmune disease antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), along with anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) antibodies and lupus anticoagulant (LA). In this study, we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) system for simultaneous quantification of aCL IgG and IgM. A 96-well microtiter plate precoated with the complex of cardiolipin from bovine heart and bovine β2GPI was incubated with the anticardiolipin IgG and IgM standard substance or serum, and the conjugate of Eu3+-labeled anti-human IgG and Sm3+-labeled anti-human IgM was pipetted to the wells to form a tipical double-antibody-sandwich immunoreactions; finally the fluorescent intensity of Eu3+ and Sm3+ was detected to reflect the quantity of anticardiolipin IgG and IgM...
2016: PloS One
Jarmila Heissigerova, Petra Seidler Stangova, Aneta Klimova, Petra Svozilkova, Tomas Hrncir, Renata Stepankova, Miloslav Kverka, Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova, John V Forrester
The microbiota is a crucial modulator of the immune system. Here, we evaluated how its absence or reduction modifies the inflammatory response in the murine model of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). We induced EAU in germ-free (GF) or conventionally housed (CV) mice and in CV mice treated with a combination of broad-spectrum antibiotics either from the day of EAU induction or from one week prior to induction of disease. The severity of the inflammation was assessed by fundus biomicroscopy or by histology, including immunohistology...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Mohsin El Amrani, Marcel P H van den Broek, Camiel Göbel, Erik M van Maarseveen
The therapeutic monoclonal antibody Infliximab (IFX) is a widely used drug for the treatment of several inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, approximately 10% of patients develop anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) rendering the treatment ineffective. Early detection of underexposure to unbound IFX would result in a timely switch of therapy which could aid in the treatment of this disease. Streptavidin coated 96 well plates were used to capture biotinylated-tumor necrosis factor -alpha (b-TNF-α), which in turn was used to selectively extract the active form of IFX in human serum...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yong-Soo Baek, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jae-Sun Uhm, Jong-Yun Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little evidence exists whether the risk of AF is increased in autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD). METHODS: In 20,772 consecutive ARD patients (mean age 42±17years, 13,683 female) in a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2015, AF prevalence, comorbidities and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: AF was observed in 235 (1...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Pamela Ouyang, Nanette K Wenger, Doris Taylor, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Meir Steiner, Leslee J Shaw, Sarah L Berga, Virginia M Miller, Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: In 2001, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) report, "Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?" advocated for better understanding of the differences in human diseases between the sexes, with translation of these differences into clinical practice. Sex differences are well documented in the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, the clinical manifestation and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the impact of risk factors on outcomes...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Zoltán Szekanecz, György Kerekes, Edit Végh, Zsófia Kardos, Zsuzsa Baráth, László Tamási, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been associated with autoimmune atherosclerosis leading to increased cardiovascular risk. Traditional risk factors, genetics, as well as the role of systemic inflammation including inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, proteases, autoantibodies, adhesion receptors and others have been implicated in the development of these vascular pathologies. Cardiovascular risk may be determined by the use of currently available tools...
July 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Tanja Diana, Yunsheng Li, Paul D Olivo, Karl J Lackner, Hannah Kim, Michael Kanitz, George J Kahaly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A cell-based bioassay for the measurement of thyroid blocking autoantibodies (TBAb) has been recently reported. The analytical performance and validation of this bioassay is assessed and described. METHODS: Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a chimeric thyrotropin receptor were treated with bovine (b) TSH and different concentrations of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal human TBAb (K1-70). TBAb was measured as a function of luciferase activity relative to bTSH alone and expressed as percent inhibition...
May 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Oore-Ofe O Olumuyiwa-Akeredolu, Etheresia Pretorius
Adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder affecting joints and frequently characterised by initial local and later systemic inflammation. Researchers have, for many years, traced its cause to diverse genetic, environmental and especially immunological responses that work against the body's own cells and tissues. Investigation into several of these biomarkers reveals interconnections that exist between multiple factors, which ultimately lead to specific pathologies. The goal of this paper is to highlight connections present between the major biological players long identified by researchers including more recently uncovered biomarkers in the RA repertoire and some of the pathophysiologies typically affiliated with the disease...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Lukas Einhorn, Kurt Krapfenbauer
BACKGROUND: Classical methods of gene product analysis such as binding assays (e.g., ELISA, protein chip technology) are generally time-consuming, lab-intensive, less sensitive, and lack high-throughput capacity. In addition, all existing methods used to measure proteins necessitate multiple divisions of the original sample and individual tests carried out for each substance, with an associated cost for each test. METHOD: Together with a small biotech company, we developed a new and innovative analytical detection system based on homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) technology...
2015: EPMA Journal
Genovefa Kolovou, Vana Kolovou, Maria Koutelou, Sophie Mavrogeni
Atherosclerotic Coronary heart disease (CHD) and non-atherosclerotic CHD in individuals less than 50 years of age is considered a "men's case". Undoubtedly, premenopausal women develop atherosclerotic/non-atherosclerotic CHD relatively rarely compared with men. This is attributed mostly to the cardioprotective role of estrogens (mainly estradiol). Nevertheless, there are predisposing conditions, which also make young women vulnerable to develop atherosclerotic/non-atherosclerotic CHD. Women who have classical cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and dyslipidaemia, are more likely to develop cardiac events, even at a young age...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Chary López-Pedrera, Nuria Barbarroja, Jose Manuel Villalba
Atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are enhanced in autoimmune diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The reason for this accelerated process is still debatable and, although traditional risk factors are more prevalent in those patients than in general population, they do not fully explain that enhanced risk. Inflammatory components of the immune response, mainly interleukins, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, as well as some autoantibodies, including anti-oxidized low density lipoproteins (anti-oxLDL), anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 (anti- β2GPI), anti-Heat shock proteins 60/65 (anti-HSP60/65), and anti-oxLDL/β2GPI have been shown to play a leading role in the pathogenesis of both, AT and CVD...
February 2009: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Carmen Gelpí, Elena Pérez, Cristina Roldan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the degree of agreement of a novel Zenit RA chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) from A. Menarini Diagnostics (Florence, Italy) and the gold standard immunoprecipitation assay to screen for the presence of specific anti-U1snRNP, anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, anti-Jo-1((his)tRNA-Synthetase) and anti-Scl-70(Topo I) antibodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 114 sera, 98 from patients with well-defined autoimmune connective tissue diseases and 16 from blood donor volunteers...
September 2014: Auto- Immunity Highlights
Kosuke Nakamura, Hideki Matsuoka, Syohei Nakashima, Tomomasa Kanda, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami, Hiroshi Akiyama
Apples are known to contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds such as condensed tannins. Consumption of condensed tannins has been reported to reduce the risk of many types of chronic diseases including allergies. However, their therapeutic effectiveness and potential in treating autoimmune disease remain controversial. Here, the effect of oral administration of apple condensed tannins (ACT) prepared from apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) on bovine type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis in DBA1/J mice, a well-established murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was evaluated...
July 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
L Gianturco, B D Bodini, F Atzeni, C Colombo, D Stella, P Sarzi-Puttini, L Drago, S Galaverna, M Turiel
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are becoming increasingly frequent and associated with a high incidence of CV events, disability and death. It is known that there is a relationship between CV burden and systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) that is mainly due to inflammation and autoimmunity, but the other mechanisms underlying the high CV risk of SAD patients have not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this review article is to discuss some of the specific factors associated with the accelerated atherosclerosis (ATS) characterising SADs (female sex, the microcirculation and the endothelium) in order to highlight the importance of an early diagnosis and the prompt implementation of preventive measures, as well as the possible role of new therapeutic strategies such as vaccine immunomodulation...
July 2015: Atherosclerosis
Mercedes García-Bermúdez, Raquel López-Mejías, Fernanda Genre, Santos Castañeda, Alfonso Corrales, Javier Llorca, Carlos González-Juanatey, Begoña Ubilla, José A Miranda-Filloy, Trinitario Pina, Carmen Gómez-Vaquero, Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alejandro Balsa, Dora Pascual-Salcedo, Francisco J López-Longo, Patricia Carreira, Ricardo Blanco, Javier Martín, Miguel A González-Gay
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. JAK/STAT signalling pathway is involved in autoimmune diseases and in the atherosclerotic process. JAK3 is a highly promising target for immunomodulatory drugs and polymorphisms in JAK3 gene have been associated with CV events in incident dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential role of JAK3 polymorphisms in the development of CV disease in patients with RA...
2015: BioMed Research International
Rekha Mankad
Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, have a strong association with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), particularly ischemic heart disease (IHD). A majority of the autoimmune conditions occur predominantly in women, and as women continue to experience a higher cardiovascular mortality compared to men, this potential added risk factor must be recognized. Inflammation and immune mechanisms have been shown to be an underlying mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis, thus sharing a common mechanism with rheumatologic conditions...
April 2015: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Francesca Cannarile, Valentina Valentini, Giulia Mirabelli, Alessia Alunno, Riccardo Terenzi, Filippo Luccioli, Roberto Gerli, Elena Bartoloni
Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis...
January 2015: Annals of Translational Medicine
Giuseppe Asciutto, Nuno V Dias, Andreas Edsfeldt, Ragnar Alm, Gunilla N Fredrikson, Isabel Gonçalves, Jan Nilsson
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune responses against oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) have been suggested to modulate inflammation in atherosclerosis. Previous studies showed an association between autoantibodies against the apolipoprotein B (apoB) p210 antigen and a lower risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. In the present study we investigated if autoantibodies against p210 at the time of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) predict risk for future CV events. METHODS: Native (nat) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified apoB p210 autoantibodies (IgM-p210nat, IgG-p210nat, IgM-p210MDA and IgG-p210MDA) were analyzed by ELISA from plasma samples of 351 patients at the time they underwent CEA...
April 2015: Atherosclerosis
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