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Glucose toxicity

Neeraj Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh
Nanotechnology is a novel arena with promising applications in the field of medicine, industry, and agriculture including fisheries. Cross-disciplinary interactions and the application of this technology in biological systems have led to the innovation of novel nanoparticle antioxidants, which are the subject of our study. In context with above background, we designed an experiment on nano-silver to elucidate its role for mitigation of abiotic and biotic stress. Three diets were formulated viz. silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) incorporated at 0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ryan Oozeerally, David L Burnett, Thomas W Chamberlain, Richard I Walton, Volkan Degirmenci
Heterogeneous catalysts are desired for the conversion of glucose, the most abundant sugar in renewable biomass, but presently their synthesis requires highly toxic chemicals with long synthesis times. We report the conversion of glucose into fructose and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a heterogeneous catalyst that is stable and selective and operates in the most environmentally benign solvent, water. We used a bifunctional solid with Lewis and Brønsted acid sites by partially replacing the organic linker of the zirconium organic framework UiO-66 with 2-monosulfo-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate...
February 21, 2018: ChemCatChem
Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Long The Nguyen, Hui Chen, Crystal Mak, Amgad Zaky, Carol Pollock, Sonia Saad
Recent studies indicate that SIRT1, an important metabolic sensor and regulator of lifespan, plays a mechanistic role in maternal obesity-induced programming of metabolic disorders in the offspring. In this study we investigate whether SIRT1 activation in early childhood can mitigate metabolic disorders due to maternal and postnatal high-fat feeding in mice. Male offspring born to chow-fed (MC) or high-fat diet-fed dams (MHF) were weaned onto postnatal chow or high-fat diet and treated with SRT1720 (SRT, 25mg/kg/2days i...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Soo Ji Woo, Na Young Kim, Shin Hu Kim, Sang Jung Ahn, Jung Soo Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Joon Ki Chung
Trichlorfon is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of trichlorfon on hematological parameters, biochemical factors, and stress reaction in Cyprinus carpio L. The fish were exposed to acute concentrations of trichlorfon (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L-1 ) at 25 °C and 15 °C for 1 and 2 weeks, after which several parameters were evaluated to assess the effects of the pesticide. Significant decreases were observed in red blood cell (RBC) Count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), and plasma protein levels after each exposure period...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Linxi Wang, Zhiqing Liu, Zhou Chen, Caihua Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Can Chen, Xiaoyin Liu, Jingze Huang, Libin Liu, Donghai Lin
Although previous studies have reported the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in diabetes nephropathy, the molecular mechanism such as nephroprotection remains elusive. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of exendin-4 as an GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced injury in mouse glomerulus mesangial cells (SV40 MES 13 cells) via an NMR-based metabonomic analysis. We found that exendin-4 protected mesangial cells from t-BHP-mediated toxicity, decreased the percentage of t-BHP-treated cells undergoing apoptosis, and restored glucose consumption in the t-BHP-treated group...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Research
Deepika Tripathi, Veena Mani, Ravi Prakash Pal
Ultra-trace elements or occasionally beneficial elements (OBE) are the new categories of minerals including vanadium (V). The importance of V is attributed due to its multifaceted biological roles, i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism as an insulin-mimetic, antilipemic and a potent stress alleviating agent in diabetes when vanadium is administered at lower doses. It competes with iron for transferrin (binding site for transportation) and with lactoferrin as it is secreted in milk also. The intracellular enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase, causing the dephosphorylation at beta subunit of the insulin receptor, is inhibited by vanadium, thus facilitating the uptake of glucose inside the cell but only in the presence of insulin...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Nathalia F F de Sales, Leandro Silva da Costa, Talita I A Carneiro, Daniela A Minuzzo, Felipe L Oliveira, Lourdes M C Cabral, Alexandre G Torres, Tatiana El-Bacha
Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rita Kiss, Katalin Szabó, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Sándor Somodi, Péter Kovács, Zoltán Szabó, József Németh, Dániel Priksz, Andrea Kurucz, Béla Juhász, Zoltán Szilvássy
In developed, developing and low-income countries alike, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases, the severity of which is substantially a consequence of multiple organ complications that occur due to long-term progression of the disease before diagnosis and treatment. Despite enormous investment into the characterization of the disease, its long-term management remains problematic, with those afflicted enduring significant degradation in quality-of-life. Current research efforts into the etiology and pathogenesis of T2DM, are focused on defining aberrations in cellular physiology that result in development of insulin resistance and strategies for increasing insulin sensitivity, along with downstream effects on T2DM pathogenesis...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haoran Wang, Chen Zhu, Ying Ying, Lingyu Luo, Deqiang Huang, Zhijun Luo
Metformin has been used as a glucose lowering drug for several centuries and is now a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the discovery that it activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduces risk of cancer, metformin has drawn great attentions. Another drug, berberine, extracted from berberis vulgaris L. (root), was an ancient herbal medicine in treating diarrhea. Ongoing experimental and clinical studies have illuminated great potential of berberine in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, cancer growth and inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Achim Dickmanns, Christopher P Zschiedrich, Johannes Arens, Iwan Parfentev, Jan Gundlach, Romina Hofele, Piotr Neumann, Henning Urlaub, Boris Görke, Ralf Ficner, Jorg Stulke
Utilization of energy-rich carbon sources such as glucose is fundamental to the evolutionary success of bacteria. Glucose can be catabolized via glycolysis for feeding the intermediary metabolism. The methylglyoxal synthase MgsA produces methylglyoxal from the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Methylglyoxal is toxic, requiring stringent regulation of MgsA activity. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis , an interaction with the phosphoprotein Crh controls MgsA activity. In the absence of preferred carbon sources, Crh is present in the nonphosphorylated state and binds to and thereby inhibits MgsA...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hong Li, Heather M Byers, Alicia Diaz-Kuan, Miriam B Vos, Patricia L Hall, Silvia Tortorelli, Rani Singh, Matthew B Wallenstein, Meredith Allain, David P Dimmock, Ryan M Farrell, Shawn McCandless, Michael J Gambello
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by aldolase B (ADOLB) deficiency resulting in an inability to metabolize fructose. The toxic accumulation of intermediate fructose-1-phosphate causes multiple metabolic disturbances, including postprandial hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, electrolyte disturbance, and liver/kidney dysfunction. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of exposure and the load of fructose. Some common infant formulas contain fructose in various forms, such as sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Bahendeka Silver, Kaushik Ramaiya, Swai Babu Andrew, Otieno Fredrick, Sarita Bajaj, Sanjay Kalra, Bavuma M Charlotte, Karigire Claudine, Anthony Makhoba
A diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia should be confirmed prior to ordering, dispensing, or administering insulin (A). Insulin is the primary treatment in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (A). Typically, patients with T1DM will require initiation with multiple daily injections at the time of diagnosis. This is usually short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue given 0 to 15 min before meals together with one or more daily separate injections of intermediate or long-acting insulin...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Tingting Ning, Changlong Leng, Lin Chen, Baomiao Ma, Xiaokang Gong
BACKGROUND: Understanding the process of relapse to abused drugs and ultimately developing treatments that can reduce the incidence of relapse remains the primary goal for the study of substance dependence. Therefore, exploring the metabolite characteristics during the relapse stage is valuable. METHODS: A heroin self-administered rat model was employed, and analysis of the1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the characteristic metabolite profile upon reintroduction to the drug after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Wen-Jing Liang, Sheng-Nan Zhou, Mei-Rong Shan, Xue-Qin Wang, Miao Zhang, Yuan Chen, Yun Zhang, Shuang-Xi Wang, Tao Guo
Diabetes mellitus is one of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Whether and how diabetes promotes the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is not fully understood. Here, we show that streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes reduced collagen synthesis, leading to the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaque induced by collar placement around carotid in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe-/- ) mice. These detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on plaque stability were reversed by metformin in vivo without altering the levels of blood glucose and lipids...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Jie Chen, Kelun Li, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic chemicals widely distributed in the environment, but few studies are available on their potential toxicity to rice at metabolic level. Therefore we exposed ten rice (Oryza sativa) varieties to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a predominant congener of PBDEs, in hydroponic solutions with different concentrations. Two varieties that showed different biological effects to BDE-47, YY-9 and LJ-7, were screened as sensitive and tolerant varieties according to changes of morphological and physiological indicators...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Joana Carrola, Ricardo J B Pinto, Maryam Nasirpour, Carmen S R Freire, Ana M Gil, Conceição Santos, Helena Oliveira, Iola F Duarte
The expansion of biomedical and therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) raises the need to further understand their biological effects on human cells. In this work, NMR metabolomics has been applied to reveal the metabolic effects of AgNPs toward human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, which are relevant with respect to nanoparticle accumulation and detoxification. Cellular responses to widely disseminated citrate-coated AgNPs (Cit30) and to emergent biogenic AgNPs prepared using an aqueous plant extract as reducing and stabilizing agent (GS30) have been compared with a view to assess the influence of nanoparticle coating on the metabolic effects produced...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Margarita G Skalnaya, Anatoly V Skalny, Andrey R Grabeklis, Eugeny P Serebryansky, Vasily A Demidov, Alexey A Tinkov
The objective of the present study was to investigate the level of toxic and essential trace elements in hair of adult overweight and obese persons as well as its association with metabolic parameters. Hair trace element levels were assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry in 112 overweight and obese patients and 106 lean controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, uric acid (UA) levels, and cholinesterase (CE) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity were also assessed...
March 1, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Anwar Hussain Phulpoto, Muneer Ahmed Qazi, Ihsan-Ul -Haq, Abdul Rahman Phul, Safia Ahmed, Nisar Ahmed Kanhar
The present study validates the oil-based paint bioremediation potential of Bacillus subtilis NAP1 for ecotoxicological assessment using a three-dimensional multi-species bio-testing model. The model included bioassays to determine phytotoxic effect, cytotoxic effect, and antimicrobial effect of oil-based paint. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of pre- and post-bioremediation samples was also detected to confirm its detoxification. Although, the pre-bioremediation samples of oil-based paint displayed significant toxicity against all the life forms...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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