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Glucose toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545086/cancer-cell-spheroids-are-a-better-screen-for-the-photodynamic-efficiency-of-glycosylated-photosensitizers
#1
Patrícia M R Pereira, Naxhije Berisha, N V S Dinesh K Bhupathiraju, Rosa Fernandes, João P C Tomé, Charles Michael Drain
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) relies on the use of non-toxic photosensitizers that are locally and selectively activated by light to induce cell death or apoptosis through reactive oxygen species generation. The conjugation of porphyrinoids with sugars that target cancer is increasingly viewed as an effective way to increase the selectivity of PDT. To date, in vitro PDT efficacy is mostly screened using two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Compared to monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid cultures have unique spatial distributions of nutrients, metabolites, oxygen and signalling molecules; therefore better mimic in vivo conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540503/hydroxy-al-and-cell-surface-negativity-are-responsible-for-the-enhanced-sensitivity-of-rhodotorula-taiwanensis-to-aluminum-by-increased-medium-ph
#2
Xue Qiang Zhao, Xue Min Bao, Chao Wang, Zuo Yi Xiao, Zhen Min Hu, Chun Li Zheng, Ren Fang Shen
Aluminum (Al) is ubiquitous and toxic to microbes. High Al(3+) concentration and low pH are two key factors responsible for Al toxicity, but our present results contradict this idea. Here, an Al-tolerant yeast strain Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 was incubated in glucose media containing Al with a continuous pH gradient from pH 3.1-4.2. The cells became more sensitive to Al and accumulated more Al when pH increased. Calculations using an electrostatic model Speciation Gouy Chapman Stern indicated that, the increased Al sensitivity of cells was associated with AlOH(2+) and Al(OH) 2(+) rather than Al(3+)...
May 24, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539091/in-silico-identification-of-potential-drug-compound-against-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-by-virtual-screening-and-toxicity-studies-for-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#3
Smrita Singh, Aparajita Mohanty
Diabetic Nephropathy is a serious complication of Diabetes Mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies of Diabetic Nephropathy are based on control of modifiable risks like hypertension, glucose levels, and dyslipidemia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in several metabolic syndromes including Diabetic Nephropathy, besides obesity, insulin insensitivity, dislipidemia, inflammation and hypertension. In the present study, virtual screening of 617 compounds from two different public databases was done against PPAR- γ with an objective to find a possible lead compound...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538683/metabolic-investigations-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Robert Powers, Shulei Lei, Annadurai Anandhan, Darrell D Marshall, Bradley Worley, Ronald L Cerny, Eric D Dodds, Yuting Huang, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Rodrigo Franco
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by fibrillar cytoplasmic aggregates of α-synuclein (i.e., Lewy bodies) and the associated loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Mutations in genes such as α-synuclein (SNCA) account for only 10% of PD occurrences. Exposure to environmental toxicants including pesticides and metals (e.g., paraquat (PQ) and manganese (Mn)) is also recognized as an important PD risk factor. Thus, aging, genetic alterations, and environmental factors all contribute to the etiology of PD...
May 24, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537253/a-synthetic-biochemistry-platform-for-cell-free-production-of-monoterpenes-from-glucose
#5
Tyler P Korman, Paul H Opgenorth, James U Bowie
Cell-free systems designed to perform complex chemical conversions of biomass to biofuels or commodity chemicals are emerging as promising alternatives to the metabolic engineering of living cells. Here we design a system comprises 27 enzymes for the conversion of glucose into monoterpenes that generates both NAD(P)H and ATP in a modified glucose breakdown module and utilizes both cofactors for building terpenes. Different monoterpenes are produced in our system by changing the terpene synthase enzyme. The system is stable for the production of limonene, pinene and sabinene, and can operate continuously for at least 5 days from a single addition of glucose...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536529/activation-of-sirt1-fxr-signaling-pathway-attenuates-triptolide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Jing Yang, Lixin Sun, Lu Wang, Hozeifa M Hassan, Xuan Wang, Phillip B Hylemon, Tao Wang, Huiping Zhou, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has an excellent pharmacological profile of immunosuppression and anti-tumor activities, but its clinical applications are severely restricted due to its severe and cumulative toxicities. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the master bile acid nuclear receptor and plays an important role in maintaining hepatic metabolism homeostasis. Hepatic Sirtuin (Sirt1) is a key regulator of the FXR signaling pathway and hepatic metabolism homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535783/in-vivo-effect-of-commiphora-swynnertonii-ethanolic-extracts-on-trypanosoma-congolense-and-selected-immunological-components-in-mice
#7
Yakob P Nagagi, Richard S Silayo, Claudius Luziga, Eliningaya J Kweka
BACKGROUND: The search for alternative trypanocidal compounds which can be available at affordable price is of paramount importance for control of trypanosomosis in human and animals. The current study evaluates the in vivo activity of ethanolic stem bark extracts on Trypanosoma congolense and selected immunological components in an inbred Swiss albino mouse model. METHODS: Groups of mice infected with T. congolense were treated with the stem bark extracts at a rate of 1000 mg/kg, 1500 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg, twice a day in one set and thrice a day in another setting for three days consecutively...
May 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535465/altered-glycometabolism-in-zebrafish-exposed-to-thifluzamide
#8
Yang Yang, Wenxian Liu, Dongzhi Li, Le Qian, Bin Fu, Chengju Wang
Thifluzamide exerts toxic effects to zebrafish and causes liver mitochondrial damage. To better understand the further mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to a range of thifluzamide concentrations (0, 0.019, 0.19, and 1.90 mg/L) for 28 days. In response to 1.90 mg/L exposure, liver glycogen significantly increased and blood glucose decreased. The expression of genes related to glycometabolism showed corresponding changes. Genes related to mtDNA replication and transcription and genes participating in mitochondrial complexes showed altered expression, which might lead to the inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)...
May 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#9
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529177/senecio-brasiliensis-impairs-eclosion-rate-and-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-in-larvae-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Karen Kich Gomes, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Gabriel da Luz Wallau, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Dennis Guilherme da Costa Silva, Aline Augusti Boligon, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser
Senecio brasilienis (Spreng) Less., is a species native from Brazil, popularly known as "maria mole", and known to induce hepatotoxicity due to its high content of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Despite its toxicity, this plant is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. Considering the antagonizing effects described for S. brasiliensis, we describe here molecular markers involved in the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of S. brasiliensis (HESB) in Drosophila melanogaster. Phytochemical analysis of HESB revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529047/bezafibrate-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-antioxidant-system-disturbance-glial-reactivity-and-neuronal-damage-induced-by-sulfite-administration-in-striatum-of-rats-implications-for-a-possible-therapeutic-strategy-for-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#11
Mateus Grings, Alana Pimentel Moura, Belisa Parmeggiani, Julia Tauna Pletsch, Gabriela Miranda Fernandez Cardoso, Pauline Maciel August, Cristiane Matté, Angela T S Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Sulfite accumulates in tissues of patients affected by sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency, a neurometabolic disease characterized by seizures and progressive encephalopathy, often resulting in early death. We investigated the effects of sulfite on mitochondrial function, antioxidant system, glial reactivity and neuronal damage in rat striatum, as well as the potential protective effects of bezafibrate on sulfite-induced toxicity. Thirty-day-old rats were intrastriatally administered with sulfite (2μmol) or NaCl (2μmol; control) and euthanized 30min after injection for evaluation of biochemical parameters and western blotting, or 7days after injection for analysis of glial reactivity and neuronal damage...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528859/efficacy-side-effects-and-monitoring-of-oral-cyclosporine-in-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#12
Iryna M Crescenze, Barbara Tucky, Jianbo Li, Courtenay Moore, Daniel Shoskes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral Cyclosporine A (CyA) in treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and assess safety using drug level and renal function monitoring. METHODS: Patients with IC/BPS who failed at least 2 prior treatments were enrolled in an open-label study of oral CyA. Medication was started at 3 mg/kg divided twice daily for 3 months. Dose was adjusted based on side effects and drug level measured 2 hours after the morning dose (C2)...
May 18, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528297/biogenic-aldehydes-as-therapeutic-targets-for-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Margaret-Ann M Nelson, Shahid P Baba, Ethan J Andersonc
Aldehydes are continuously formed in biological systems through enzyme-dependent and spontaneous oxidation of lipids, glucose, and primary amines. These highly reactive, biogenic electrophiles can become toxic via covalent modification of proteins, lipids and DNA. Thus, agents that scavenge aldehydes through conjugation have therapeutic value for a number of major cardiovascular diseases. Several commonly-prescribed drugs (e.g., hydralazine) have been shown to have potent aldehyde-conjugating properties which may contribute to their beneficial effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528112/microencapsulation-and-characterization-of-liposomal-vesicles-using-a-supercritical-fluid-process-coupled-with-vacuum-driven-cargo-loading
#14
Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S H Rizvi
A new technique of liposomal microencapsulation, consisting of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion of the supercritical solution and vacuum-driven cargo loading, was successfully developed. It is a continuous flow-through process without usage of any toxic organic solvent. For use as a coating material, the solubility of soy phospholipids in supercritical carbon dioxide was first determined using a dynamic equilibrium system and the data was correlated with the Chrastil model with good agreement...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524080/cereus-sinensis-polysaccharide-and-its-immunomodulatory-properties-in-human-monocytic-cells
#15
Junwen Wu, Xuefei Zhou, Min Zhang, Yun Yao, Juanjuan Han, Kehai Liu
In this study, the extraction conditions of the crude polysaccharide from Cereus sinensis were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum extraction conditions were: a ratio of raw material to water volume of 1:80 (g/mL); an extraction temperature of 72 °C; and an extraction time of 3 h. Then, a purified polysaccharide named Cereus sinensis polysaccharide-1 (CSP-1) was obtained from the crude polysaccharide by the Diethylaminoethyl cellulose-52 (DEAE-52) cellulose chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 column...
May 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522335/comparative-analysis-of-transcriptomic-responses-to-repeated-dose-exposure-to-2-mcpd-and-3-mcpd-in-rat-kidney-liver-and-testis
#16
Thorsten Buhrke, Katharina Schultrich, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and its isomer 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) are heat-induced food contaminants present in oil- and fat-containing foodstuff. Kidney and testes are among the main target organs of 3-MCPD. Almost no data on 2-MCPD toxicity are available. Here, transcriptomic responses following repeated-dose exposure of rats to non-toxic doses of 10 mg/kg body weight per day 2-MCPD or 3-MCPD for 28 days were characterized by microarray analysis of kidney, liver, and testes. 3-MCPD exerted more pronounced effects than 2-MCPD in all organs...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521980/sulphated-polysaccharide-isolated-from-sargassum-vulgare-characterization-and-hypolipidemic-effects
#17
Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Hichem Ben Salah, Neila Jardak, Rim Chaaben, Imed Jribi, Abdelfattah El Feki, Tarak Rebai, Kamel Jamoussi, Noureddine Allouche, Cristophe Blecker, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
A sulphated polysaccharide from brown algae Sargassum vulgare (SVSP) was extracted and examined with respect to chemical, structural characterization and hypolipidemic effects. SVSP consisted mainly of sulphate and total sugars with low levels of lipids and proteins. Its structure was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red spectroscopic, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Allowing us therefore to revealed that SVSP was composed of glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose with XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer and complexities of the spectra reflected its homogeneous structure...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519901/inhibition-of-soil-microbial-activity-by-nitrogen-based-energetic-materials
#18
Roman G Kuperman, Morgan L Minyard, Ronald T Checkai, Geoffrey I Sunahara, Sylvie Rocheleau, Sabine G Dodard, Louise Paquet, Jalal Hawari
We investigated individual toxicities of nitrogen-based energetic materials (EMs) 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT); 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT); and nitroglycerin (NG) on microbial activity in Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) soil, which has physicochemical characteristics that support "very high" qualitative relative bioavailability for organic chemicals. Batches of SSL soil for basal respiration (BR) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR) assays were separately amended with individual EMs or acetone carrier control...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499871/synthesis-of-a-new-deoxyglucose-derivative-modified-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe-for-tumor-diagnosis
#19
Chunlong Sun, Wen Du, Baoqin Wang, Zhigang Yao, Junhua Liu, Jun Wang, Wenjun Xie, Tao Wu, Yanhui Fan, Hongjun Yang
Malignant neoplasms exhibit an elevated rate of glycolysis and a high demand for glucose over normal cells. This characteristic can be exploited for in vivo imaging and tumor targeting examined. In this manuscript, we describe the synthesis of near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome IR-822-labeled 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) for optical imaging of tumors in mice. NIR fluorescent dye IR-820 was subsequently conjugated with 3-Mercaptopropionic acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose to form IR-822-DG. The cell experiments and acute toxicity studies demonstrated the low toxicity of IR-822-DG to normal cells/tissues...
May 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498446/synergistic-protective-effect-of-fty720-and-vitamin-e-against-simulated-cerebral-ischemia-in-vitro
#20
Xin Pang, Xuening Hou
The purpose of the present study was to explore the combination effect of FTY720 and vitamin E on cerebral ischemia. Astrocytes were isolated from newborn Sprague‑Dawley rats and were subjected to FTY720, vitamin E, or combination of the two. The astrocyte cultures were then exposed to oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate an ischemic model in vitro. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and cell apoptosis were detected following 12 h of exposure to OGD. In addition, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑1β, total antioxidant capacity, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)‑1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)‑1, chemokine (C‑X‑C motif) ligand (CXCL)‑10, heme oxygenase (HO)‑1 and superoxide dismutase (SOD)‑1 were measured...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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