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Glucose toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318734/effects-of-acetone-cyanohydrin-a-derivative-of-cassava-on-motor-activity-and-kidney-and-liver-function-in-wistar-rats
#1
E Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, C J Rosas-Jarquín, A Vázquez-Luna, R Díaz-Sobac, J F Rodríguez-Landa
INTRODUCTION: Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) is a toxic substance present in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) which results from enzymatic hydrolysis of linamarin. Long-term consumption is associated with 2 neurological disorders: konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy. Previous studies have evaluated behavioural alterations linked to ACH consumption, but the toxic effects of this substance on physiological processes remain unknown. METHOD: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=8 per group): a vehicle group (0...
March 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314935/a-disease-with-a-sweet-tooth-exploring-the-warburg-effect-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Anna Atlante, Lidia de Bari, Antonella Bobba, Giuseppina Amadoro
After more than 80 years from the revolutionary discoveries of Otto Warburg, who observed high glucose dependency, with increased glycolysis and lactate production regardless of oxygen availability in most cancer cells, the 'Warburg effect' returns to the fore in neuronal cells affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Indeed, it seems that, in the mild phase of AD, neuronal cells "prefer" to use the energetically inefficient method of burning glucose by glycolysis, as in cancer, proving to become resistant to β-amyloid (Aβ)-dependent apoptosis...
March 17, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306532/evaluation-of-the-sub-chronic-toxicity-profile-of-the-corm-of-xanthosoma-sagittifolium-on-hematology-and-biochemistry-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#3
Olayinka A Oridupa, Oluyemisi F Folasire, Adedotun J Owolabi
Background Hematological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus and probable reversal were assessed in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats fed with varied percentages of Xanthosoma sagittifolium corm feed (Xs). The changes were compared to normoglycemic rats and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. Methods The study had eight groups in all with group 8 (control) consisting of five normoglycemic rats fed with normal rat pellets (Nrp). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan to normoglycemic rats...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303894/an-excessive-increase-in-glutamate-contributes-to-glucose-toxicity-in-%C3%AE-cells-via-activation-of-pancreatic-nmda-receptors-in-rodent-diabetes
#4
Xiao-Ting Huang, Chen Li, Xiang-Ping Peng, Jia Guo, Shao-Jie Yue, Wei Liu, Fei-Yan Zhao, Jian-Zhong Han, Yan-Hong Huang, Yang-Li, Qing-Mei Cheng, Zhi-Guang Zhou, Chen Chen, Dan-Dan Feng, Zi-Qiang Luo
In the nervous system, excessive activation of NMDA receptors causes neuronal injury. Although activation of NMDARs has been proposed to contribute to the progress of diabetes, little is known about the effect of excessive long-term activation of NMDARs on β-cells, especially under the challenge of hyperglycemia. Here we thoroughly investigated whether endogenous glutamate aggravated β-cell dysfunction under chronic exposure to high-glucose via activation of NMDARs. The glutamate level was increased in plasma of diabetic mice or patients and in the supernatant of β-cell lines after treatment with high-glucose for 72 h...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302722/amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-transiently-inhibit-amp-activated-kinase-and-cause-metabolic-defects-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Gisele S Seixas da Silva, Helen M Melo, Mychael V Lourenco, Natalia de M Lyra E Silva, Marcelo B de Carvalho, Soniza Alves-Leon, Jorge M de Souza, William L Klein, Wagner S da-Silva, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a key player in energy sensing and metabolic reprogramming under cellular energy restriction. Several studies have linked impaired AMPK function to peripheral metabolic diseases such as diabetes. However, the impact of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), on AMPK function and downstream effects of altered AMPK activity on neuronal metabolism have been investigated only recently. Here, we report the impact of A β oligomers (AβOs), synaptotoxins that accumulate in AD brains, on neuronal AMPK activity...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301981/alterations-of-hepatocyte-function-with-free-radical-generators-and-reparation-or-prevention-with-coffee-polyphenols
#6
Amel Saidi Merzouk, Merzouk Hafida, Amel Medjdoub, Bouchra Loukidi, Sabri Cherrak, Sid Ahmed Merzouk, Mourad Elhabiri
Liver diseases are linked in the majority of cases to oxidative stress that antioxidants could neutralize with reducing liver injury. Chlorogenic acid, a coffee polyphenol, possesses antioxidant prosperities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro preventive and corrective effects of cholorogenic acid in hepatocyte toxicity induced by free radicals. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats. To determine corrective effects and reparation, cells were first exposed to two free radical generators (Hydrogen peroxide/Iron sulfate for hydroxyl radical formation, and Phenazine methosulfate/Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for superoxide anion formation) for 12H and thereafter treated by chlorogenic acid (1 and 10 µM final concentration) for another 12H...
March 16, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299204/the-coadministration-of-unoxidized-and-oxidized-desi-ghee-ameliorates-the-toxic-effects-of-thermally-oxidized-ghee-in-rabbits
#7
Alam Zeb, Islam Uddin
Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295488/identification-of-contaminant-interferences-which-cause-positive-urine-reagent-test-strip-reactions-in-a-cage-setting-for-the-laboratory-housed-nonhuman-primate-beagle-dog-and-sprague-dawley-rat
#8
William D Siska, Dennis J Meyer, Albert E Schultze, Catherine Brandoff
BACKGROUND: A high incidence of unexplained positive urine reagent test strip reactions was observed in healthy, untreated laboratory-housed nonhuman primates, Beagle dogs, and Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposure of urine to cage pan contaminants was the suspected cause of the positive reactions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify cage pan contaminants which could cause positive reagent test strip reactions. METHODS: Contaminated urine was simulated by exposing water samples to cage pan contaminants, including cleaning solutions, feces from nonhuman primates, Beagle dogs, and Sprague-Dawley rats, certified laboratory animal diets, and dietary enrichments (vegetables, fruits, and food treats)...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286922/should-response-adapted-therapy-now-be-the-standard-of-care-for-advanced-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Peter Johnson, Jemma Longley
The choice of treatment for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma has traditionally been made using an assessment of the baseline risk factors and a judgement of the balance between efficacy and toxicity for the group in question. The use of functional imaging with 2-(18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) early in the course of therapy offers a way to make treatment better adjusted to the most important feature of Hodgkin's lymphoma: the response to therapy. Recent studies have shown that excellent results can be achieved by using early FDG-PET to modulate therapy, with escalation for those with an unsatisfactory response and treatment reduction for those with the most chemosensitive disease...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286097/effect-of-the-periodic-properties-of-toxic-stress-on-the-oscillatory-behaviour-of-glycolysis-in-yeast-evidence-of-a-toxic-effect-frequency
#10
C André, F Gagné
Starving and nondividing yeast cells induce oscillations in the of the electron donor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) levels in a cyclic and wave-like manner for over 90min. Yeast suspensions were used to examine the toxic effects of contaminants on the cyclic behaviour of metabolite changes during anaerobic glycolysis. The cyclic behaviour NADH levels in yeast cell suspensions starved for 2 to 5h was studied after the addition of 10mM glucose for 5min followed by 10mM KCN to block aerobic glycolysis...
March 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279180/primaquine-thiazolidinones-block-malaria-transmission-and-development-of-the-liver-exoerythrocytic-forms
#11
Anna Caroline C Aguiar, Flávio Jr B Figueiredo, Patrícia D Neuenfeldt, Tony H Katsuragawa, Bruna B Drawanz, Wilson Cunico, Photini Sinnis, Fidel Zavala, Antoniana U Krettli
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is an anti-malarial used to prevent Plasmodium vivax relapses and malaria transmission. However, PQ metabolites cause haemolysis in patients deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Fifteen PQ-thiazolidinone derivatives, synthesized through one-post reactions from primaquine, arenealdehydes and mercaptoacetic acid, were evaluated in parallel in several biological assays, including ability to block malaria transmission to mosquitoes. RESULTS: All primaquine derivatives (PQ-TZs) exhibited lower cell toxicity than primaquine; none caused haemolysis to normal or G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes in vitro...
March 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277987/endoc-%C3%AE-h1-cells-display-increased-sensitivity-to-sodium-palmitate-when-cultured-in-dmem-f12-medium
#12
Camilla Krizhanovskii, Hjalti Kristinsson, Andris Elksnis, Xuan Wang, Hamid Gavali, Peter Bergsten, Raphael Scharfmann, Nils Welsh
Aims - Human pancreatic islets are known to die in response to the free fatty acid of sodium palmitate when cultured in vitro. This is in contrast to EndoC-βH1 cells, which in our hands are not sensitive to the cell death-inducing effects sodium palmitate, making these cells seemingly unsuitable for lipotoxicity studies. However, the EndoC-βH1 cells are routinely cultured in a nutrient mixture based on Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), which may not be the optimal choice for studies dealing with lipotoxicity...
February 28, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276708/the-effect-of-carnosine-on-methylglyoxal-induced-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#13
Zülbiye Yılmaz, Esra Betül Kalaz, A Fatih Aydın, Merva Soluk-Tekkeşin, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Müjdat Uysal, Necla Koçak-Toker
Methylglyoxal (MG) is generated from glycolytic metabolites, lipid peroxidation, glucose autooxidation and protein glycation. It is a prooxidant inducing oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). Effect of carnosine (CAR) as an antioxidant on toxicity due to MG has generated interest. In this study, rats were given incrementally increased doses (100-300 mg/kg) of MG in drinking water for ten weeks. CAR (250 mg/kg i.p.) was administered with MG. Plasma thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and AGE levels were elevated by MG, and CAR decreased PC, AOPP and AGE levels...
March 6, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274869/effective-inhibition-of-protein-glycation-by-combinatorial-usage-of-limonene-and-aminoguanidine-through-differential-and-synergistic-mechanisms
#14
Madhav M Joglekar, Laxman N Bavkar, Srinivas Sistla, Akalpita U Arvindekar
Protein glycation is a major mechanism for establishing secondary complication in diabetes mellitus. Effective inhibition of this process can prevent progression of the disorder into secondary complications. Aminoguanidine (AMG) and limonene (LM) are known protein glycation inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate their differential mechanisms of action and to study whether combinatorial therapy can act synergistically and lower dosage, and thereby lower toxicity in treatment of secondary complications in diabetes...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274123/a-glucose-sensing-toggle-switch-for-autonomous-high-productivity-genetic-control
#15
William Henry Bothfeld, Grace Kapov, Keith Tyo
Many biosynthetic strategies are coupled to growth, which is inherently limited, as (1) excess feedstock (e.g., sugar) may be converted to biomass, not product, (2) essential genes must be maintained and (3) growth toxicity must be managed. A decoupled growth and production phase strategy could avoid these issues. We have developed a toggle switch that uses glucose sensing to enable this two-phase strategy. Temporary glucose starvation precisely and autonomously activates product expression in rich or minimal media, obviating the requirement for expensive inducers...
March 8, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273963/benefits-of-alcohol-on-arsenic-toxicity-in-rats
#16
Purnima Singh, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Deepak Passi, Jaya Bharti
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271465/porcine-islet-xenografts-a-clinical-source-of-%C3%A3-cell-grafts
#17
REVIEW
Bassem F Salama, Gregory S Korbutt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is medical and social burden affecting millions around the world. Despite intensive therapy, insulin fails to maintain adequate glucose homeostasis and often results in episodes of hypoglycemic unawareness. Islet transplantation is a propitious replacement therapy, and incremental improvements in islet isolation and immunosuppressive drugs have made this procedure a feasible option. Shortage of donors, graft loss, and toxic immunosuppressive agents are few of many hurdles against making human allogenic islet transplantation a routine procedure...
March 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270155/non-invasive-continuous-monitoring-of-pro-oxidant-effects-of-engineered-nanoparticles-on-aquatic-microorganisms
#18
REVIEW
Christian Santschi, Nadia Von Moos, Volodymyr B Koman, Vera I Slaveykova, Paul Bowen, Olivier J F Martin
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are key drivers for the development of highly sophisticated new technologies. As all new attainments, the rapidly increasing used of ENMs raise concerns about their safety for the environment and humans. There is growing evidence showing that if engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, there is a possibility that they could cause harm to aquatic microorganisms. Among the divers effects triggering their toxicity the ability of ENMs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of oxidizing biomolecules is currently considered a central mechanism of toxicity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269785/the-link-between-type-2-diabetes-and-neurodegeneration-roles-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-amylin-and-tau-proteins
#19
Prashant Bharadwaj, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Milindu Liyanapathirana, Philip Newsholme, Lars Ittner, Paul Fraser, Giuseppe Verdile
A wealth of evidence indicates a strong link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, T2D can exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. Brain atrophy, reduced cerebral glucose metabolism, and central nervous system insulin resistance are features of both AD and T2D. The T2D phenotype (glucose dyshomeostasis, insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling) also promotes AD pathology, namely accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau and can induce other aspects of neuronal degeneration including inflammatory and oxidative processes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266275/molecular-basis-of-human-diseases-and-targeted-therapy-based-on-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-er-stress-induced-signaling-pathways
#20
I Majsterek, J Alan Diehl, D Pytel, A Nowak, W Rozpędek
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) provides a conserved protein quality control system and plays a fundamental role in cell growth and homeostasis. Disturbances in the ER homeostasis may originate especially from hypoxia, glucose deficiency, presence of mutant proteins, that directly impair protein folding capacity and after deposition of unfolded and misfolded proteins within ER lumen trigger ER stress conditions. That subsequently activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) branches, which has a dual pro-adaptive or pro-apoptotic role dependently on severity and time of duration of ER stress conditions...
March 6, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
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