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Glucose toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792931/engineering-the-production-of-dipicolinic-acid-in-e-coli
#1
Maria K McClintock, Grant W Fahnhorst, Thomas R Hoye, Kechun Zhang
Dicarboxylic acids, such as the phthalic acids and their derivatives, are monomeric components in several important polyesters and polyamides. In most cases, these compounds are derived from fossil fuels and are not easily biodegradable. Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a biologically derived aromatic di-acid that has a similar structure to isophthalic acid. Furthermore, DPA has been shown to make polyesters, is readily biodegradable, and is non-toxic. DPA is naturally produced by Bacillus and Clostridium species during sporulation and can comprise up to 15% of the dry weight...
May 21, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792173/impact-of-growth-ph-and-glucose-concentrations-on-the-cody-regulatory-network-in-streptococcus-salivarius
#2
Jianing Geng, Szu-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Ying Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Songnian Hu, Yi-Ywan M Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius is an abundant isolate of the human oral microbiota. Since both pH and glucose availability fluctuate frequently in the oral cavity, the goal of this study was to investigate regulation by CodY, a conserved pleiotropic regulator of Gram positive bacteria, in response to these two signals. The chemostat culture system was employed to precisely control the growth parameters, and the transcriptomes of wild-type S. salivarius 57.I and its CodY-null derivative (ΔcodY) grown at pH 7 and 5...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788325/ancestral-tcdd-exposure-induces-multigenerational-histologic-and-transcriptomic-alterations-in-gonads-of-male-zebrafish
#3
Danielle N Meyer, Bridget B Baker, Tracie R Baker
TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), the classic AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) agonist, is a potent environmental toxicant and endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) with known developmental toxicity in humans, rodents, and fish. Early life exposure to some EDCs, including TCDD, is linked to the occurrence of adult-onset and multigenerational disease. Previous work exposing juvenile F0 zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 50 ppt (parts per trillion) TCDD during reproductive development has shown male-mediated transgenerational decreases in fertility (F0-F2) and histological and transcriptomic alterations in F0 testes...
May 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786669/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibition-and-glucose-uptake-potentials-of-mulberrofuran-g-albanol-b-and-kuwanon-g-from-root-bark-of-morus-alba-l-in-insulin-resistant-hepg2-cells-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#4
Pradeep Paudel, Ting Yu, Su Hui Seong, Eun Bi Kuk, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and has become a major health problem across the world. The root bark of Morus alba L. is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment and management of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory potentials of three principle components, mulberrofuran G ( 1 ), albanol B ( 2 ), and kuwanon G ( 3 ) in M. alba root bark against diabetes, establish their enzyme kinetics, carry out a molecular docking simulation, and demonstrate the glucose uptake activity in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783758/investigation-of-daphnia-magna-sub-lethal-exposure-to-organophosphate-esters-in-the-presence-of-dissolved-organic-matter-using-%C3%A2-h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#5
Vera Kovacevic, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are frequently detected in aquatic environments. Hydrophobic OPEs with high octanol-water partition coefficients (Log KOW ) will likely sorb to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and consequently alter OPE bioavailability and sub-lethal toxicity. ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to evaluate how DOM (5 mg organic carbon/L) alters the metabolic response of Daphnia magna exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of three individual OPEs with varying hydrophobicity...
May 19, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783198/toxicity-assessment-of-metal-oxide-nano-pollutants-on-tomato-solanum-lycopersicon-a-study-on-growth-dynamics-and-plant-cell-death
#6
Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Javed Musarrat
The present study for the first time demonstrated the interactions of metal oxide (MO) nano-pollutants (CuO and Al2 O3 -NPs) with tissues and cellular DNA of tomato plants grown in soil sand: silt: clay (667:190:143) and Hoagland-hydroponic system and assessed the hazardous effects of NPs on cell physiology and biochemistry. Results of SEM equipped with EDX revealed attachment of variably shaped CuO-NPs (18 nm) and Al2 O3 -NPs (21 nm) on roots, and internalization followed by translocation in plants by ICP-MS and TEM...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781726/in-vitro-analysis-of-glucose-and-quercetin-effects-on-m-tor-and-nrf-2-expression-in-hepg2-cell-line-diabetes-and-cancer-connection
#7
Amir Yarahmadi, Fatemeh Khademi, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Fatemeh Zal
Some types of cancers show a strong relationship with diabetes and play a central role in mortality in the patient population suffering from diabetes mellitus. In this study, HepG2 cells have been used to investigate the toxic effects of hyperglycemia and/or quercetin (Q) on mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) expression as central molecules involved in cancer. HepG2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of glucose (5.5, 30, and 50 mM) and/or Q (25 µM) for 48 and 72 h...
May 21, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780974/metformin-targets-glucose-metabolism-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
R S Wahdan-Alaswad, S M Edgerton, H S Salem, A D Thor
Metformin is the most widely administered anti-diabetic agent worldwide. In patients receiving metformin for metabolic syndrome or diabetes, it reduces the incidence and improves the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients. We have previously shown that metformin is particularly potent against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), with a reduction of proliferation, oncogenicity and motility, inhibition of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis. These BCs are well recognized to be highly dependent on glucose/glucosamine (metabolized through anaerobic glycolysis) and lipids, which are metabolized for the production of energy and cellular building blocks to sustain a high rate of proliferation...
2018: Journal of Oncology Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774523/acute-and-subacute-antidiabetic-studies-of-enp-9-a-new-1-5-diarylpyrazole-derivative
#9
Eduardo Hernández-Vázquez, Sandra Young-Peralta, Litzia Cerón-Romero, Sara García-Jiménez, Samuel Estrada-Soto
OBJECTIVES: To explore the antihyperglycaemic and antidiabetic effects and to determine the acute toxicity of 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (ENP-9). METHODS: The antihyperglycaemic effect of ENP-9 (50 mg/kg) was determined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Also, the acute (16, 50 and 160 mg/kg) and subacute (50 mg/kg/day for 10 days) antidiabetic effects of ENP-9 were determined. After subacute treatment, blood samples were analysed to determine glucose and lipid profiles...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768876/protection-by-neostigmine-and-atropine-against-brain-and-liver-injury-induced-by-acute-malathion-exposure
#10
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman R Youness, Reham Shehab ElNemr Esmail, Nadia A Mohammed, Yasser A Khadrawy, Amany A Sleem, Amany Mamdouh Abdulaziz
We examined the effect of treatment with neostigmine alone or with atropine on brain oxidative stress and on brain and liver tissue damage following acute malathion toxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with malathion 150 mg/kg along with neostigmine (200 or 400 μg/kg) or neostigmine (200 μg/kg) + atropine (1 mg/kg) and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that compared with the saline group, malathion resulted in (i) higher brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (46.4% and 86.2%); (ii) decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH) (67...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763682/melatonin-attenuates-arsenic-induced-nephropathy-via-the-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-signaling-cascades-in-mice
#11
Sayanta Dutta, Sukanya Saha, Sushweta Mahalanobish, Pritam Sadhukhan, Parames C Sil
Arsenic is a potent inducer of several acute and chronic nephrotoxic disorders. It promotes deleterious phenomenon like oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death and altered glucose uptake leading to distorted kidney homeostasis that end up in chronic kidney disease. This study investigated the possible protective role of melatonin; a natural antioxidant produced by the pineal gland, against arsenic induced nephrotoxicity. Melatonin successfully ameliorated arsenic induced renal toxicity both in in vitro and in vivo models...
May 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762853/caffeine-induces-metformin-anticancer-effect-on-fibrosarcoma-in-hamsters
#12
D J Popović, D Lalošević, D Miljković, K J Popović, I Čapo, J K Popović
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of metformin and caffeine on fibrosarcoma in hamsters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes, weighing approximately 100 g, were randomly allocated to 3 experimental and 2 control groups, with a minimum of 6 animals per group. 2 x 106 BHK-21/C13 cells in 1 ml were injected subcutaneously into the animals' back in 4 groups. The first experimental group started peroral treatment with metformin 500 mg/kg daily, the second with caffeine 100 mg/kg daily and the third with a combination of metformin 500 mg/kg and caffeine 100 mg/kg daily, via a gastric probe 3 days before tumor inoculation...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760380/a-new-inhibitor-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-blocks-pentose-phosphate-pathway-and-suppresses-malignant-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-vivo
#13
Luigi Mele, Francesca Paino, Federica Papaccio, Tarik Regad, David Boocock, Paola Stiuso, Angela Lombardi, Davide Liccardo, Gabriella Aquino, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra, Clare Coveney, Marcella La Noce, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Michele Caraglia, Virginia Tirino, Vincenzo Desiderio
Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major glucose metabolism pathway, which has a fundamental role in cancer growth and metastasis. Even though PPP blockade has been pointed out as a very promising strategy against cancer, effective anti-PPP agents are not still available in the clinical setting. Here we demonstrate that the natural molecule polydatin inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the key enzyme of PPP. Polydatin blocks G6PD causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species and strong increase of endoplasmic reticulum stress...
May 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755708/growth-and-endocrine-function-in-tunisian-thalassemia-major-patients
#14
Naouel Guirat Dhouib, Monia Ben Khaled, Monia Ouederni, Habib Besbes, Ridha Kouki, Fethi Mellouli, Mohamed Bejaoui
β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is among the most common hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient's survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity in various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. This single center investigation enrolled 28 β-TM patients (16 males, 12 females) regularly transfused with packed red cell since early years of life...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754612/development-of-extremely-stable-dual-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-for-effective-colorimetric-detection-of-clenbuterol-and-ractopamine-in-human-urine-samples
#15
Turibius Simon, Muthaiah Shellaiah, Perpectual Steffi, Kien Wen Sun, Fu-Hsiang Ko
New glutamic acid (Glu) and polyethylenimine (PE) functionalized ultra-stable gold nanoparticles (PE-Glu-AuNPs) were developed via a simple NaBH4 reduction method. The low toxicity and biocompatibility of PE-Glu-AuNPs were confirmed via an MTT assay in Raw 264.7 cells. Excitingly, PE-Glu-AuNPs were found to be extremely stable at room temperature up to six months and were utilized in an effective colorimetric naked eye assay of clenbuterol (CLB) and ractopamine (RCT) at pH 5. It was found that the selective assay of CLB and RCT is not affected by any other interferences (such as alanine, phenylalanine, NaCl, CaCl2 , threonine, cysteine, glycine, glucose, urea and salbutamol)...
September 6, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754000/changes-in-markers-of-liver-function-in-relation-to-changes-in-perfluoroalkyl-substances-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Samira Salihovic, Jordan Stubleski, Anna Kärrman, Anders Larsson, Tove Fall, Lars Lind, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data. METHODS: We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
May 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753610/improvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-murine-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-high-glucose-and-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-expressions-in-macrophages-by-silymarin
#17
Chun-Ping Lu, Chien-Yu Huang, Szu-Hsuan Wang, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tzu-Hua Wu
Macrophages and inflammasome pathway are involved in high-glucose toxicity and development of insulin resistance. Silymarin (SMR) was known to modulate glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether SMR possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic-like knockout mice (Hnf-1αkin/- /Ins.cre mice) with insulin resistance and also unclear how SMR regulates LPS induced stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines under stresses of high glucose (HG) or NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753069/engineering-a-short-aldolase-based-pathway-for-r-1-3-butanediol-production-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Kayla Nemr, Jonas E N Müller, Jeong Chan Joo, Pratish Gawand, Ruhi Choudhary, Burton Mendonca, Shuyi Lu, Xiuyan Yu, Alexander F Yakunin, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan
Microbial processes can produce a wide range of compounds; however, producing complex and long chain hydrocarbons remains a challenge. Aldol condensation offers a direct route to synthesize these challenging chemistries and can be catalyzed by microbes using aldolases. Deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) condenses aldehydes and/or ketones to β-hydroxyaldehydes, which can be further converted to value-added chemicals such as a precursor to cholesterol-lowering drugs. Here, we implement a short, aldolase-based pathway in Escherichia coli to produce (R)-1,3-BDO from glucose, an essential component of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics...
May 9, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753025/identification-and-efficacy-of-glycine-serine-and-threonine-metabolism-in-potentiating-kanamycin-mediated-killing-of-edwardsiella-piscicida
#19
Jin-Zhou Ye, Xiang-Min Lin, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Yu-Bin Su, Wan-Xin Li, Far-Man Ali, Jun Zheng, Bo Peng
We previously showed that glucose potentiated kanamycin to kill multidrug-resistant Edwardsiella piscicida through activation of the TCA cycle. However, whether other regulatory mechanism is involved requires further investigation. By quantitative proteomics technology, iTRAQ, we systematically mapped the altered proteins in the presence of glucose and identified 94 differentially expressed proteins. The analysis of the altered proteins by pathways, amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism were enriched. And the most significantly altered eight amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, glycine, serine and threonine were investigated for their potentiation of kanamycin to kill EIB202, where glycine, serine and threonine showed the strongest efficacy than the others...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751245/paracetamol-toxicity-and-microbial-utilization-pseudomonas-moorei-kb4-as-a-case-study-for-exploring-degradation-pathway
#20
Joanna Żur, Danuta Wojcieszyńska, Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek, Ariel Marchlewicz, Urszula Guzik
Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, is currently one of the most emerging pollutants worldwide. Besides its wide prevalence in the literature only several bacterial strains able to degrade this compound have been described. In this study, we isolated six new bacterial strains able to remove paracetamol. The isolated strains were identified as the members of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas genera and characterized phenotypically and biochemically using standard methods...
May 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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