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Alpha Hydroxybutyrate

Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
Ya Xiao, Yuan Jing, Jie-Yu Chen, Fei Li, Jing-Ru Cheng, Jian-Lu Bi, Ren Luo, Xiao-Shan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Guifu Dihuang Wan (GFDHW) in the treatment of yang deficiency and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Sixty-two participants without diseases were randomized into control group (n=31) and experimental group (n=31) and were given lifestyle intervention additional GFDHW treatment for a month. NMR technology was used for metabonomics analysis. RESULTS: Intervention with GFDHW resulted in significantly decreased conversion scores of yang deficiency in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
David T Szabo, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan Sumner, Linda S Birnbaum
BACKGROUND: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant added to building insulation foams, electronics, and textiles. HBCD is a commercial mixture (CM-HBCD) composed of three main stereoisomers: α-HBCD (10%), β-HBCD (10%), and γ-HBCD (80%). A shift from the dominant stereoisomer γ-HBCD to α-HBCD is detected in humans and wildlife. OBJECTIVES: Considering CM-HBCD has been implicated in neurodevelopment and endocrine disruption, with expected metabolism perturbations, we performed metabolomics on mice serum obtained during a window-of-developmental neurotoxicity to draw correlations between early-life exposures and developmental outcomes and to predict health risks...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nikolaos Nikolaou, Charlotte J Green, Pippa J Gunn, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
Maryam Zamani, George C diCenzo, Branislava Milunovic, Turlough M Finan
We report that the smb20752 gene of the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is a novel symbiotic gene required for full N2 -fixation. Deletion of smb20752 resulted in lower nitrogenase activity and smaller nodules without impacting overall nodule morphology. Orthologs of smb20752 were present in all alpha and beta rhizobia, including the ngr_b20860 gene of Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234. A ngr_b20860 mutant formed Fix(-) determinate nodules that developed normally to a late stage of the symbiosis on the host plants Macroptilium atropurpureum and Vigna unguiculata...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Prashant K Sarswat, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Michael L Free
Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent or delay progression of early-stage type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Unfortunately, tests such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)/fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone fail to diagnose or miscategorize up to 40% of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or frank diabetes based on the rarely utilized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The serum metabolite alpha-hydroxybutyrate (AHB) is increasingly recognized as a reliable IGT and diabetes predictor, and can be measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Abdelilah Arredouani, Matteo Stocchero, Nicola Culeddu, Julia El-Sayed Moustafa, Jean Tichet, Beverley Balkau, Thierry Brousseau, Marco Manca, Mario Falchi
Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that a low copy number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high- and low-copy number carriers. We analyzed, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low-AMY1 copies (LAs: four or fewer copies; n = 50) or high-AMY1 copies (HAs: eight or more copies; n = 50)...
November 2016: Diabetes
A Abuelo, V Alves-Nores, J Hernandez, R Muiño, J L Benedito, C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. HYPOTHESIS: Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. ANIMALS: Ten late-pregnant Holstein cows entering their 2nd to 5th lactation...
May 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
S Da Silva, L G Cal-Pereyra, A Benech, J Acosta-Dibarrat, M J Martin, M C Abreu, S Perini, J R González-Montaña
Ovine pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder affecting sheep in their last 6 weeks of pregnancy as a result of their inability to maintain adequate energy homoeostasis. Different alternative treatments are available with variable results. The aim of this research was to evaluate a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) stimulant as an alternative to treat clinical pregnancy toxaemia. Thirty-three adult sheep, with known gestation date and carrying a single foetus, were fasted from day 130 of gestation until animals showed clinical disease...
October 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Maja M Grabacka, Anna Wilk, Anna Antonczyk, Paula Banks, Emilia Walczyk-Tytko, Matthew Dean, Malgorzata Pierzchalska, Krzysztof Reiss
Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hong-ye Zhang, Jin-chun Lu, Rui-xiang Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations of 24 biochemical markers in the seminal plasma with routine semen parameters. METHODS: According to the WHO5 standards, we analyzed the routine semen parameters of 66 subfertile men, including the semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, and the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PR). Based on the calibration and quality control measures and using an automatic biochemistry analyzer or electrolyte analyzer, we detected 24 biochemical markers in the seminal plasma of the patients, including total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb), uric acid (UA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alpha hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (αHBDH), adenosine deaminase (ADA), glucose (Glu), triglyeride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), K+, Na+, Cl- , Ca, Mg, and phosphorus (P)...
December 2015: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Min Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Qi Hui, Lin Lei, Xiliang Du, Wenwen Gao, Renhe Zhang, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In dairy cows, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) is utilized as precursors of de novo synthesized fatty acids in mammary gland. Ketotic cows are characterized by excessive negative energy balance (NEB), which can further increase the blood BHBA concentration. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein1 (SREBP1) and cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector α (Cidea) play crucial roles in lipid synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that BHBA could stimulate SREBP1/Cidea pathway to increase milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yin Shan Jiao, Yuan Hui Liu, Hui Yan, En Tao Wang, Chang Fu Tian, Wen Xin Chen, Bao Lin Guo, Wen Feng Chen
In present study, we report our extensive survey on the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with Sophora flavescens, a sophocarpidine (matrine)-containing medicinal legume. We additionally investigated the cross nodulation, infection pattern, light and electron microscopies of root nodule sections of S. flavescens infected by various rhizobia. Seventeen genospecies of rhizobia belonging to five genera with seven types of symbiotic nodC genes were found to nodulate S. flavescens in natural soils...
December 2015: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zhangjian Chen, Yun Wang, Lin Zhuo, Shi Chen, Lin Zhao, Xianguo Luan, Haifang Wang, Guang Jia
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage...
December 3, 2015: Toxicology Letters
Fashui Hong, Ling Wang, Xiaohong Yu, Yingjun Zhou, Jie Hong, Lei Sheng
Currently, impacts of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TiO2 NPs induce myocarditis and its underlying molecular mechanism in the cardiac inflammation in mice. Mice were exposed to TiO2 NPs for 6 months; biochemical parameters of serum and expression of Th1-related and Th2-related cytokines in the heart were investigated. The results showed that TiO2 NP exposure resulted in cardiac lesions coupling with pulmonary inflammation; increases of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), C-reaction protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels; and a reduction of nitric oxide (NOx) level in the serum...
December 2015: Nanoscale Research Letters
Elemer Szabadi
The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by the loss of orexinergic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus. A troublesome symptom of narcolepsy is cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle tone in response to strong emotions. It can be alleviated by antidepressants and sodium oxybate (γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)). It is likely that the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is involved since it is essential for the maintenance of muscle tone, and ceases to fire during cataplectic attacks. Furthermore, alpha-2 adrenoceptors proliferate in the LC in cataplexy, probably due to 'heterologous denervation supersensitivity' resulting from the loss/weakening of the orexinergic input to the LC...
June 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
K Wiese Simonsen, H M E Edvardsen, G Thelander, I Ojanperä, S Thordardottir, L V Andersen, P Kriikku, V Vindenes, D Christoffersen, G J M Delaveris, J Frost
This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies...
March 2015: Forensic Science International
C T Schäff, D Rohrbeck, J Steinhoff-Wagner, E Kanitz, H Sauerwein, R M Bruckmaier, H M Hammon
Catecholamines and glucocorticoids are involved in fetal maturation of organ systems to prepare the fetus for extrauterine life. Calves, especially when born preterm, depend on function of the adrenergic system and the glucocorticoid axis to adapt energy metabolism for the neonatal period. We tested the hypothesis that hepatic glucocorticoid and α1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves are involved in adaptation of energy metabolism around birth and that respective binding capacities depend on stage of maturation during the neonatal period...
February 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Brian G Drew, Habib Hamidi, Zhenqi Zhou, Claudio J Villanueva, Susan A Krum, Anna C Calkin, Brian W Parks, Vicent Ribas, Nareg Y Kalajian, Jennifer Phun, Pedram Daraei, Heather R Christofk, Sylvia C Hewitt, Kenneth S Korach, Peter Tontonoz, Aldons J Lusis, Dennis J Slamon, Sara A Hurvitz, Andrea L Hevener
Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development...
February 27, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alexandra Schutkowski, Nicole Wege, Gabriele I Stangl, Bettina König
Monocarboxylates such as pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies are crucial for energy supply of all tissues, especially during energy restriction. The transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane of cells is mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Out of 14 known mammalian MCTs, six isoforms have been functionally characterized to transport monocarboxylates and short chain fatty acids (MCT1-4), thyroid hormones (MCT8, -10) and aromatic amino acids (MCT10). Knowledge on the regulation of the different MCT isoforms is rare...
2014: PloS One
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