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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917450/the-short-term-effect-of-liver-transplantation-on-the-low-frequency-fluctuation-of-brain-activity-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-and-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#1
Gaoyan Zhang, Yue Cheng, Wen Shen, Baolin Liu, Lixiang Huang, Shuangshuang Xie
Previous neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that liver transplantation (LT) is an effective method for improving the cognitive function of cirrhotic patients. However, the neural basis underlying the effects of LT is still unclear. Neuroimaging studies investigating changes in brain structures or functional networks mainly focus on patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In this study, we recruited patients with and without overt HE and studied alterations in resting-state brain activity by quantizing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) before and 1 month after LT to study the short-term effect of LT in each group...
December 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913125/apomorphine-therapy-in-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#2
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Apomorphine infusion or injection is an important dopamine agonist non-oral therapy usually used in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with refractory motor fluctuations. The drug also has appreciable efficacy for nonmotor fluctuations and is the quickest to reverse predictable "off" periods. Current subcutaneous administration, however, is complicated by problems associated with needle-based therapies, such as skin nodule formation, skin irritation, and avoidance of this treatment option by needle-phobic subjects...
November 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910992/tug-of-war-between-two-elastically-coupled-molecular-motors-a-case-study-on-force-generation-and-force-balance
#3
Mehmet Can Uçar, Reinhard Lipowsky
Intracellular transport is performed by molecular motors that pull cargos along cytoskeletal filaments. Many cellular cargos are observed to move bidirectionally, with fast transport in both directions. This behaviour can be understood as a stochastic tug-of-war between two teams of antagonistic motors. The first theoretical model for such a tug-of-war, the Müller-Klumpp-Lipowsky (MKL) model, was based on two simplifying assumptions: (i) both motor teams move with the same velocity in the direction of the stronger team, and (ii) this velocity matching and the associated force balance arise immediately after the rebinding of an unbound motor to the filament...
December 2, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905362/-characteristics-of-parkinson-s-disease-course-in-the-heterozygous-carriage-of-mutations-in-the-glucocerebrosidase-a-gene
#4
O A Gan'kina, E E Vasenina, O S Levin, E Yu Fedotova, S N Illarioshkin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. Literature sources indicate the association of PD and mutations in the glucocerebrosidase A (GBA) gene. According to our study, the frequency of the two most common mutations in the GBA gene, N370S and L444P, is 1.85%. Mutation carriers have slower progression of motor symptoms, but are more likely to develop drug-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In carriers of GBA mutations, the severity of cognitive impairment corresponds to age-matched patients without mutations...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903440/auditory-cortical-delta-entrainment-interacts-with-oscillatory-power-in-multiple-fronto-parietal-networks
#5
Anne Keitel, Robin A A Ince, Joachim Gross, Christoph Kayser
The timing of slow auditory cortical activity aligns to the rhythmic fluctuations in speech. This entrainment is considered to be a marker of the prosodic and syllabic encoding of speech, and has been shown to correlate with intelligibility. Yet, whether and how auditory cortical entrainment is influenced by the activity in other speech-relevant areas remains unknown. Using source-localized MEG data, we quantified the dependency of auditory entrainment on the state of oscillatory activity in fronto-parietal regions...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#6
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892796/using-a-divided-attention-stepping-accuracy-task-to-improve-balance-and-functional-outcomes-in-an-individual-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#7
Susan J Leach, Richard A Magill, Joyce R Maring
A spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in impaired balance, endurance, and strength with subsequent limitations in functional mobility and community participation. The purpose of this case report was to implement a training program for an individual with a chronic incomplete SCI using a novel divided-attention stepping accuracy task (DASAT) to determine if improvements could be made in impairments, activities, and participation. The client was a 51-year-old male with a motor incomplete C4 SCI sustained 4 years prior...
November 28, 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#8
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#9
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879548/switching-l-dopa-therapy-from-pulsatile-to-pulse-administration-reduces-motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Giovanni Mostile, Alessandra Nicoletti, Valeria Dibilio, Antonina Luca, Loredana Raciti, Giorgia Sciacca, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Rosario Vasta, Giulia Donzuso, Donatella Contrafatto, Mario Zappia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severity of wearing-off and dyskinesia in patients with complicated Parkinson disease (PD) after switching L-dopa oral therapy from a "pulsatile" administration, consisting in intermittent multiple daily small doses of the drug, to a "pulse" administration, consisting in standard oral doses given at specific interdose intervals. METHODS: Thirty-four PD patients with motor complications were monitored twice with standardized waking day motor status evaluations using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) after switching L-dopa administration modality from "pulsatile" to "pulse...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#11
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859421/the-learning-curve-for-interpretation-of-oesophageal-high-resolution-manometry-a-prospective-interventional-cohort-study
#12
S Gaddam, C A Reddy, S Munigala, A Patel, N Kanuri, S Almaskeen, M K Rude, A Abdalla, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: High-resolution manometry has become the preferred choice of oesophagologists for oesophageal motor assessment, but the learning curve among trainees remains unclear. AIM: To determine the learning curve of high-resolution manometry interpretation. METHODS: A prospective interventional cohort study was performed on 18 gastroenterology trainees, naïve to high-resolution manometry (median age 32 ± 4.0 years, 44.4% female). An intake questionnaire and a 1-h standardised didactic session were performed at baseline...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846219/pharmacological-fingerprints-of-contextual-uncertainty
#13
Louise Marshall, Christoph Mathys, Diane Ruge, Archy O de Berker, Peter Dayan, Klaas E Stephan, Sven Bestmann
Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844443/measuring-molecular-forces-using-calibrated-optical-tweezers-in-living-cells
#14
Adam G Hendricks, Yale E Goldman
Optical tweezers have been instrumental in uncovering the mechanisms motor proteins use to generate and react to force. While optical traps have primarily been applied to purified, in vitro systems, emerging methods enable measurements in living cells where the actively fluctuating, viscoelastic environment and varying refractive index complicate calibration of the instrument. Here, we describe techniques to calibrate optical traps in living cells using the forced response to sinusoidal oscillations and spontaneous fluctuations, and to measure the forces exerted by endogenous ensembles of kinesin and dynein motor proteins as they transport cargoes in the cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844427/implementation-and-tuning-of-an-optical-tweezers-force-clamp-feedback-system
#15
Michael Bugiel, Anita Jannasch, Erik Schäffer
Feedback systems can be used to control the value of a system variable. In optical tweezers, active feedback is often implemented to either keep the position or tension applied to a single biomolecule constant. Here, we describe the implementation of the latter: an optical force-clamp setup that can be used to study the motion of processive molecular motors under a constant load. We describe the basics of a software-implemented proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, how to tune it, and how to determine its optimal feedback rate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826233/the-parkinsonian-subthalamic-network-measures-of-power-linear-and-non-linear-synchronization-and-their-relationship-to-l-dopa-treatment-and-off-state-motor-severity
#16
Timothy West, Simon Farmer, Luc Berthouze, Ashwani Jha, Martijn Beudel, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Peter Brown, Vladimir Litvak
In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824807/biobehavioral-framework-of-symptom-and-health-outcomes-of-uncertainty-and-psychological-stress-in-parkinson-disease
#17
Kim W Austin, Suzanne W Ameringer, Angela R Starkweather, Leslie J Cloud, Jamie L Sturgill, Ronald K Elswick
Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by complex motor and nonmotor symptoms that fluctuate in onset, severity, level of disability, and responsiveness to treatment. The unpredictable nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in uncertainty and psychological stress. Uncertainty and psychological stress have important implications for symptom and health outcomes in PD. Uncertainty and psychological stress have been shown to worsen symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life in chronic illnesses; however, the causal mechanisms have yet to be elucidated...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813450/exploring-daily-blood-pressure-fluctuations-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-individuals-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#18
Derry L Dance, Amit Chopra, Kent Campbell, David S Ditor, Magdy Hassouna, B Catharine Craven
BACKGROUND: Clinically silent autonomic dysfunction with bowel and bladder care, are postulated to contribute to cardiovascular disease after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: We describe the frequency and severity of dysreflexic episodes, termed transient blood pressure elevations (T-BPE) over 48 hours in adults with cervical or high-thoracic motor-complete SCI. SETTING: Tertiary SCI Rehabilitation Centre in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with chronic SCI, C1-T3 AIS A or B, >1 year post-injury, living in the community (n=19)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811835/quickstats-death-rates-for-motor-vehicle-traffic-injury-suicide-%C3%A2-and-homicide-%C3%A2-among-children-and-adolescents-aged-10-14-years-united-states-1999-2014
#19
(no author information available yet)
In 1999, the mortality rate for children and adolescents aged 10-14 years for deaths from motor vehicle traffic injury (4.5 per 100,000) was about four times higher than the rate for deaths for suicide and homicide (both at 1.2). From 1999 to 2014, the death rate for motor vehicle traffic injury declined 58%, to 1.9 in 2014 (384 deaths). From 1999 to 2007, the death rate for suicide fluctuated and then doubled from 2007 (0.9) to 2014 (2.1, 425 deaths). The death rate for homicide gradually declined to 0.8 in 2014...
November 4, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802242/effects-of-safinamide-on-pain-in-fluctuating-parkinson-s-disease-patients-a-post-hoc-analysis
#20
Carlo Cattaneo, Paolo Barone, Erminio Bonizzoni, Marco Sardina
BACKGROUND: Pain, a frequent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's Disease (PD), significantly impacts on quality of life. Safinamide is a new drug with dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic properties, approved in Europe as adjunct therapy to levodopa for the treatment of fluctuating PD patients. Results from two 24-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that safinamide has positive effects on both motor functions and quality of life in PD patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of safinamide on pain management in PD patients with motor fluctuations using pooled data from studies 016 and SETTLE...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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