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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242809/effect-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-on-non-motor-symptoms-in-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#1
David G Standaert, Ramon L Rodriguez, John T Slevin, Michael Lobatz, Susan Eaton, Krai Chatamra, Maurizio F Facheris, Coleen Hall, Kavita Sail, Yash J Jalundhwala, Janet Benesh
Background: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; carbidopa-levodopa enteral suspension in the United States), delivered via percutaneous gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) and titrated in the inpatient setting, is an established treatment option for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations. However, long-term prospective data on the efficacy of LCIG on non-motor symptoms and the safety of outpatient titration are limited. Methods: In this 60-week, open-label phase 3b study, LCIG titration was initiated in an outpatient setting following PEG-J placement in PD patients...
November 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#2
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227251/-stereotactic-thalamotomy-and-contralateral-subthalamotomy-in-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
K Kostiuk, V Lomadze, N Vasyliv
Aim - to evaluate the efficacy of combined bilateral stereotactic destruction of subcortical nucleus - thalamotomy and contralateral subthalamotomy in patients with Parkinson disease. The study included 10 patients with PD, aged 54-73 (mean age 61.1±5.2 years). The time between two surgeries ranged from 1 to 5 years (mean 2.5±0.5 years). The surgeries were conducted on CRW Radionics stereotactic system using StereoPlan, Atlas (Radionics) andFraimLink (Medtronic) software for target calculating. The neuropsychological status was assessed by UPDRS II, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Schwab and England scale, MMSE...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#4
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221928/momentary-assessment-of-impulsive-choice-and-impulsive-action-reliability-stability-and-correlates
#5
Danielle E McCarthy, Haruka Minami, Krysten W Bold, Vivian M Yeh, Gretchen Chapman
Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons, and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in ambulatory assessments is not known, however. The current study evaluated two novel ambulatory measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Impulsive choice was measured with an eight-item delay discounting task designed to estimate the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards...
November 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221377/communication-mechanochemical-fluctuation-theorem-and-thermodynamics-of-self-phoretic-motors
#6
Pierre Gaspard, Raymond Kapral
Microscopic dynamical aspects of the propulsion of nanomotors by self-phoretic mechanisms are considered. Propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis relies on the mechanochemical coupling between the fluid velocity field and the concentration fields induced by asymmetric catalytic reactions on the motor surface. The consistency between the thermodynamics of this coupling and the microscopic reversibility of the underlying molecular dynamics is investigated. For this purpose, a mechanochemical fluctuation theorem for the joint probability to find the motor at position r after n reactive events have occurred during the time interval t is derived, starting from coupled Langevin equations for the translational, rotational, and chemical fluctuations of self-phoretic motors...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219207/motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-disease-striatal-molecular-and-electrophysiological-mechanisms-of-dyskinesias
#7
REVIEW
Barbara Picconi, Ledia F Hernández, Jose A Obeso, Paolo Calabresi
Long-term levodopa (l-dopa) treatment in patients with Parkinson´s disease (PD) is associated with the development of motor complications (ie, motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). The principal etiopathogenic factors are the degree of nigro-striatal dopaminergic loss and the duration and dose of l-dopa treatment. In this review article we concentrate on analysis of the mechanisms underlying l-dopa-induced dyskinesias, a phenomenon that causes disability in a proportion of patients and that has not benefited from major therapeutic advances...
December 8, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215860/direct-measurement-of-single-molecule-adenosine-triphosphatase-hydrolysis-dynamics
#8
Jie Li, Gen He, Ueno Hiroshi, Wenzhe Liu, Hiroyuki Noji, Chuanmin Qi, Xuefeng Guo
F1-ATPase (F1) is a bidirectional molecular motor that hydrolyzes nearly all ATPs to fuel the cellular processes. Optical observation of labelled F1 rotation against the α3β3 hexamer ring revealed the sequential mechanical rotation steps corresponding to ATP binding/ADP release and ATP hydrolysis/Pi release. These substeps originate from the F1 rotation but with heavy load on the γ shaft due to fluorescent labelling and the photophysical limitation of an optical microscope, which hampers better understanding of the intrinsic kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis...
December 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206286/recognition-of-delirium-features-in-clinical-practice-data-from-the-delirium-day-2015-national-survey
#9
Enrico Mossello, Francesca Tesi, Simona G Di Santo, Andrea Mazzone, Monica Torrini, Antonio Cherubini, Mario Bo, Massimo Musicco, Angelo Bianchetti, Alberto Ferrari, Nicola Ferrara, Marco Trabucchi, Alessandro Morandi, Giuseppe Bellelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Delirium is underrecognized in clinical practice. The primary aim of the present multicenter study was to compare the ability of nurses to identify delirium features with a standardized assessment. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of missed or incorrect identifications of delirium by nurses. DESIGN: Point prevalence study in 120 wards across Italy. SETTING: "Delirium Day 2015." PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients aged 65 and older (N = 1,867)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204882/multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-rotary-motor-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Toru Ekimoto, Mitsunori Ikeguchi
Protein functions require specific structures frequently coupled with conformational changes. The scale of the structural dynamics of proteins spans from the atomic to the molecular level. Theoretically, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a powerful tool to investigate protein dynamics because the MD simulation is capable of capturing conformational changes obeying the intrinsically structural features. However, to study long-timescale dynamics, efficient sampling techniques and coarse-grained (CG) approaches coupled with all-atom MD simulations, termed multiscale MD simulations, are required to overcome the timescale limitation in all-atom MD simulations...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198499/markers-of-impaired-motor-and-cognitive-volition-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlates-of-dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-impulse-control-disorder-and-dyskinesias
#11
Jared T Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Liana S Rosenthal, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Zoltan Mari, Laura Tochen, Jee Yun Bang, Medha Gudavalli, Nadine Yoritomo, Ankur Butala, Catherine C Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Emile Moukheiber, Ted M Dawson, Gregory M Pontone
INTRODUCTION: Dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be associated with both motoric (e.g., dyskinesias) and neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Examples of the latter include Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorder (ICD), which are separate but related behavioral/psychiatric complications of treatment in PD. Dysregulation of volition characterizes both dyskinesias and DDS/ICD; thus, we analyzed potential disease-related correlates in a large PD cohort...
November 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195361/modular-injector-integrated-linear-apparatus-with-motion-profile-optimization-for-spatial-atomic-layer-deposition
#12
Xiaolei Wang, Yun Li, Jilong Lin, Bin Shan, Rong Chen
A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193464/functional-connectivity-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-within-and-between-network-analysis
#13
Julia Schumacher, Luis R Peraza, Michael Firbank, Alan J Thomas, Marcus Kaiser, Peter Gallagher, John T O'Brien, Andrew M Blamire, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common form of dementia and is characterized by cognitive fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonism. The phenotypic expression of the disease may, in part, relate to alterations in functional connectivity within and between brain networks. This resting-state study sought to clarify this in DLB, how networks differed from Alzheimer's disease (AD), and whether they were related to clinical symptoms in DLB. Resting-state networks were estimated using independent component analysis...
November 29, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188123/dynamics-of-the-human-brain-network-revealed-by-time-frequency-effective-connectivity-in-fnirs
#14
Grégoire Vergotte, Kjerstin Torre, Venkata Chaitanya Chirumamilla, Abdul Rauf Anwar, Sergiu Groppa, Stéphane Perrey, Muthuraman Muthuraman
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising neuroimaging method for investigating networks of cortical regions over time. We propose a directed effective connectivity method (TPDC) allowing the capture of both time and frequency evolution of the brain's networks using fNIRS data acquired from healthy subjects performing a continuous finger-tapping task. Using this method we show the directed connectivity patterns among cortical motor regions involved in the task and their significant variations in the strength of information flow exchanges...
November 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184084/the-flexibility-and-dynamics-of-the-tubules-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#15
Pantelis Georgiades, Victoria J Allan, Graham D Wright, Philip G Woodman, Parinya Udommai, Manloeng A Chung, Thomas A Waigh
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a single organelle in eukaryotic cells that extends throughout the cell and is involved in a large number of cellular functions. Using a combination of fixed and live cells (human MRC5 lung cells) in diffraction limited and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy (STORM) experiments, we determined that the average persistence length of the ER tubules was 3.03 ± 0.24 μm. Removing the branched network junctions from the analysis caused a slight increase in the average persistence length to 4...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182371/decrease-in-scale-invariance-of-activity-fluctuations-with-aging-and-in-patients-with-suprasellar-tumors
#16
S D Joustra, C Gu, J H T Rohling, L Pickering, M Klose, K Hu, F A Scheer, U Feldt-Rasmussen, P J Jennum, A M Pereira, N R Biermasz, J H Meijer
Motor activity in healthy young humans displays intrinsic fluctuations that are scale-invariant over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Human postmortem and animal lesion studies showed that the intact function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is required to maintain such scale-invariant patterns. We therefore hypothesized that scale invariance is degraded in patients treated for suprasellar tumors that compress the SCN. To test the hypothesis, we investigated 68 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and 22 patients with craniopharyngioma, as well as 72 age-matched healthy controls (age range 21...
November 28, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178365/levodopa-a-new-look-at-an-old-friend
#17
REVIEW
C Warren Olanow, Fabrizio Stocchi
Levodopa is the most effective antiparkinsonian agent, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of motor complications in the majority of patients with PD. Recent scientific and clinical advances are improving this situation. Long-term, double-blind studies demonstrate that dose is an important risk factor for the development of both motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, and suggest that it is best to use low doses of l-dopa when possible. Inhaled l-dopa and sublingual apomorphine are now being developed as rescue therapies that permit rapid and predictable reversal of off periods...
November 27, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167637/variations-in-static-force-control-and-motor-unit-behavior-with-error-amplification-feedback-in-the-elderly
#18
Yi-Ching Chen, Linda L Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Ling Hu, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Error amplification (EA) feedback is a promising approach to advance visuomotor skill. As error detection and visuomotor processing at short time scales decline with age, this study examined whether older adults could benefit from EA feedback that included higher-frequency information to guide a force-tracking task. Fourteen young and 14 older adults performed low-level static isometric force-tracking with visual guidance of typical visual feedback and EA feedback containing augmented high-frequency errors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167283/rotostep-a-chromosome-dynamics-simulator-reveals-mechanisms-of-loop-extrusion
#19
Josh Lawrimore, Brandon Friedman, Ayush Doshi, Kerry Bloom
ChromoShake is a three-dimensional simulator designed to explore the range of configurational states a chromosome can adopt based on thermodynamic fluctuations of the polymer chain. Here, we refine ChromoShake to generate dynamic simulations of a DNA-based motor protein such as condensin walking along the chromatin substrate. We model walking as a rotation of DNA-binding heat-repeat proteins around one another. The simulation is applied to several configurations of DNA to reveal the consequences of mechanical stepping on taut chromatin under tension versus loop extrusion on single-tethered, floppy chromatin substrates...
November 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167034/body-awareness-training-in-the-treatment-of-wearing-off-related-anxiety-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ires Ghielen, Erwin E H van Wegen, Sonja Rutten, Cees J T de Goede, Marieke Houniet-de Gier, Emma H Collette, Ingrid A L Burgers-Bots, Jos W R Twisk, Gert Kwakkel, Kees Vermunt, Bep van Vliet, Henk W Berendse, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, fluctuations in symptoms commonly occur after many years of dopamine replacement therapy. The so-called wearing-off phenomenon exists of both motor and non-motor symptoms, such as rigidity and anxiety. Current treatment options are limited and an integrated approach is needed to address the complex interactions between motor and non-motor symptoms. Since wearing-off is eventually inevitable, treatment needs to focus on coping, acceptance and self-efficacy...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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