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Motor fluctuations

Song Wang, Yajun Zhao, Bochao Cheng, Xiuli Wang, Xun Yang, Taolin Chen, Xueling Suo, Qiyong Gong
As a hot research topic in the field of psychology and psychiatry, trait optimism reflects the tendency to expect positive outcomes in the future. Consistent evidence has demonstrated the role of trait optimism in reducing anxiety among different populations. However, less is known about the neural bases of trait optimism and the underlying mechanisms for how trait optimism protects against anxiety in the healthy brain. In this investigation, we examined these issues in 231 healthy adolescent students by assessing resting-state brain activity (i...
June 19, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Thomas Müller, Jan-Dominique Möhr
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease. Its symptoms and course are heterogeneous. After several years of investigative drug studies, levodopa remains the most efficacious drug despite its long-term limitations. Consequently, research into new drug delivery modes is ongoing. Areas covered: This review summarizes past and current advances of levodopa therapy with a focus on long-term patient management. Current research aims to increase drug bioavailability and to deliver it to the brain continuously...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Shou-Wen Wang
The Harada-Sasa equality elegantly connects the energy dissipation rate of a moving object with its measurable violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT). Although proven for Langevin processes, its validity remains unclear for discrete Markov systems whose forward and backward transition rates respond asymmetrically to external perturbation. A typical example is a motor protein called kinesin. Here we show generally that the FDT violation persists surprisingly in the high-frequency limit due to the asymmetry, resulting in a divergent FDT violation integral and thus a complete breakdown of the Harada-Sasa equality...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Amaia Muñoz-Lopetegi, Gorka Fernández García de Eulate, Jon Rodríguez-Antigüedad Muñoz, Alberto Bergareche, Juan José Poza
Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus (OMASE) is a rare form of epilepsia partialis continua presenting as fluctuating dysarthria, or even anarthria. The condition is caused by an epileptogenic lesion involving the opercular cortex of either hemisphere. Speech impairment is secondary to bilateral epileptic activity affecting the glossopharyngeal muscles. This bilateral nature of the condition is due to the fact that innervation of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X and XII from the opercular area of the primary motor cortex is bilateral...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Mi-Jung Kim, Shin-Bi Oh, Juyeon Kim, Kiju Kim, Ho-Sung Ryu, Min Sun Kim, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush, Joo-Yong Lee, Sun Ju Chung
INTRODUCTION: While metals have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), the clinical evidence is scarce. Further, the contribution of metals for the risk or clinical presentation of PD remains to be explored. METHODS: To investigate the associations between the level of metals in blood serum and PD risk or clinical presentation, including sex-related differences, we studied 325 PD patients and age- and sex-matched 304 controls. We collected clinical data of the PD patients, including age at onset, PD duration, levodopa-equivalent dose (LED), Hoehn and Yahr stage (H-Y stage), presence of motor fluctuation, levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), freezing of gait, hallucination, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score...
May 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, Isabel Sala, Andrea Subirana, Elba Pascual-Goñi, MaBelén Sánchez-Saudinós, Daniel Alcolea, Ignacio Illán-Gala, María Carmona-Iragui, Roser Ribosa-Nogué, Valle Camacho, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a heterogeneous disease in which clinical presentation, symptoms, and evolution widely varies between patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of clinical subtypes in DLB based on the initial clinical presentation. METHODS: 81 patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable DLB were consecutively included. All patients underwent a neurological evaluation including a structured questionnaire about neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep, an assessment of motor impairment (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale subscale III), and a formal neuropsychological evaluation...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Daniel F Feeney, Diba Mani, Roger M Enoka
We investigated the associations between grooved pegboard times, force steadiness (coefficient of variation for force), and variability in an estimate of the common synaptic input to motor neurons innervating the wrist extensor muscles during steady contractions performed by young and older adults. The discharge times of motor units were derived from recordings obtained with high-density surface electrodes while participants performed steady isometric contractions at 10% and 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Sally C Curtin, Melonie Heron, Arialdi M Miniño, Margaret Warner
This report presents numbers of injury deaths and death rates for children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in the United States for 1999-2016. Numbers and rates are presented by sex for 1999-2016, by injury intent (e.g., unintentional, suicide, and homicide) and method (e.g., motor vehicle traffic, firearms, and suffocation). Numbers and rates of death according to leading injury intents and methods are shown by sex for ages 10-14 years and 15-19 years for 2016. Mortality statistics in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia...
June 2018: National Vital Statistics Reports
Csaba Nagy, Gábor Bajzik, Andrea Skobrák, Eszter Csorba, Anikó Lajtai, Gábor Balogh, Ferenc Nagy, Zsolt Vajda
Hemiplegic migraine is a rare subtype of migraine that is associated with reversible motor weakness in the aura phase. This is an uncommon form of migraine usually starting in childhood. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the differential diagnostic difficulty of the first attack. We describe a case, where the fluctuating unilateral motor weakness and aphasia suggested that the patient had ischaemic stroke. Nevertheless the brain MRI and MR angiography, the measured 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration changes and the spontaneously improving clinical status proved the diagnosis of hemiplegic migraine...
September 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Sarah L Kang, Aasef G Shaikh, Fatema F Ghasia
Maintaining proper eye alignment is necessary to generate a cohesive visual image. This involves the coordination of complex neural networks, which can become impaired by various neurodegenerative diseases. When the vergence system is affected, this can result in strabismus and disorienting diplopia. While previous studies have detailed the effect of these disorders on other eye movements, such as saccades, relatively little is known about strabismus. Here, we focus on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and treatment of strabismus and disorders of vergence in Parkinson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, Huntington disease, and multiple system atrophy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhu Liu, Huizi Ma, Victoria Poole, Xuemei Wang, Zhan Wang, Yaqin Yang, Lanxi Meng, Brad Manor, Junhong Zhou, Tao Feng
Background: Impaired motor control is one of the most common symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA). It arises from dysfunction of the cerebellum and its connected neural networks, including the primary motor cortex (M1), and is associated with altered spontaneous (i.e., resting-state) brain network activity. Non-invasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) selectively facilitates the excitability of supraspinal networks. Repeated rTMS sessions have been shown to induce long-term changes to both resting-state brain dynamics and behavior in several neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kalman A Katlowitz, Michel A Picardo, Michael A Long
A vast array of motor skills can be maintained throughout life. Do these behaviors require stability of individual neuron tuning or can the output of a given circuit remain constant despite fluctuations in single cells? This question is difficult to address due to the variability inherent in most motor actions studied in the laboratory. A notable exception, however, is the courtship song of the adult zebra finch, which is a learned, highly precise motor act mediated by orderly dynamics within premotor neurons of the forebrain...
May 21, 2018: Neuron
Florian Blanc, Tatiana Isabet, Hannah Benisty, H Lee Sweeney, Marco Cecchini, Anne Houdusse
Myosins form a class of actin-based, ATPase motor proteins that mediate important cellular functions such as cargo transport and cell motility. Their functional cycle involves two large-scale swings of the lever arm: the force-generating powerstroke, which takes place on actin, and the recovery stroke during which the lever arm is reprimed into an armed configuration. Previous analyses of the prerecovery (postrigor) and postrecovery (prepowerstroke) states predicted that closure of switch II in the ATP binding site precedes the movement of the converter and the lever arm...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ruth Djaldetti, Amihai Rigbi, Lior Greenbaum, Johnathan Reiner, Mordechai Lorberboym
BACKGROUND: The role of nuclear imaging in predicting Parkinson's disease (PD) progression is unclear. This study investigated whether the degree of reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding at diagnosis of PD predicts later motor complications and time to disease progression. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 41 patients with early PD who underwent 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT and were followed thereafter with a mean disease duration of 9.51 ± 3.18 years. The association of quantitatively analyzed 123 I-FP-CIT binding in striatal subregions with the development of motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, freezing of gait (FOG) and falls as well as the time to Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage 3 was evaluated...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ryan J Healy, Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Wendy Ziai, Marek A Mirski, Charles W Hogue, Romergryko Geocadin, Batya Radzik, Caitlin Palmisano, Lucia Rivera-Lara
BACKGROUND: The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is an essential coma scale in critical care for determining the neurological status of patients and for estimating their long-term prognosis. Similarly, cerebral autoregulation (CA) monitoring has shown to be an accurate technique for predicting clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the relationship between CA measurements and GCS scores among neurological critically ill patients. This study aimed to explore the association between noninvasive CA multimodal monitoring measurements and GCS scores...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Thomas Foki, Daniela Hitzl, Walter Pirker, Klaus Novak, Gisela Pusswald, Johann Lehrner
Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa (L-DOPA) is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in PD patients of the subthalamic nucleus can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of PD-DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna-long (NTBV-long) for cognitive outcome 12 months after first examination...
May 16, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Roland R Netz
An exactly solvable, Hamiltonian-based model of many massive particles that are coupled by harmonic potentials and driven by stochastic non-equilibrium forces is introduced. The stationary distribution and the fluctuation-dissipation relation are derived in closed form for the general non-equilibrium case. Deviations from equilibrium are on one hand characterized by the difference of the obtained stationary distribution from the Boltzmann distribution; this is possible because the model derives from a particle Hamiltonian...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Per Odin, K Ray Chaudhuri, Jens Volkmann, Angelo Antonini, Alexander Storch, Espen Dietrichs, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Tove Henriksen, Malcolm Horne, David Devos, Filip Bergquist
Motor aspects of Parkinson's disease, such as fluctuations and dyskinesia, can be reliably evaluated using a variety of "wearable" technologies, but practical guidance on objective measurement (OM) and the optimum use of these devices is lacking. Therefore, as a first step, a panel of movement disorder specialists met to provide guidance on how OM could be assessed and incorporated into clinical guidelines. A key aspect of the incorporation of OM into the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) is defining cutoff values that separate "controlled" from "uncontrolled" symptoms that can be modified by therapy and that relate to an outcome that is relevant to the person with PD (such as quality of life)...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Xiang-Xue Zhou, Xun-Hua Li, Ding-Bang Chen, Chao Wu, Li Feng, Jian-Ping Chu, Zhi-Yun Yang, Xin-Bei Li, Haolin Qin, Gui-Dian Li, Hai-Wei Huang, Ying-Ying Liang, Xiu-Ling Liang
Objective: To investigate the cause of the motor asymmetry in Wilson's disease (WD) patients using functional MRI. Methods: Fifty patients with WD and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Neurological symptoms were scored using the modified Young Scale. All study subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain. Six regions of interest (ROI) were chosen. Fiber volumes between ROIs on DTI, corrected phase (CP) values on SWI, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and regional homogeneity (REHO) values on rs-fMRI were determined...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
(no author information available yet)
▼ Safinamide (Xadago - Zambon S.p.A) is a monoamine-oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor licensed as add-on therapy for people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who are experiencing motor fluctuations with levodopa.1 Currently there is no cure for Parkinson's disease and drugs are used to reduce motor symptoms and improve daily activities.2,3 Here, we review the evidence for this MAO-B inhibitor.
May 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
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