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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331322/the-role-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-and-update-on-new-developments
#1
REVIEW
John Y Fang, Christopher Tolleson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neuronal dopamine production in the brain. Oral therapies primarily augment the dopaminergic pathway. As the disease progresses, more continuous delivery of therapy is commonly needed. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an effective therapy option for several different neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including PD. It currently has US Food and Drug Administration approval for PD and essential tremor, as well as a humanitarian device exception for dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322225/probing-cytoskeletal-modulation-of-passive-and-active-intracellular-dynamics-using-nanobody-functionalized-quantum-dots
#2
Eugene A Katrukha, Marina Mikhaylova, Hugo X van Brakel, Paul M van Bergen En Henegouwen, Anna Akhmanova, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
The cytoplasm is a highly complex and heterogeneous medium that is structured by the cytoskeleton. How local transport depends on the heterogeneous organization and dynamics of F-actin and microtubules is poorly understood. Here we use a novel delivery and functionalization strategy to utilize quantum dots (QDs) as probes for active and passive intracellular transport. Rapid imaging of non-functionalized QDs reveals two populations with a 100-fold difference in diffusion constant, with the faster fraction increasing upon actin depolymerization...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319755/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-reduces-resting-state-insula-activity-and-modulates-functional-connectivity-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cigarette-smokers
#3
Xingbao Li, Lian Du, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce cue-elicited craving and decrease cigarette consumption in smokers. The mechanism of this effect however, remains unclear. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to test the effect of rTMS in non-treatment seeking smokers. METHODS: We used a single blinded, sham-controlled, randomized counterbalanced crossover design where participants underwent two visits separated by at least 1 week...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302869/motor-and-mechanical-bases-of-the-courtship-call-of-the-male-treehopper-umbonia-crassicornis
#4
Carol I Miles, Brianna E Allison, Michael J Losinger, Quang T Su, Ronald N Miles
This study is a physiological, anatomical, and biophysical analysis of how plant-borne vibrational signals are produced by the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis During courtship, males and females engage in a vibrational duet, with each producing a characteristic call. For males, this consists of a frequency-modulated tonal signal which is accompanied by rhythmic broad-band clicks. While previous studies described these complex signals in detail, little is known about how they are produced. By combining video recordings, electromyograms, dissections and mechanical modelling, we describe the mechanism by which the male produces his courtship signal...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300595/a-biophysical-model-of-how-%C3%AE-tubulin-carboxy-terminal-tails-tune-kinesin-1-processivity-along-microtubule
#5
Miljko V Sataric, Dalibor L Sekulic, Slobodan Zdravkovic, Nebojsa M Ralevic
It appears that so-called post-translational modifications of tubulin heterodimers are mostly focussed at positions of amino acid sequences of carboxy-terminal tails. These changes have very profound effects on microtubule functions especially in connection with cellular traffic in terms of motor proteins. In this study, we elaborated the biophysical model aimed to explain the strategy governing these subtle interplays between structural and functional properties of microtubules. We relied onto Langevin equations including fluctuation-dissipation processes...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299208/sensorimotor-cortical-neuroplasticity-in-the-early-stage-of-bell-s-palsy
#6
Wenwen Song, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Zhijian Cao, Sisi Zhou, Courtney Lang, Kun Lv, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297880/resonance-in-the-response-of-the-bacterial-flagellar-motor-to-thermal-oscillations
#7
Mahmut Demir, Hanna Salman
We have studied the dynamics of the Escherichia coli flagellar motor's angular velocity in response to thermal oscillations. We find that the oscillations' amplitude of the motor's angular velocity exhibits resonance when the temperature is oscillated at frequencies around 4 Hz. This resonance appears to be due to the existence of a natural mode of oscillation in the state of the motor, specifically in the torque generated by the motor. Natural modes of oscillation in torque generation cannot result from random fluctuations in the state of the motor...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297650/rotation-mechanism-of-molecular-motor-v1-atpase-studied-by-multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#8
Yuta Isaka, Toru Ekimoto, Yuichi Kokabu, Ichiro Yamato, Takeshi Murata, Mitsunori Ikeguchi
Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase is a molecular motor composed of the A3B3 hexamer ring and the central stalk. In association with ATP hydrolysis, three catalytic AB pairs in the A3B3 ring undergo conformational changes, which lead to a 120° rotation of the central stalk. To understand how the conformational changes of three catalytic pairs induce the 120° rotation of the central stalk, we performed multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which coarse-grained and all-atom MD simulations were combined using a fluctuation matching methodology...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279509/-medical-and-surgical-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Luc Defebvre, Caroline Moreau
The treatment of Parkinson's disease is symptomatic with the use of dopaminergic medications: levodopa, dopaminergic agonists and enzymatic inhibitors. At the initial stage, the main goals are to improve the quality of life of patients and delay the onset of motor complications, using a combination of these therapies taking into account both clinical disability and tolerance of different treatments. At the stage of motor and non-motor fluctuations inhibitors of MAO-B and COMT are proposed; amantadine may limit moderate dyskinesias...
March 6, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269640/automatic-assessment-of-medication-states-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-wearable-sensors
#10
Murtadha D Hssayeni, Michelle A Burack, Behnaz Ghoraani
Motor fluctuations are a major focus of clinical managements in patients with mid-stage and advance Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, we develop a new patient-specific algorithm that can classify those fluctuations during a variety of activities. We extract a set of temporal and spectral features from the ambulatory signals and then introduce a semi-supervised classification algorithm based on K-means and self-organizing tree map clustering methods. Two different types of cluster labeling are introduced: hard and fuzzy labeling...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268415/monitoring-of-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-a-mhealth-platform
#11
Jorge Cancela, Samanta Villanueva Mascato, Dimitrios Gatsios, George Rigas, Andrea Marcante, Giovanni Gentile, Roberta Biundo, Manuela Giglio, Maria Chondrogiorgi, Robert Vilzmann, Spyros Konitsiotis, Angelo Antonini, Maria T Arredondo, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, chronic disease that many patients live with for many years. In this work we propose a mHealth approach based on a set of unobtrusive, simple-in-use, off-the-self, co-operative, mobile devices that will be used for motor and non-motor symptoms monitoring and evaluation, as well as for the detection of fluctuations along with their duration through a waking day. Ideally, a multidisciplinary and integrated care approach involving several professionals working together (neurologists, physiotherapists, psychologists and nutritionists) could provide a holistic management of the disease increasing the patient's independence and Quality of Life (QoL)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267578/continuous-membrane-potential-fluctuations-in-motor-cortex-and-striatum-neurons-during-voluntary-forelimb-movements-and-pauses
#12
Satoshi Nonomura, Yoko Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Takafumi Kajihara, Fumino Fujiyama, Yoshikazu Isomura
Theoretical simulations suggest that spike rate is regulated by varying both membrane potential and its fluctuation. We investigated whether membrane potential fluctuation functionally changes in motor cortex and striatum neurons during discrete forelimb movements and pauses, or at rest, using whole-cell recording in task-performing rats. Membrane potential fluctuation was diminished by task performance, but maintained overall in the alpha/beta and gamma bands during forelimb movements and pauses. By contrast, membrane potential itself was correlated with spike rate in task-related neurons...
March 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251464/serum-uric-acid-levels-and-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Ruwei Ou, Bei Cao, Qianqian Wei, Yanbing Hou, Yaqian Xu, Wei Song, Bi Zhao, Huifang Shang
Uric acid (UA) is a natural antioxidant and iron scavenger in the human body, which has been hypothesized to exert an anti-oxidative effect in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum UA levels and freezing of gait (FOG) in PD. A total of 321 Chinese PD patients with fasting serum UA evaluated were included in the cross-sectional study. Demographics, clinical features, and therapeutic regimen were collected. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage were used to evaluate the severity of disease, and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scales were used to assess the cognitive function...
March 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251243/-nonpharmacological-treatment-procedures-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
K Witt, E Kalbe, R Erasmi, G Ebersbach
Nonpharmacological treatment strategies in Parkinson' disease include heterogeneous treatment modalities, such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, cognitive training and deep brain stimulation as well as noninvasive brain stimulation strategies. Even in the early stages of Parkinson's disease nonpharmacological interventions, such as active exercise therapy and speech therapy can be indicated taking the individual symptoms of a patient into account. Mild cognitive deficits are frequently detected in the course of the disease and progression of these disorders to dementia in the advanced stages of the disease is not uncommon...
March 1, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246517/longitudinal-intrinsic-brain-activity-changes-in-cirrhotic-patients-before-and-one-month-after-liver-transplantation
#15
Yue Cheng, Li-Xiang Huang, Li Zhang, Ming Ma, Shuang-Shuang Xie, Qian Ji, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Gao-Yan Zhang, Xue-Ning Zhang, Hong-Yan Ni, Wen Shen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spontaneous brain activity alterations in liver transplantation (LT) recipients using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. All patients repeated the MRI study one month after LT. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values were compared between cirrhotic patients (both pre- and post-LT) and HCs as well as between the pre- and post-LT groups...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239703/the-effect-of-active-fluctuations-on-the-dynamics-of-particles-motors-and-dna-hairpins
#16
Hans Vandebroek, Carlo Vanderzande
Inspired by recent experiments on the dynamics of particles and polymers in artificial cytoskeletons and in cells, we introduce a modified Langevin equation for a particle in an environment that is a viscoelastic medium and that is brought out of equilibrium by the action of active fluctuations caused by molecular motors. We show that within such a model, the motion of a free particle crosses over from superdiffusive to subdiffusive as observed for tracer particles in an in vitro cytoskeleton or in a cell. We investigate the dynamics of a particle confined by a harmonic potential as a simple model for the motion of the tethered head of kinesin-1...
February 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239615/apomorphine-subcutaneous-injection-for-the-management-of-morning-akinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Stuart Isaacson, Mark Lew, William Ondo, Jean Hubble, Thomas Clinch, Fernando Pagan
BACKGROUND: In patients with motor fluctuations complicating Parkinson's disease (PD), delays in time-to-ON with levodopa are common. This open-label study aimed to assess the effect of apomorphine on time-to-ON in PD patients with morning akinesia. METHODS: The safety population included 127 enrolled patients, and the full analysis set (FAS) included 88 patients. Patients completed a 7-day levodopa baseline period recording their time-to-ON following each morning dose of levodopa...
January 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239501/consensus-on-the-definition-of-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurologists-based-delphi-study-cepa-study
#18
Maria-Rosario Luquin, Jaime Kulisevsky, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Pablo Mir, Eduardo S Tolosa
To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD). To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study). An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236251/pharmacokinetics-of-rytary-%C3%A2-an-extended-release-capsule-formulation-of-carbidopa-levodopa
#19
REVIEW
Aravind Mittur, Suneel Gupta, Nishit B Modi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurological disorder characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Levodopa, the precursor to dopamine, coadministered with carbidopa or benserazide, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors, is the most effective and widely used therapeutic agent in the treatment of PD. With continued levodopa treatment, a majority of patients develop motor complications such as dyskinesia and motor 'on-off' fluctuations, which are, in part, related to the fluctuations in plasma concentrations of levodopa...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229223/levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-lcig-infusion-as-mono-or-combination-therapy
#20
Carsten Buhmann, R Hilker, P Lingor, C Schrader, J Schwarz, M Wolz, H Reichmann
Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion is an effective escalating therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) suffering from motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Levodopa/carbidopa given continuously as infusion provides an optimized application of the most effective and best tolerable antiparkinsonian drug. It has been proven to have a superior motor effect compared with oral levodopa and to improve also non-motor symptoms. However, invasiveness, discomfort resulting from carrying an external device, and side effects associated with the way of administration limit its application in PD patients...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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