Read by QxMD icon Read


Julia N Soulakova, Lisa J Crockett
INTRODUCTION: The study estimated the prevalence of unassisted quitting (ie, quitting without pharmacological aids or other interventions) among former smokers and identified the most common smoking cessation methods used by U.S. adult smokers who quit smoking between 2007 and 2011. Among long-term quitters, smoking-related behaviors and factors associated with using pharmacological methods and quitting unassisted were examined. METHODS: The analytic sample consisted solely of former smokers, including 3,583 "long-term quitters" (those who quit 1 to 3 years prior to the survey) and 2,205 "recent quitters" (those who quit within a year prior to the survey), who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey...
October 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tuo-Yen Tseng, Paul Krebs, Antoinette Schoenthaler, Selena Wong, Scott Sherman, Mirelis Gonzalez, Antonio Urbina, Charles M Cleland, Donna Shelley
Smoking represents an important health risk for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Low adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy may limit treatment effectiveness. In this study, 158 participants recruited from three HIV care centers in New York City were randomized to receive 12-weeks of varenicline (Chantix) either alone as standard care (SC) or in combination with text message (TM) support or TM plus cell phone-delivered adherence-focused motivational and behavioral therapy (ABT). Generalized linear mixed-effect models found a significant decline in varenicline adherence from week 1-12 across treatment groups...
September 7, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Janice C Froehlich, Stephen M Fischer, Julian E Dilley, Emily R Nicholson, Teal N Smith, Nick J Filosa, Logan C Rademacher
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether varenicline (VAR), or naltrexone (NTX), alone or in combination, reduces alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a genetic predisposition toward high voluntary alcohol intake. METHODS: Alcohol-experienced P rats that had been drinking alcohol (15% v/v) for 2 h/d for 4 weeks were fed either vehicle (VEH), VAR alone (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg body weight [BW]), NTX alone (10.0, 15.0, or 20.0 mg/kg BW), or VAR + NTX in 1 of 4 dose combinations (0...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mojdeh Mostafavi, Paul Hardy, L Eugene Arnold
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX(®)), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. METHODS: The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review...
November 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Andrew M Busch, Eleanor L Leavens, Theodore L Wagener, Maria L Buckley, Erin M Tooley
PURPOSE: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has risen dramatically in recent years. However, there are currently no published data on the use of e-cigarettes among cardiac patients. The current study reports on the prevalence, reasons for use, and perceived risks of e-cigarettes among patients with post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The relationship between e-cigarette use and post-ACS tobacco smoking cessation is also explored. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a randomized trial of smoking cessation treatments following hospitalization for ACS...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
James S Yeh, Ameet Sarpatwari, Aaron S Kesselheim
Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal...
August 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Steven T Pittenger, Scott T Barrett, Shinnyi Chou, Rick A Bevins
While research has revealed heightened vulnerability to meth addiction in women, preclinical models rarely use female subjects when investigating meth seeking and relapse. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of varenicline (Chantix(®)), a partial α4β2 and full α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on meth self-administration and reinstatement in female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Half of the rats were then trained to self-administer meth (0...
March 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Thomas J Tobin, Mary L Tobin
Smoking cessation remains a positive therapeutic goal and should be encouraged for the millions of individuals who continue to smoke and struggle to quit. While psychiatric nurses should encourage patients to start or continue smoking cessation therapies, they must be aware of the additional safety concerns relating to the use of varenicline (Chantix). Research published subsequent to the last clinical update in this journal (Tobin, 2007 ) has prompted additional warnings from the Food and Drug Administration concerning varenicline for smoking cessation therapy...
2015: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Kelly E Dunn, Taylor F Marcus, Cynthia Kim, Jennifer R Schroeder, Ryan Vandrey, Annie Umbricht
INTRODUCTION: Varenicline (Chantix) is a first-line treatment for smoking cessation but does not produce cessation in many individuals. It may be possible to improve abstinence by co-administering varenicline with other medications. Zonisamide (Zonegran) has a similar pharmacologic profile to topiramate, which has been shown to reduce smoking, but is better tolerated. This study evaluated whether combined zonisamide and varenicline reduced tobacco withdrawal and increased abstinence among smokers trying to quit, relative to varenicline and placebo...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Brittany A Toffey, Marcie Rabin, Roger Kurlan
Varenicline (Chantix[R]) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist used to aid smoking cessation. Adverse psychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are recognized and national drug monitoring has included reports of tardive dyskinesia, but no cases have been described in the literature. We now report the first two cases of varenicline-related withdrawal emergent dyskinesias.
2015: Open Neurology Journal
Daniel E Falk, I-Jen P Castle, Megan Ryan, Joanne Fertig, Raye Z Litten
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether varenicline (Chantix) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multisite trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol-dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol-dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to determine whether certain subgroups responded more favorably than others to treatment with varenicline. METHODS: Data were drawn from a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multisite 13-week trial of varenicline in alcohol-dependent patients (Litten et al...
July 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Karin A Kasza, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter, Monica E Cornelius, Andrew J Hyland, Geoffrey T Fong
AIMS: To evaluate trends in use of stop-smoking medications (SSMs) before and after varenicline (Chantix™) was introduced to the market-place in the United States, and to determine whether varenicline reached segments of the population unlikely to use other SSMs. DESIGN: Cohort survey. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of adult smokers in the United States interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2004 and 2011...
February 2015: Addiction
Nicole L Yohn, Jill R Turner, Julie A Blendy
Although nicotine mediates its effects through several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, it remains to be determined which nAChR subtypes directly mediate heightened anxiety during withdrawal. Relative success in abstinence has been found with the nAChR partial agonist varenicline (Chantix; Pfizer, Groton, CT); however, treatment with this drug fails to alleviate anxiety in individuals during nicotine withdrawal. Therefore, it is hypothesized that success can be found by the repurposing of other nAChR partial agonists for cessation therapies that target anxiety...
May 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and nicotine are the most commonly abused drugs. The frequent co-morbidity of alcohol and nicotine addiction has led to the hypothesis that they may act via a common substrate: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) especially α4β2 and α7 subtypes, the most prevalent nAChRs in the brain. Compelling evidence suggests that alcohol enhances the function of α4β2 subtype. The FDA approved smoking cessation drug, varenicline ("Chantix"), a partial agonist of α4β2 nAChR subtype, reduces alcohol self-administration and alcohol craving in humans and rodents...
May 2014: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Peter A Crooks, Michael T Bardo, Linda P Dwoskin
Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. Currently, several smoking cessation agents are available, including varenicline (Chantix®), bupropion (Zyban®), and cytisine (Tabex®). Varenicline and cytisine are partial agonists at the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Bupropion is an antidepressant but is also an antagonist at α3β2* ganglionic nAChRs. The rewarding effects of nicotine are mediated, in part, by nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release leading to sensitization, which is associated with repeated nicotine administration and nicotine addiction...
2014: Advances in Pharmacology
Arzu Kalayci, Aysegul Eren, Gonenc Kocabay, Can Yucel Karabay, Cetin Gecmen, Cevat Kirma
Varenicline (Champix, Chantix) has been available for use in smoking cessation since 2006. This drug has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Potential mechanisms for this association include modulation of parasymphathetic output from the brainstem to the heart, release of catecholamines and prothrombotic effect. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with no known cardiac disease, who developed thrombotic occlusion of left anterior descending artery and presented with acute coronary syndrome secondary to treatment with varenicline...
December 2013: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Raye Z Litten, Megan L Ryan, Joanne B Fertig, Daniel E Falk, Bankole Johnson, Kelly E Dunn, Alan I Green, Helen M Pettinati, Domenic A Ciraulo, Ofra Sarid-Segal, Kyle Kampman, Mary F Brunette, Eric C Strain, Nassima A Tiouririne, Janet Ransom, Charles Scott, Robert Stout
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline (Chantix) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Varenicline is a partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist approved by the Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation. It has reduced drinking in animal studies and in small studies of humans who were both heavy drinkers and smokers. This is the first multisite clinical trial of varenicline in a population of smokers and nonsmokers with alcohol dependence. METHODS: Men and women (n = 200) meeting the criteria for alcohol dependence were recruited across 5 clinical sites...
July 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ethan B Van Arnam, Emily E Blythe, Henry A Lester, Dennis A Dougherty
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor shows broad pharmacology, complicating the development of subtype-specific nicotinic receptor agonists. Here we use unnatural amino acid mutagenesis to characterize binding to α7 by the smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix; Pfizer, Groton, CT), an α4β2-targeted agonist that shows full efficacy and modest potency at the α7 receptor. We find that unlike binding to its target receptor, varenicline does not form a cation-π interaction with TrpB, further supporting a unique binding mode for the cationic amine of nicotinic agonists at the α7 receptor...
August 2013: Molecular Pharmacology
Jill R Turner, Derek S Wilkinson, Rachel Lf Poole, Thomas J Gould, Gregory C Carlson, Julie A Blendy
Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, a recent study found that <10% of quit attempts resulted in continuous abstinence for 1 year. With the introduction of pharmacotherapies like Chantix (varenicline), a selective α4β2 nicotinic partial agonist, successful quit attempts have significantly increased. Therefore, novel subtype-specific nicotinic drugs, such as sazetidine-A, present a rich area for investigation of therapeutic potential in smoking cessation. The present studies examine the anxiety-related behavioral and functional effects of the nicotinic partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine-A during withdrawal from chronic nicotine in mice...
September 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Susan K Morgan, William Dumire, Carol Caudill, Amy Lewis
The purpose of this study was to illustrate one method of tracking patients' tobacco use and monitoring cessation interventions with electronic dental records in an academic dental setting. Records from 465 tobacco users were analyzed to assess patients' tobacco use and providers' intervention techniques. The results indicate that 75 percent of the patients whose records were analyzed had used tobacco for more than ten years and the cold turkey approach was the most common cessation method. Ninety-seven percent of the patients whose records were analyzed used cigarettes...
November 2012: Journal of Dental Education
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"