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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049469/the-effectiveness-of-injectable-extended-release-naltrexone-vs-daily-buprenorphine-naloxone-for-opioid-dependence-a-randomized-clinical-noninferiority-trial
#1
Lars Tanum, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Jurate Šaltyte Benth, Arild Opheim, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Peter Krajci, Nikolaj Kunøe
Importance: To date, extended-release naltrexone hydrochloride has not previously been compared directly with opioid medication treatment (OMT), currently the most commonly prescribed treatment for opioid dependence. Objective: To determine whether treatment with extended-release naltrexone will be as effective as daily buprenorphine hydrochloride with naloxone hydrochloride in maintaining abstinence from heroin and other illicit substances in newly detoxified individuals...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049278/illicit-drug-use-illicit-drug-use-disorders-and-drug-overdose-deaths-in-metropolitan-and-nonmetropolitan-areas-united-states
#2
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042804/weight-loss-medications-in-canada-a-new-frontier-or-a-repeat-of-past-mistakes
#3
Sean Wharton, Jasmine Lee, Rebecca Ag Christensen
Current methods for the treatment of excess weight can involve healthy behavior changes, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Many individuals are able to lose some degree of weight through behavioral changes; however, they are often unable to maintain their weight loss long-term. This is in part due to physiological processes that cannot be addressed through behavioral changes alone. Bariatric surgery, which is the most successful treatment for excess weight to date, does result in physiological changes that can help with weight loss and weight maintenance...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042247/murine-genetic-variance-in-muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonism-of-sucrose-and-saccharin-solution-intakes-in-three-inbred-mouse-strains
#4
Faye Bourie, Kerstin Olsson, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Gabriela Fazilov, Merna Shenouda, Julia Zhezherya, Richard J Bodnar
Nutritive (e.g., sucrose) and non-nutritive (e.g., saccharin) sweeteners stimulate intake in inbred mouse strains. BALB/c, SWR and C57BL/6 mice differ in the ability of dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390) and opioid (naltrexone) receptor antagonism to alter sucrose intake. Whereas SCH23390 comparably reduced cumulative sucrose intake in all three strains, naltrexone reduced cumulative sucrose intake maximally in C57/BL/6 mice, in intermediate fashion in BALB/c mice, but not in SWR mice. Whereas cumulative saccharin intake was reduced by DA D1 receptor antagonism in BALB/c and SWR mice, naltrexone was more potent in SWR relative to BALB/c mice...
October 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042208/antiallodynic-activity-of-leflunomide-is-partially-inhibited-by-naltrexone-and-glibenclamide-and-associated-with-reduced-production-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-cxcl-1
#5
Ana Mercy S Brito, Adriana M Godin, Paulo Sérgio A Augusto, Raquel R Menezes, Ivo S F Melo, Marcela G M B Dutra, Sarah O A M Costa, Franciele A Goulart, Felipe F Rodrigues, Isis MoraisMarcela Ísis Morais, Renes R Machado, Márcio M Coelho
Leflunomide, an immunosuppressive drug approved for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, exhibits many mechanisms which may affect the nociceptive processing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect induced by leflunomide on the mechanical allodynia in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice and investigate mechanisms mediating such effects. Per os (p.o.) administration of leflunomide (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammatory edema and mechanical allodynia induced by intraplantar carrageenan...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041942/patient-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-work-productivity-and-activity-impairment-during-treatment-with-alo-02-extended-release-oxycodone-and-sequestered-naltrexone-for-moderate-to-severe-chronic-low-back-pain
#6
Arnold J Weil, Elizabeth T Masters, Alexandra I Barsdorf, Almasa Bass, Glenn Pixton, Jacquelyn G Wilson, Gernot Wolfram
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing extended-release oxycodone and sequestered naltrexone, in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was studied in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Primary efficacy endpoint results have been published previously (Rauck et al., 2015). The current paper focuses on patient-reported outcomes for health-related quality of life (HRQL), work productivity, and activity impairment that were assessed during this study...
October 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040826/maintenance-on-naltrexone-amphetamine-decreases-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#7
Megan J Moerke, Matthew L Banks, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, S Stevens Negus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024559/comparative-efficacy-of-five-long-term-weight-loss-drugs-quantitative-information-for-medication-guidelines
#8
REVIEW
Z Dong, L Xu, H Liu, Y Lv, Q Zheng, L Li
Quantitative information is scarce in current obesity medication guidelines, and they do not clearly reflect the differences in the efficacy characteristics among various drugs. This study quantitatively assessed the efficacy characteristics of five FDA-approved long-term weight loss drugs. Potentially eligible studies were obtained from public databases. Using the differences in the weight change from baseline between the drug group and the corresponding placebo group as the major indicator of efficacy, a time-effect model was established, and crucial pharmacodynamic parameters, such as the maximal efficacy, drug onset time and rate of body weight regain after the maximal efficacy point, were used to reflect the differences in efficacy among the five drugs...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024552/current-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-a-practical-perspective
#9
Angela Golden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. METHODS: Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016275/effectiveness-of-psychoanalytic-interactional-group-therapy-vs-behavioral-group-therapy-in-routine-outpatient-treatment-of-alcohol-dependent-patients
#10
Peter W Nyhuis, Eva Niederhofer, Norbert Scherbaum, Fabrizio Schifano, Udo Bonnet, Nikolai Dembski, Anna Niederhofer, Michael Specka, Meike Tenbergen
BACKGROUND: The cognitive behavioral therapy has been extensively investigated to assess relapse prevention rates in patients with alcohol dependence. In contrast, only little is known regarding the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy in relapse prevention, although this treatment is widely used and especially so in Germany. The aim of this quasi-randomized study was to compare the effectiveness of these two group treatments' approaches under the condition of routine outpatient treatment in a non-university hospital...
October 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991360/low-dose-naltrexone-a-novel-treatment-for-hailey-hailey-disease
#11
V Campbell, C McGrath, A Corry
Hailey-Hailey disease (chronic benign familial pemphigus) is a rare inherited dermatosis typically characterised by erosions at intertriginous sites preceded by minor trauma or stress. We report a case of treatment resistant Hailey-Hailey disease, having failed topical and oral steroids, prophylactic acyclovir and doxycycline, and systemic therapies including dapsone, acitretin and ciclosporin. Low dose naltrexone (LDN) 4.5mg one daily was commenced following an incidental benefit in this patient's similarly affected sister...
October 9, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978715/minimum-effective-naltrexone-dose-to-antagonise-etorphine-immobilisation-and-prevent-the-complications-of-renarcotisation-in-domestic-goats
#12
Jacques Henry O'Dell, Michael David Kock, Peter Neil Thompson, Leith Carl Rodney Meyer
Naltrexone is used to antagonise etorphine immobilisation, but a safe and effective dose for this purpose has not been objectively determined. Eight domestic goats were immobilised with etorphine (0.07 mg/kg) eight times at ≥13 day intervals. Naltrexone at doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/mg etorphine were administered intravenously 17 minutes after etorphine injection. Effectiveness of antagonism was recorded based on recovery and renarcotisation scores and clinical observations. All doses produced rapid recovery to the point of standing (median 59 seconds, range 33-157 seconds), with no significant differences in recovery times (P=0...
October 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971229/role-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-g%C3%AE-o-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-and-dependence
#13
Jennifer T Lamberts, Lisa D Rosenthal, Emily M Jutkiewicz, John R Traynor
RATIONALE: The use of morphine and other opioids for chronic pain is limited by the development of analgesic tolerance and physical dependence. Morphine produces its effects by activating the μ opioid receptor, which couples to Gαi/o-containing heterotrimeric G proteins. Evidence suggests that the antinociceptive effects of morphine are mediated by Gαo. However, the role of Gαo in the development of morphine tolerance and dependence is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution of Gαo to the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968188/the-opioid-epidemic-crisis-and-solutions
#14
Phil Skolnick
The widespread abuse of prescription opioids and a dramatic increase in the availability of illicit opioids have created what is commonly referred to as the opioid epidemic. The magnitude of this epidemic is startling: About 4% of the adult US population misuses prescription opioids, and in 2015, more than 33,000 deaths were attributable to overdose with licit and illicit opioids. Increasing the availability of medication-assisted treatments (such as buprenorphine and naltrexone), the use of abuse-deterrent formulations, and the adoption of US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prescribing guidelines all constitute short-term approaches to quell this epidemic...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959434/naltrexone-efficacy-in-treating-alcohol-use-disorder-in-individuals-with-comorbid-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Martyna Sawicka, Derek K Tracy
BACKGROUND: Psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are typically enduring and disabling conditions, impacting individual, family, and societal outcomes. Individuals with these face greater vulnerabilities in developing alcohol-use disorder (AUD). Furthermore, the nature of psychoses, often manifesting with paranoia, cognitive impairment, a lack of insight, sub-optimal treatment adherence, and stigma from others, means that they can pose unique treatment challenges when these two conditions comorbidly occur...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948482/effect-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-single-and-multiple-dose-hydrocodone-extended-release-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Mary Bond, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt, Sally Selim, Mona Darwish, William Tracewell, Philmore Robertson, Ronghua Yang, Richard Malamut, Philippe Colucci, Murray P Ducharme, Ofer Spiegelstein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food intake can alter the pharmacokinetics of certain medications, including changes in their oral bioavailability, which is of particular concern for extended-release (ER) opioids because of the high drug loads. Two randomized, open-label studies assessed the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of hydrocodone ER formulated with CIMA(®) Abuse-Deterrence Technology. METHODS: Healthy subjects in fed and fasted states received single 90-mg doses of hydrocodone ER (Studies 1 and 2) or multiple doses of hydrocodone ER (45 mg twice daily on days 2-3, 60 mg twice daily on days 4-5, 90 mg twice daily on days 6-10, and 90 mg once in the morning on day 11) (Study 2)...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947376/antagonising-tlr4-trif-signalling-before-or-after-a-low-dose-alcohol-binge-during-adolescence-prevents-alcohol-drinking-but-not-seeking-behaviour-in-adulthood
#17
Jonathan Henry Jacobsen, Femke Buisman-Pijlman, Sanam Mustafa, Kenner C Rice, Mark R Hutchinson
Adolescents frequently engage in risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Binge drinking, in turn, perturbs neurodevelopment reinforcing reward seeking behaviour in adulthood. Current animal models are limited in their portrayal of this behaviour and the assessment of neuroimmune involvement (specifically the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)). Therefore, the aims of this project were to develop a more relevant animal model of adolescent alcohol exposure and to characterise its effects on TLR4 signalling and alcohol-related behaviours later life...
September 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940866/pharmacologically-controlled-drinking-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-or-alcohol-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-with-direct-and-network-meta-analyses-on-nalmefene-naltrexone-acamprosate-baclofen-and-topiramate
#18
REVIEW
Clément Palpacuer, Renan Duprez, Alexandre Huneau, Clara Locher, Rémy Boussageon, Bruno Laviolle, Florian Naudet
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is an emerging concept. Our objective was to explore the comparative effectiveness of drugs used in this indication. DESIGN: Systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in non-abstinent adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence or AUDs...
September 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935287/past-present-and-future-of-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#19
David Benaiges, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, Elisenda Climent, Albert Goday
Conventional treatment for obesity with diet, exercise and bariatric surgery has limitations; thus, it is necessary to have pharmacological tools. In the past, different drugs were marketed that were withdrawn due to safety problems. There are currently 3 drugs approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity therapy (orlistat, combination of bupropion and delayed-release naltrexone and liraglutide) and two more only authorized by FDA (lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate)...
September 18, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920822/a-retrospective-comparison-of-chemical-immobilization-with-thiafentanil-thiafentanil-azaperone-or-etorphine-acepromazine-in-captive-persian-fallow-deer-dama-dama-mesopotamica
#20
Roi Lapid, Roni King, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Records of 56 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) immobilized for translocation were reviewed. Twenty-three were administered 0.05 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD) mg/kg thiafentanil (THIA), 20 were administered 0.045 ± 0.008 mg/kg thiafentanil combined with 0.19 ± 0.03 mg/kg azaperone (THIA-AZP), and 13 were administered 0.032 ± 0.04 mg/kg etorphine-acepromazine (ETOR-ACP) by intramuscular remote injection. Parameters recorded and compared between groups included induction and recovery times, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, reflexes, quality of immobilization, and blood concentrations of lactate and glucose...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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