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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433003/the-plastid-outer-membrane-localized-lptd1-is-important-for-glycerolipid-remodeling-under-phosphate-starvation
#1
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Christian Ehmann, Nadine Flinner, Roman Ladig, Enrico Schleiff
Glycerolipid synthesis in plants is coordinated between plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A central step within the glycerolipid synthesis is the transport of phosphatidic acid from ER to chloroplasts. The chloroplast outer envelope protein TGD4 belongs to the LptD family conserved in bacteria and plants and selectively binds and may transports phosphatidic acid. We describe a second LptD-family protein in A. thaliana (atLPTD1; At2g44640) characterized by a barrel domain with an amino acid signature typical for cyanobacterial LptDs...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432538/superoxide-generated-in-the-chloroplast-stroma-causes-photoinhibition-of-photosystem-i-in-the-shade-establishing-tree-species-psychotria-henryi
#2
Wei Huang, Ying-Jie Yang, Jiao-Lin Zhang, Hong Hu, Shi-Bao Zhang
Our previous studies indicated that high light induced significant photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) in the shade-establishing tree species Psychotria henryi. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. In the present study, in order to investigate the mechanism of PSI photoinhibition in P. henryi, we treated detached leaves with constant high light in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) or a soluble α-tocopherol analog, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). We found that MV significantly depressed photochemical quantum yields in PSI and PSII when compared to PMC...
April 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430624/photosensitizers-in-prostate-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Taher Gheewala, Troy Skwor, Gnanasekar Munirathinam
The search for new therapeutics for the treatment of prostate cancer is ongoing with a focus on the balance between the harms and benefits of treatment. New therapies are being constantly developed to offer treatments similar to radical therapies, with limited side effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising strategy in delivering focal treatment in primary as well as post radiotherapy prostate cancer. PDT involves activation of a photosensitizer (PS) by appropriate wavelength of light, generating transient levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430462/fuzzy-dark-matter-from-infrared-confining-dynamics
#4
Hooman Davoudiasl, Christopher W Murphy
A very light boson of mass O(10^{-22})  eV may potentially be a viable dark matter (DM) candidate, which can avoid phenomenological problems associated with cold DM. Such "fuzzy DM (FDM)" may naturally be an axion with a decay constant f_{a}∼10^{16}-10^{18}  GeV and a mass m_{a}∼μ^{2}/f_{a} with μ∼10^{2}  eV. Here, we propose a concrete model, where μ arises as a dynamical scale from infrared confining dynamics, analogous to QCD. Our model is an alternative to the usual approach of generating μ through string theoretic instanton effects...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430105/switching-of-metabolic-programs-in-response-to-light-availability-is-an-essential-function-of-the-cyanobacterial-circadian-output-pathway
#5
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The transcription factor RpaA is the master regulator of circadian transcription in cyanobacteria, driving genome-wide oscillations in mRNA abundance. Deletion of rpaA has no effect on viability in constant light conditions, but renders cells inviable in cycling conditions when light and dark periods alternate. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this viability defect, and demonstrate that the rpaA(-) strain cannot maintain appropriate energy status at night, does not accumulate carbon reserves during the day, and is defective in transcription of genes crucial for utilization of carbohydrate stores at night...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426809/denaturation-of-proteins-by-surfactants-studied-by-the-taylor-dispersion-analysis
#6
Aldona Jelińska, Anna Zagożdżon, Marcin Górecki, Agnieszka Wisniewska, Jadwiga Frelek, Robert Holyst
We showed that the Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) is a fast and easy to use method for the study of denaturation proteins. We applied TDA to study denaturation of β-lactoglobulin, transferrin, and human insulin by anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). A series of measurements at constant protein concentration (for transferrin was 1.9 x 10-5 M, for β- lactoglobulin was 7.6 x 10-5 M, and for insulin was 1.2 x 10-4 M) and varying SDS concentrations were carried out in the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425198/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-epha4-is-involved-in-circadian-clock-functions
#7
Silke Kiessling, Emma K O'Callaghan, Marlène Freyburger, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian (~24 h) rhythms of cellular network plasticity in the central circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been described. The neuronal network in the SCN regulates photic resetting of the circadian clock as well as stability of the circadian system during both entrained and constant conditions. EphA4, a cell adhesion molecule regulating synaptic plasticity by controlling connections of neurons and astrocytes, is expressed in the SCN. To address whether EphA4 plays a role in circadian photoreception and influences the neuronal network of the SCN, we have analysed circadian wheel-running behavior of EphA4 knockout (EphA4(-/-) ) mice under different light conditions and upon photic resetting, as well as their light-induced protein response in the SCN...
April 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423314/cyanobacteria-maintain-constant-protein-concentration-despite-genome-copy-number-variation
#8
Xiao-Yu Zheng, Erin K O'Shea
The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has multiple copies of its single chromosome, and the copy number varies in individual cells, providing an ideal system to study the effect of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number. Cell volume and the total protein amount from a single gene were both positively, linearly correlated with genome copy number, suggesting that changes in cell volume play an important role in buffering genome copy-number variance...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419942/nucleotide-directed-syntheses-of-gold-nanohybrid-systems-with-structure-dependent-optical-features-selective-fluorescence-sensing-of-fe-3-ions
#9
Ditta Ungor, Edit Csapó, Barbara Kismárton, Ádám Juhász, Imre Dékány
This study demonstrates a one-step synthesis for the preparation of both adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles (AMP-Au NPs) and fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AMP-Au NCs). The dominant role of AMP:AuCl4(-) molar ratios in the formation of diverse nanosized Au products was proved. The size, the structure and the unique structure-dependent optical properties of the NPs and NCs were determined based on the results of numerous spectroscopic (UV-vis, fluorescence, infrared, x-ray photoelectron), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques...
April 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419148/how-long-to-rest-in-unpredictably-changing-habitats
#10
Mirosław Slusarczyk, Jacek Starzyński, Piotr Bernatowicz
In the present study, we investigated the optimum length of prolonged dormancy (developmental arrest extending over favourable periods) of organisms under uncertain environmental conditions. We used an artificial life model to simulate the evolution of suspended development in the ontogenesis of organisms inhabiting unpredictably changing habitats. A virtual population of semelparous parthenogenetic individuals that varied in a duration of developmental arrest competed for limited resources. At a constant level of available resources, uninterrupted development was the superior life strategy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418034/light-and-circadian-controlled-genes-respond-to-a-broad-light-spectrum-in-puffer-fish-derived-fugu-eye-cells
#11
Keiko Okano, Shoichi Ozawa, Hayao Sato, Sawa Kodachi, Masaharu Ito, Toshiaki Miyadai, Akihiro Takemura, Toshiyuki Okano
Some cell lines retain intrinsic phototransduction pathways to control the expression of light-regulated genes such as the circadian clock gene. Here we investigated the photosensitivity of a Fugu eye, a cell line established from the eye of Takifugu rubripes, to examine whether such a photosensitive nature is present. Microarray analysis identified 15 genes that showed blue light-dependent change at the transcript level. We investigated temporal profiles of the light-induced genes, as well as Cry and Per, under light-dark, constant light (LL), and constant dark (DD) conditions by quantitative RT-PCR...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417480/efficient-red-perovskite-light-emitting-diodes-based-on-solution-processed-multiple-quantum-wells
#12
Shuting Zhang, Chang Yi, Nana Wang, Yan Sun, Wei Zou, Yingqiang Wei, Yu Cao, Yanfeng Miao, Renzhi Li, Yao Yin, Ni Zhao, Jianpu Wang, Wei Huang
This paper reports a facile and scalable process to achieve high performance red perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by introducing inorganic Cs into multiple quantum well (MQW) perovskites. The MQW structure facilitates the formation of cubic CsPbI3 perovskites at low temperature, enabling the Cs-based QWs to provide pure and stable red electroluminescence. The versatile synthesis of MQW perovskites provides freedom to control the crystallinity and morphology of the emission layer. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of chloride can further improve the crystallization and consequently the optical properties of the Cs-based MQW perovskites, inducing a low turn-on voltage of 2...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416664/three-dimensional-stable-lithium-metal-anode-with-nanoscale-lithium-islands-embedded-in-ionically-conductive-solid-matrix
#13
Dingchang Lin, Jie Zhao, Jie Sun, Hongbin Yao, Yayuan Liu, Kai Yan, Yi Cui
Rechargeable batteries based on lithium (Li) metal chemistry are attractive for next-generation electrochemical energy storage. Nevertheless, excessive dendrite growth, infinite relative dimension change, severe side reactions, and limited power output severely impede their practical applications. Although exciting progress has been made to solve parts of the above issues, a versatile solution is still absent. Here, a Li-ion conductive framework was developed as a stable "host" and efficient surface protection to address the multifaceted problems, which is a significant step forward compared with previous host concepts...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416013/no-seasonal-variation-in-physical-activity-of-han-chinese-living-in-beijing
#14
Guanlin Wang, Baoguo Li, Xueying Zhang, Chaoqun Niu, Jianbo Li, Li Li, John R Speakman
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is widely acknowledged to be beneficial to health and wellbeing, and is potentially influenced by a variety of environmental factors such as ambient temperature, weather conditions and air pollution levels. Since these factors vary seasonally, physical activity participation may also respond seasonally. Current population studies to profile physical activity often sample individuals only once, and this may result in biased estimates if there is strong seasonal variation...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412810/ultraviolet-light-makes-dgmp-floppy-femtosecond-stimulated-raman-spectroscopy-of-2-deoxyguanosine-5-monophosphate
#15
Joohyun Lee, J Reddy Challa, David W McCamant
The ultrafast dynamics of 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate (dGMP) after excitation with ultraviolet light has been studied with femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). TA kinetics and transient anisotropy spectra reveal a rapid relaxation from the Franck-Condon region, producing an extremely red-shifted stimulated emission band at ~440-nm that is formed after 200 fs and subsequent relaxation 0.8-1.5 ps, consistent with prior studies. Viscosity dependence shows that the initial relaxation, prior to 0...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412639/aggregation-of-thermoresponsive-core-shell-nanoparticles-influence-of-particle-concentration-dispersant-molecular-weight-and-grafting
#16
Steffen Kurzhals, Noga Gal, Ronald Zirbs, Erik Reimhult
Thermoresponsive core-shell nanoparticles represent an interesting class of materials with a triggered solubility transition. However, depending on the system, their aggregation behavior above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is ambiguous and obviously linked to a multitude of parameters. The induced aggregation of a set of well characterized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-nitrodopamine grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is investigated with respect to the PNIPAM molecular weight (5-30kDa) and concentration using differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-cycled dynamic light scattering measurements...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411644/enzyme-adsorption-on-nanoparticle-surface-probed-by-highly-sensitive-second-harmonic-light-scattering
#17
Anindita Das, Abhijit Chakrabarti, Puspendu K Das
Recent developments in second harmonic light scattering technique and the associated theoretical models have provided a deeper insight of molecular interactions on micro- and nanoparticle surfaces. This technique is extended to probe the thermodynamics of protein adsorption on nanoparticle surface which is crucial for understanding the fate of nanoparticle-based formulations in biomedical applications. A modified Langmuir adsorption model has been applied to extract the thermodynamic parameters from the experimental data...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411636/armored-urease-enzyme-bioconjugated-poly-acrylamide-hydrogel-as-a-storage-and-sensing-platform
#18
Konda R Kunduru, S N Raju Kutcherlapati, Dhamodaran Arunbabu, Tushar Jana
Jack bean urease is an important enzyme not only because of its numerous uses in medical and other fields but also because of its historical significance-the first enzyme to be crystallized and also the first nickel metalloenzyme. This enzyme hydrolyzes urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide; however, the stability of this enzyme at ambient temperature is a bottleneck for its applicability. To improve urease stability, it was immobilized on different substrates, particularly on polymeric hydrogels. In this study, the enzyme was coupled covalently with poly(acrylamide) hydrogel with an yield of 18μmol/cm(3)...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406193/breathing-modes-of-kolumbo-submarine-volcano-santorini-greece
#19
Evangelos Bakalis, Theo J Mertzimekis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Francesco Zerbetto
Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401585/a-proposed-scoring-system-for-assessing-the-severity-of-actinic-keratosis-on-the-head-actinic-keratosis-area-and-severity-index-akasi
#20
T Dirschka, G Pellacani, G Micali, J Malvehy, A J Stratigos, A Casari, L Schmitz, G Gupta
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) severity is currently evaluated by subjective assessment of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop and perform an initial pilot validation of a new easy-to-use quantitative tool for assessing AK severity on the head. METHODS: The actinic keratosis area and severity index (AKASI) for the head was developed based on a review of other severity scoring systems in dermatology, in particular the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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