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Che-Wei Chang, Xiangchen Huo, Tsair-Fuh Lin
The aims of this study are to evaluate, under visible light conditions, the ability of H2 O2 and TiO2 to produce OH, their quantitative impacts on the cell integrity of Microcystis, and the subsequent release and degradation of microcystins (MCs). A sequential reaction model was developed, including one sub-model to simulate the rupture kinetics for cell integrity of Microcystis, and another to describe the release and degradation of MCs. For cell rupture, the dual-oxidant Delayed Chick-Watson model (DCWM) and dual-oxidant Hom model (HM) were first proposed and developed, giving excellent simulation results of cell rupture kinetics...
May 14, 2018: Water Research
Claudia Kästner, Linda Böhmert, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Andreas F Thünemann
Silver nanoparticles are among the most widely used und produced nanoparticles. Due to their frequent application in consumer products, the assessment of their toxicological potential has seen a renewed importance. A major difficulty is the traceability of nanoparticles in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Even if the particles are labeled, for example by a fluorescent marker, the dynamic exchange of ligands often prohibits their spatial localization. Our study provides an insight into the adsorption and desorption kinetics of two different fluorescent labels on silver nanoparticles with a core radius of 3 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence spectroscopy...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Mengkai Li, Mengyu Hao, Laxiang Yang, Hong Yao, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley, Zhimin Qiang
The vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet/chlorine (VUV/UV/chlorine) process, with a VUV/UV mercury lamp used as the light source, was found to be a highly efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) in a previous study. Hence, its application feasibility for trace organic pollutant removal from drinking water becomes attractive. In this work, a bench-scale mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system was used to determine the degradation kinetics of sulfamethazine (SMN), a model sulfonamide antibiotic frequently detected with trace levels in aquatic environments...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Li, Ke R Yang, Xiahui Yao, Yumin He, Qi Dong, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, Dunwei Wang
The performance of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is highly dependent on the charge separation, transport and transfer characteristics at the photoelectrode|electrolyte interface. Of the factors that influence the charge behaviors, the crystalline facets of the semiconductor in contact with the electrolyte play an important role but has been poorly studied previously. Here, we present a study aimed at understanding how the different facets of hematite affect the charge separation and transfer behaviors in a solar water oxidation reaction...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wentian Sun, Kai Xia, Xinqi Huang, Xiao Cen, Qing Liu, Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility, safety and stability of current interventions for moving teeth through the maxillary sinus (MTTMS) by performing a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and SIGLE were searched without a language restriction. The primary outcomes were parameters related to orthodontic treatment, including orthodontic protocols, magnitude of forces, type of tooth movement, duration and rate of tooth movement, and remolding of alveolar bone and the maxillary sinus floor...
May 23, 2018: BMC Oral Health
F Chavez-Gutierrez, A Martinez-Rios, D Toral-Acosta, D Torres-Armenta, J A Guerrero-Viramontes
The simultaneous measurement of the numerical aperture (NA) and mode field diameter (MFD) of single-mode fibers was performed on several commercial fibers by means of digital image processing of the output light projected into a screen. In addition, the changes induced by core diffusion in an ultra-high (UH) NA fiber at several heat depositions from a CO2 laser source were measured. The measurement method was demonstrated to be useful to monitor the adiabaticity of this process, by taking the product of the NA and MFD to verify if it remains constant...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Quan-De Wang, Zi-Wu Liu
Alkenes are important ingredients of realistic fuels and are also critical intermediates during the combustion of a series of other fuels including alkanes, cycloalkanes and biofules. To provide insights into the combustion behavior of alkenes, detailed quantum chemical studies for crucial reactions are desired. Hydrogen abstractions of alkenes play a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules. This work is motivated by previous experimental and modeling evidences that current literature rate coefficients for the abstraction reactions of alkenes are still in need of refinement and/or re-determination...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shigekazu Ito, Yasuhiro Ueta, Kota Koshino, Kenji M Kojima, Iain McKenzie, Koichi Mikami
A 1,3-diphosphacyclobutane-2,4-diyl contains a unique unsaturated cyclic unit, and the presence of radical-type centres have been expected as a source of functionalities. This study demonstrates that the P-heterocyclic singlet biradical captures muonium (Mu = [µ+e-]) of the light isotope of hydrogen radical to generate an observable P-heterocyclic paramagnetic species. Investigation of a powder sample of 2,4-bis(2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenyl)-1-t-butyl-3-benzyl-1,3-diphosphacyclobutane-2,4-diyl by muon avoided level-crossing resonance (µLCR) spectroscopy revealed that muonium adds to the cyclic P2C2 unit...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kui Yang, Jia Wen, Shuang Chao, Jing Liu, Ke Yang, Yuxin Pei, Zhichao Pei
A supramolecular photosensitizer system WP6-MB was synthesized based on water-soluble pillar[6]arene and the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) via host-guest interaction. MB can complex with WP6 directly with a high complex constant without further modification. In particular, WP6-MB can reduce the dark toxicity of MB remarkably. Furthermore, it can efficiently overcome photobleaching and extend the time for singlet oxygen production of MB upon light irradiation, which is significant for durable photodynamic therapy...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Qiwei Li, Xinlei Wang, Faming Liang, Faliu Yi, Yang Xie, Adi Gazdar, Guanghua Xiao
Digital pathology imaging of tumor tissues, which captures histological details in high resolution, is fast becoming a routine clinical procedure. Recent developments in deep-learning methods have enabled the identification, characterization, and classification of individual cells from pathology images analysis at a large scale. This creates new opportunities to study the spatial patterns of and interactions among different types of cells. Reliable statistical approaches to modeling such spatial patterns and interactions can provide insight into tumor progression and shed light on the biological mechanisms of cancer...
May 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Ajda Yilmaz, Andries Kalsbeek, Ruud M Buijs
The present study investigates the circadian behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) during the pre-hypertensive and hypertensive stage, with the aim to gain insight into whether observed changes in the functionality of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypertensive state are cause or consequence of hypertension. Four types of animals were used in this study: (1) SHRs which develop hypertension genetically; (2) their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs); (3) Wistar rats whereby hypertension was surgically induced (2 Kidney 1 Clamp (2K1C) method); and (4) sham-operated control Wistar rats...
May 22, 2018: Chronobiology International
Guillermo Ripoll, Margalida Joy, Begoña Panea
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit...
May 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Huiyan Liu, Qian Dong, Rene Lopez
The oxidation speed of PbS quantum dots has been a subject of controversy for some time. In this study, we reveal the precise functional form of the oxidation rate constant for bare quantum dots through analysis of their photoluminescence as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and excitation-laser intensity. The combined effect of these factors results in a reduced energy barrier that allows the oxidation to proceed at a high rate. Each absorbed photon is found to have a 10-8 probability of oxidizing a PbS atomic pair...
May 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Khouloud Fekih Ahmed, Adel Aschi, Taco Nicolai
Hybrid protein-polysaccharide particles were formed by complexation of fractal whey protein aggregates and the cationic polysaccharide chitosan. The fractal aggregates were preformed by heating native whey protein isolate at pH 7 and subsequently mixed with chitosan at pH 3 where these proteins and polysaccharides don't interact with each other. Stable dispersions of protein-polysaccharide particles were formed spontaneously when the pH was gradually increased between 4.1 and 6.8, whereas in the absence of chitosan the fractal aggregates precipitated between pH 4...
May 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mohamed Shaker S Adam, Hany Elsawy
New series of oxo-vanadium N-salicyledieneamino acid Schiff base complexes are synthesized and characterized. They are synthesized from the reaction of sodium salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonate, some amino acids, alanine (VOHL1), leucine (VOHL2) or glycine (VOHL3) in an aqueous media, and leucine (VOHLpy1) or tryptophan (VOHLpy2) in pyridine with vanadyl acetylacetonate. The complexes are characterized by EA, TGA, IR, UV-Visible and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic measurements. The biological activity of the VO-complexes shows that VOHL1, VOHL2 and VOHL3 exhibit anti-proliferative effect and may be used as anticancer drugs...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Margo Dona, Ralph Slijkerman, Kimberly Lerner, Sanne Broekman, Jeremy Wegner, Taylor Howat, Theo Peters, Lisette Hetterschijt, Nando Boon, Erik de Vrieze, Nasrin Sorusch, Uwe Wolfrum, Hannie Kremer, Stephan Neuhauss, Jingjing Zang, Maarten Kamermans, Monte Westerfield, Jennifer Phillips, Erwin van Wijk
Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2armc1 : c...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
F Yoshihara, T Fuse, Z Ao, S Ashhab, K Kakuyanagi, S Saito, T Aoki, K Koshino, K Semba
We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to LC oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ling Cheng, Yulu Tian, Jingdong Zhang
A p-n heterojunction film of Cu2 O/α-Fe2 O3 was constructed by electrodepositing p-type Cu2 O microcubes on liquid phase deposited film of n-type α-Fe2 O3 . The surface morphology, the crystal phase and composition of Cu2 O/α-Fe2 O3 heterojunction film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The enhanced absorption in the visible light region was observed in UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. Meanwhile, an efficiently improved separation and faster transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes were revealed by photoluminescence spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yang Chen, Jine Wang, Yajie Zhang, Lijun Xu, Tian Gao, Bing Wang, Renjun Pei
Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA, which can be selected in vitro by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). In order to develop novel light-up probes to substitute G-quadruplex (G4), we selected a DNA aptamer for crystal violet (CV), a triphenylmethane light-up dye, by a modified affinity chromatography-based SELEX. The ssDNA pool was first coupled on streptavidin-coated agarose beads through a biotin labeled complementary oligonucleotide, and then the aptamer sequences would be released from agarose beads by CV affinity...
May 17, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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