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S Sukhbir, S Yashpal, A Sandeep
Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition such as neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 3(5) Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Maartje Liefting, Jarno Cosijn, Jacintha Ellers
Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jianzhong Ma, Chengzhu Zhu, Jun Lu, Tao Wang, Shuheng Hu, Tianhu Chen
The photochemical reaction between biphenyl (Bp) and N(III) under irradiation at 365 nm UV light was investigated. The results showed that Bp conversion efficiency was strongly influenced by N (III) concentration, Bp initial concentration and pH. Species-specific rate constants determined by reaction of Bp with H2ONO(+) (k1), HONO (k2) and NO2(-) (k3) were k1 = (0.058 ± 0.005 L mol(-1) s(-1)), k2 = (0.12 ± 0.06 L mol(-1) s(-1)) and k3 = (0.0019 ± 0.0003 L mol(-1) s(-1)), respectively...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
V A Banakh, I A Razenkov
Experimental data proving the possibility of lidar measurement of the refractive turbulence strength based on the effect of backscattering amplification are reported. It is shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that the values of the amplification factor correlate with the variance of random jitter of the optical image of an incoherent light source depending on the value of the structure constant of the air refractive index turbulent fluctuations averaged over the probing path.
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Qin Wang, Katherine J Franz
Metal ions are essential for a wide range of physiological processes, but they can also be toxic if not appropriately regulated by a complex network of metal trafficking proteins. Intervention in cellular metal distribution with small-molecule or peptide chelating agents has promising therapeutic potential to harness metals to fight disease. Molecular outcomes associated with forming metal-chelate interactions in situ include altering the concentration and subcellular metal distribution, inhibiting metalloenzymes, enhancing the reactivity of a metal species to elicit a favorable biological response, or passivating the reactivity of a metal species to prevent deleterious reactivity...
October 17, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Junjian An, Guangyan Zhang, Rongfeng Zheng, Peng Wang
BiFeO3-g-C3N4 nanoscaled composite was prepared with a hydrothermal method and evaluated as a highly efficient photo-Fenton like catalyst under visible light irradiation. The BiFeO3-g-C3N4 composite exhibited much stronger adsorption ability to lignin model pollutant (guaiacol) than that of BiFeO3, which may be due to the higher specific surface area (BiFeO3-g-C3N4: 35.59m(2)/g>BiFeO3: 7.42m(2)/g) and the adsorption form of π-π stack between g-C3N4 and guaiacol. The composite exhibited excellent visible light-Fenton like catalysis activity, being influenced by the solution pH value and the proportions of BiFeO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Bhaskar Sen, Sanjoy Kumar Sheet, Romita Thounaojam, Ramen Jamatia, Amarta Kumar Pal, Kripamoy Aguan, Snehadrinarayan Khatua
A new coumarin based Schiff base compound, CSB-1 has been synthesized to detect metal ion based on the chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The cation binding properties of CSB-1 was thoroughly examined in UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In fluorescence spectroscopy the compound showed high selectivity toward Al(3+) ion and the Al(3+) can be quantified in mixed aqueous buffer solution (MeOH: 0.01M HEPES Buffer; 9:1; v/v) at pH7.4 as well as in BSA media. The fluorescence intensity of CSB-1 was enhanced by ~24 fold after addition of only five equivalents of Al(3+)...
October 11, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
S K Adhikari
We consider the statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal light bullet in a cubic-quintic nonlinear medium with a focusing cubic nonlinearity above a critical value and any defocusing quintic nonlinearity. The 3D light bullet can propagate with a constant velocity in any direction. Stability of the light bullet under a small perturbation is established numerically. We consider frontal collision between two light bullets with different relative velocities. At large velocities the collision is elastic with the bullets emerge after collision with practically no distortion...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
M Braibanti, C Haro-Pérez, M Quesada-Pérez, L F Rojas-Ochoa, V Trappe
We explore the electrostatic properties of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide microgels in dilute, quasi-de-ionized dispersions and show that the apparent net charge of these thermosensitive microgels is an increasing function of their size, the size being conveniently varied by temperature. Our experimental results obtained in a combination of light scattering, conductivity, and mobility experiments are consistent with those obtained in Poisson-Boltzmann cell model calculations, effectively indicating that upon shrinking the number of counterions entrapped within the microgels increases...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Wenzhe Li, Jiandong Fan, Jiangwei Li, Guangda Niu, Yaohua Mai, Liduo Wang
Currently, the potential mechanism of the solvent-assisted crystallization for mixed cations perovskite thin film (FAxMA1-xPbI3) prepared via two-step solution-process still remains obscure. Here, we clarified the molecular-competing-reacted process of NH2CH=NH2I (FAI) and CH3NH3I (MAI) with PbI2(DMSO)x complex in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diethyl ether (DE) catalytic solvent system in the sequential two-step solution-process. The microscopic dynamics was characterized via the characterizations of in-situ photoluminescence (PL) spectra...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Colin E Vize, Donald R Lynam, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller
Since its emergence 14 years ago the dark triad (DT), composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, has become an increasingly popular research focus. Yet questions remain over whether the DT components are sufficiently distinct from another. We examined the nomological networks of each DT component through a meta-analysis of the available literature on the DT. We conducted 3 separate analyses-an examination of the average intercorrelations among the DT components (k = 156), an examination of similarities in each DT component's nomological network (k = 159), and an examination of the effect sizes between DT components and 15 outcome categories (k range = 7 to 42)...
October 13, 2016: Personality Disorders
Idan Elbaz, David Zada, Adi Tovin, Tslil Braun, Tali Lerer-Goldshtein, Gordon Wang, Philippe Mourrain, Lior Appelbaum
Sleep is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and homeostatic mechanisms. Although the sleep/wake cycle is known to be associated with structural and physiological synaptic changes that benefit the brain, the function of sleep is still debated. The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons regulate various functions including feeding, reward, sleep, and wake. Continuous imaging of single neuronal circuits in live animals is vital to understanding the role of sleep in regulating synaptic dynamics, and the transparency of the zebrafish model enables time-lapse imaging of single synapses during both day and night...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Kalpesh Sorathiya, Biswajit Mishra, Abhishek Kalarikkal, Kasala Prabhakar Reddy, Chinnakonda S Gopinath, Deepa Khushalani
Recyclability is an important aspect for heterogeneous photo-catalysts. Ease of recovery and stability of the photo-catalyst in terms of efficiency over the number of cycles are highly desired and in fact it is ideal if the efficiency is constant and it should not decrease marginally with each cycle. Presented here is a seminal observation in which the photocatalytic activity is shown to improve with increasing number of catalytic cycles (it is 1.7 times better after the 1(st) cycle and 3.1 times better after the 2(nd) cycle)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tamar Arens-Arad, Nairouz Farah, Shai Ben-Yaish, Alex Zlotnik, Zeev Zalevsky, Yossi Mandel
Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal's retina...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nguyễn Hoàng Ly, Jinha Yoon, Dinh Bao Nguyen, Kwang-Hwi Cho, Sang-Woo Joo
We report a combined approach that introduces the use of 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 (4AB15C5) for the detection of ferric(III) ions by colorimetric, ultraviolet (UV)-visible light absorption, fluorescence, and live-cell imaging techniques along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We have found that 4AB15C5 is sensitive and selective for binding ferric(III) ions in aqueous solutions. DFT calculations using the polarizable continuum model have been used to explain the strong binding of the ferric ion by 4AB15C5 in aqueous solutions...
October 12, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Wendi S Neckameyer, Parag Bhatt
Drosophila melanogaster is an incredibly versatile organism capable of both innate and higher-order behaviors. These behaviors offer not only a way to assay whether or not the animal is physiologically compromised (e.g., feeding, locomotion), but also serve to assess changes in centrally mediated functions. Here we describe several high throughput, reproducible, yet inexpensive and facile behavioral assays for both larval and adult Drosophila. The larval assays all employ an agar substrate in a petri dish; the adult assays are grouped into "vial-based" and "arena-based" paradigms...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
C H Siebert, R Becker, M Buchner, J Förster, K-H Frosch, A Losch, P Niemeyer, S Scheffler
The number of patients with meniscal injuries is increasing constantly, but the treatment algorithms are undergoing continuous change. The effects of meniscal surgery, as well as the indications for the procedure, are currently a matter of heated debate. Various German speaking associations addressing topics related to the knee have joined forces to develop guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation and therapy of meniscal lesions. The hope is that this first of two publications will shed light on some of the ongoing issues and offer guidance to health care professionals treating these patients...
October 11, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mina Mozafari, Jean-Claude Brodovitch, Lalangi Chandrasena, Paul Walter Percival
In addition to their importance as abundant hydrocarbon deposits in nature, clathrate hydrates are being studied as potential media for hydrogen and carbon dioxide storage, and as "nano-reactors" for small molecules. However, little is known about the behaviour of reactive species in such materials. We have employed muon spin spectroscopy to characterize various organic free radicals which reside as isolated guests in structure II clathrates. The radicals are formed by reaction of atomic muonium (Mu) with the guest molecules: furan and two isomeric dihydrofurans...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Luciano Polonelli, Tecla Ciociola, Lisa Elviri, Pier Paolo Zanello, Laura Giovati, Denise C Arruda, Julián E Muñoz, Renato A Mortara, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi, Serena Galati, Oriano Marin, Claudio Casoli, Elisabetta Pilotti, Paola Ronzi, Luiz R Travassos, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti
A phosphorylated peptide, named K40H, derived from the constant region of IgMs was detected in human serum by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Synthetic K40H proved to exert a potent in vitro activity against fungal pathogens, and to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and ex vivo. It also showed a therapeutic effect against an experimental infection by Candida albicans in the invertebrate model Galleria mellonella. K40H represents the proof of concept of the innate role that naturally occurring antibody fragments may exert against infectious agents, shedding a new light upon the posthumous role of antibodies and opening a new scenario on the multifaceted functionality of humoral immunity...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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