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Urate AND cognition

A D Andersen, M Binzer, E Stenager, J B Gramsbergen
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical history and physical examination, but misdiagnosis is common in early stages. Identification of biomarkers for PD may allow early and more precise diagnosis and monitoring of dopamine replacement strategies and disease modifying treatments. Developments in analytical chemistry allow the detection of large numbers of molecules in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, associated with the pathophysiology or pathogenesis of PD. This systematic review includes cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies focusing on different disease pathways: oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, lysosomal dysfunction and proteins involved in PD and other neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on four clinical domains: their ability to (1) distinguish PD from healthy subjects and other neurodegenerative disorders as well as their relation to (2) disease duration after initial diagnosis, (3) severity of disease (motor symptoms) and (4) cognitive dysfunction...
March 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Hui Gao, Lijun Chen, Jianjun Xu, Fang Yang, Xiaoqi Wang, Dongzhou Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the compliance and its related factors of gout patients during the intercritical period. METHODS: A total of 218 gout patients were recruited. Compliance and cognition of gout were evaluated via telephone interview. Case control study was performed between compliance patients and non-compliance ones to explore the factors affecting patients' compliance. The association between compliance scores and cognition scores was evaluated by linear regression and correlation analysis...
July 21, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva Camerino, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira Lima, Thássia Casado Lima França, Edla de Azevedo Herculano, Daniela Souza Araújo Rodrigues, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa Gouveia, L C Cameron, Eduardo Seixas Prado
Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment...
February 2016: Food & Function
Emily L Goldberg, Vishwa Deep Dixit
Aging is the greatest risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as arthritis, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, frailty, and certain forms of cancers. It is widely regarded that chronic inflammation may be a common link in all these age-related diseases. This raises the question, can one alter the course of aging and potentially slow the development of all chronic diseases by manipulating the mechanisms that cause age-related inflammation? Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-18 show an age-dependent regulation implicating inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation in the aging process...
May 2015: Immunological Reviews
Félix J Jiménez-Jiménez, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Elena García-Martín, José A G Agúndez
The blood-brain barrier supplies brain tissues with nutrients and filters certain compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream. In several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), there are disruptions of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been widely investigated in PD and in other parkinsonian syndromes with the aim of establishing useful biomarkers for an accurate differential diagnosis among these syndromes. This review article summarizes the studies reported on CSF levels of many potential biomarkers of PD...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Allan Bayat, Mette Christensen, Flemming Wibrand, Morten Duno, Allan Lund
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency results in a continuous spectrum of clinical phenotypes though all include overproduction of uric acid with hyperuricaemia, urate nephrolithiasis and gout. HPRT1 mutations that result in very low or no HPRT enzyme activities are generally associated with the classic Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) phenotype with intellectual disability, motor handicap and self-injurious behaviour. Mutations that permit a higher residual HPRT activity are seen in some patients with the milder LND variant phenotypes with varying degrees of cognitive, motor handicap and maladaptive behaviour without recurrent self-injury...
2015: JIMD Reports
Opetaia Aati, William J Taylor, Richard J Siegert, Anne Horne, Meaghan E House, Paul Tan, Jill Drake, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth
BACKGROUND: Tophus burden is currently measured using physical examination and imaging methods. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-reported outcome (PRO) tool to assess tophus burden in people with gout. METHODS: The responses from interviews with 25 people with tophaceous gout were used to generate items for a preliminary PRO tool. Following cognitive testing of each item, a preliminary 34-item questionnaire was administered to 103 people with tophaceous gout...
December 2015: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Niikee C Schoendorfer, Rima Obeid, Leith Moxon-Lester, Nita Sharp, Luis Vitetta, Roslyn N Boyd, Peter S W Davies
BACKGROUND:   Methylation cycle and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism maintenance is important for many physiological processes including neurotransmitter regulation, nerve myelination and DNA synthesis. These processes play an indispensible role in growth and development, as well as in cognitive function and neuromuscular stability, which are key issues in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS:   Blood samples were collected from children with severe CP (n = 24) and age-matched typically developing healthy controls (n = 24), as an exploratory study...
July 2012: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rosa J Torres, Juan G Puig, H A Jinnah
Congenital deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. All of these phenotypes are associated with marked overproduction of uric acid and related problems such as hyperuricemia, urate nephrolithiasis, tophi, and gout. The mildest phenotypes include only problems related to overproduction of uric acid. The most severe phenotype is known as Lesch-Nyhan disease, in which the phenotype also includes severe motor handicap, intellectual disability, and self-injurious behavior...
April 2012: Current Rheumatology Reports
R Constantinescu, H Zetterberg
Urate, a natural antioxidant and iron chelator, has emerged as a potentially promising compound that might prevent neurodegenerative disorders. However, hyperuricemia may cause gout and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. This paper summarizes the impact of urate in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). It reviews the association of serum urate with the risk of PD, the clinical progression in PD, cognitive, dietary and gender aspects, the relationship between gout and PD, and potential therapeutic implications for the future...
May 2011: Drugs of Today
Lorna M Houlihan, Niki D Wyatt, Sarah E Harris, Caroline Hayward, Alan J Gow, Riccardo E Marioni, Mark W J Strachan, Jackie F Price, John M Starr, Alan F Wright, Ian J Deary
Understanding human cognitive ageing is important to improve the health of an increasing elderly population. Serum uric acid levels have been linked to many ageing illnesses and are also linked to cognitive functioning, though the direction of the association is equivocal. SLC2A9, a urate transporter, influences uric acid levels. This study first tested four SLC2A9 SNPs, previously associated with uric acid levels, in approximately 1000 Scots: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936). These participants were tested on general cognitive ability at ages 11 and 70...
June 1, 2010: Human Molecular Genetics
Michael C Irizarry, Rema Raman, Michael A Schwarzschild, Lida M Becerra, Ronald G Thomas, Ronald C Peterson, Alberto Ascherio, Paul S Aisen
BACKGROUND: Impaired antioxidant defenses are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. The plasma levels of urate, a water-soluble antioxidant, are reduced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the hypotheses that high plasma urate at baseline is associated with: (1) a reduced rate of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD and (2) a lower rate of cognitive decline in MCI. METHODS: Plasma urate was obtained at baseline from 747 participants in a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of donepezil, vitamin E or placebo for delaying the progression of MCI to AD...
2009: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
William H Waugh
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the major health problems of the developed world. Previous studies have shown that oxidant-induced changes occur in cerebral tissue in AD and in late-onset amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The oxidative damage begins early and involves free radical-mediated effects that cause lipid peroxidations and oxidative protein and nucleic acid damages which begin before the cardinal neuropathologic manifestations. Impaired cerebral iron homeostasis and iron accumulation are postulated to be primary and seminal in the pathogenesis...
2008: Gerontology
S E Nilsson, S Takkinen, N Tryding, P E Evrin, S Berg, G McClearn, B Johansson
BACKGROUND: Various inter-dependent factors influence serum biochemical values. In the elderly, the impact of these factors may differ compared with younger age groups and therefore population-based studies among older people are needed. The specific morbidity in old age, including also various types of drug therapy, should be observed. METHODS: Various biochemical tests in 349 females and 186 males over 81 years of age were carried out and the associations of biochemical values with morbidity, drug therapy, anthropometry and gender were estimated...
2003: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
C Joborn, J Hetta, F Niklasson, J Rastad, L Wide, H Agren, G Akerström, S Ljunghall
Psychiatric disturbances are common in primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), but their pathogenesis is essentially unknown. This study deals with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) calcium homeostasis and its connection with parathyroid hormone (PTH), blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and central monoamine and purine metabolites in patients with primary HPT. In 22 patients with primary HPT (serum calcium 2.85 +/- 0.21 mmol/l), the CSF concentrations of total and ionized calcium were higher (1.21 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, p less than 0...
1991: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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