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Microtubules microfilaments actin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887793/antiproliferative-and-antimetastatic-action-of-quercetin-on-a549-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-its-effect-on-the-cytoskeleton
#1
Anna Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Marta Hałas-Wiśniewska, Magdalena Izdebska, Maciej Gagat, Alina Grzanka, Dariusz Grzanka
To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin on the main cytoskeletal elements, namely microfilaments, microtubules and vimentin intermediate filaments, as well as cytoskeleton-driven processes in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. The methyl-thiazol-diphenyl-tetrazolium assay, annexin V/propidium iodide test, electron microscopic examination, cell cycle analysis based on DNA content, real-time PCR assays, in vitro scratch wound-healing assay, fluorescence staining of F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin were performed to assess the effects of quercetin on A549 cells...
November 22, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836552/rhoa-rock-pathway-activity-is-essential-for-the-correct-localization-of-the-germ-plasm-mrnas-in-zebrafish-embryos
#2
Jerónimo Roberto Miranda-Rodríguez, Enrique Salas-Vidal, Hilda Lomelí, Mario Zurita, Denhi Schnabel
Zebrafish germ plasm is composed of mRNAs such as vasa and nanos and of proteins such as Bucky ball, all of which localize symmetrically in four aggregates at the distal region of the first two cleavage furrows. The coordination of actin microfilaments, microtubules and kinesin is essential for the correct localization of the germ plasm. Rho-GTPases, through their effectors, coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. We address the participation of RhoA and its effector ROCK in germ plasm localization during the transition from two- to eight-cell embryos...
November 9, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821520/chirality-of-the-cytoskeleton-in-the-origins-of-cellular-asymmetry
#3
REVIEW
Peter Satir
Self-assembly of two important components of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, actin microfilaments and microtubules (MTs) results in polar filaments of one chirality. As is true for bacterial flagella, in actin microfilaments, screw direction is important for assembly processes and motility. For MTs, polar orientation within the cell is paramount. The alignment of these elements in the cell cytoplasm gives rise to emergent properties, including the potential for cell differentiation and specialization...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698406/triggering-signaling-pathways-using-f-actin-self-organization
#4
A Colin, L Bonnemay, C Gayrard, J Gautier, Z Gueroui
The spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells is essential for cell fate behavior. Although it is known that the cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular functions, it remains unclear how cytoskeletal activity can shape and control signaling pathways in space and time throughout the cell cytoplasm. Here we show that F-actin self-organization can trigger signaling pathways by engineering two novel properties of the microfilament self-organization: (1) the confinement of signaling proteins and (2) their scaffolding along actin polymers...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683037/interaction-of-microtubules-with-the-actin-cytoskeleton-via-cross-talk-of-eb1-containing-tips-and-%C3%AE-actin-in-epithelial-cells
#5
Vera Dugina, Irina Alieva, Natalya Khromova, Igor Kireev, Peter W Gunning, Pavel Kopnin
Actin microfilaments and microtubules are both highly dynamic cytoskeleton components implicated in a wide range of intracellular processes as well as cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. The interactions of actin filaments with the microtubule system play an important role in the assembly and maintenance of 3D cell structure. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic actins are differentially distributed in relation to the microtubule system. LSM, 3D-SIM, proximity ligation assay (PLA) and co-immunoprecipitation methods applied in combination with selective depletion of β- or γ-cytoplasmic actins revealed a selective interaction between microtubules and γ-, but not β-cytoplasmic actin via the microtubule +TIPs protein EB1...
September 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662804/dual-effect-of-f-actin-targeted-carrier-combined-with-antimitotic-drug-on-aggressive-colorectal-cancer-cytoskeleton-allying-dissimilar-cell-cytoskeleton-disrupting-mechanisms
#6
Shahrouz Taranejoo, Mohsen Janmaleki, Mohammad Pachenari, Seyed Morteza Seyedpour, Ramya Chandrasekaran, Wenlong Cheng, Kerry Hourigan
A recent approach to colon cancer therapy is to employ selective drugs with specific extra/intracellular sites of action. Alteration of cytoskeletal protein reorganization and, subsequently, to cellular biomechanical behaviour during cancer progression highly affects the cancer cell progress. Hence, cytoskeleton targeted drugs are an important class of cancer therapy agents. We have studied viscoelastic alteration of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW48, after treatment with a drug delivery system comprising chitosan as the carrier and albendazole as the microtubule-targeting agent (MTA)...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611949/f5-peptide-induces-aspermatogenesis-by-disrupting-organization-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons-in-the-testis
#7
Ying Gao, Dolores D Mruk, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
During the release of sperm at spermiation, a biologically active F5-peptide, which can disrupt the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier, is produced at the site of the degenerating apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization). This peptide coordinates the events of spermiation and blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, creating a local apical ES-BTB axis to coordinate cellular events across the epithelium. The mechanism(s) by which F5-peptide perturbs BTB restructuring, and its involvement in apical ES dynamics remain unknown...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600504/the-adherent-invasive-escherichia-coli-aiec-strain-lf82-invades-and-persists-in-human-prostate-cell-linerwpe-1-activating-a-strong-inflammatory-response
#8
Maria P Conte, Marta Aleandri, Massimiliano Marazzato, Antonietta L Conte, Cecilia Ambrosi, Mauro Nicoletti, Carlo Zagaglia, Guido Gambara, Fioretta Palombi, Paola De Cesaris, Elio Ziparo, Anna T Palamara, Anna Riccioli, Catia Longhi
Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are recently receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity with ExPEC NMEC and UPEC, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 could be able to infect prostate cells, as an extra-intestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line...
September 6, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590028/spring-viraemia-of-carp-virus-enters-grass-carp-ovary-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis
#9
Ling Shao, Jiuru Zhao, Haiqiang Zhang
Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is the causative pathogen of the outbreaks of an acute haemorrhagic and contagious viraemia responsible for the significant mortality in several cyprinid species. However, the endocytic pathway(s) and their regulatory molecules have not been characterized for SVCV. Here, using a combination of specific pharmacological inhibitors, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR, we found that SVCV entered grass carp ovary cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in a low-pH-dependent manner...
November 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557581/cytoskeleton-and-cytoskeleton-bound-rna-visualization-in-frog-and-insect-oocytes
#10
Malgorzata Kloc, Szczepan Bilinski, Jacek Z Kubiak
The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504085/the-presynaptic-microtubule-cytoskeleton-in-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-lessons-from-drosophila-fragile-x-syndrome-and-hereditary-spastic-paraplegias
#11
REVIEW
Felipe J Bodaleo, Christian Gonzalez-Billault
The capacity of the nervous system to generate neuronal networks relies on the establishment and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Synapses are composed of functionally different presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. An appropriate synaptic architecture is required to provide the structural basis that supports synaptic transmission, a process involving changes in cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin microfilaments are the main cytoskeletal components present at both presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals in glutamatergic synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431477/f-actin-dampens-nlrp3-inflammasome-activity-via-flightless-i-and-lrrfip2
#12
Danielle Burger, Céline Fickentscher, Philippe de Moerloose, Karim J Brandt
NLRP3 and ASC are able to form a large multimeric complex called inflammasome in response to a number danger signals. The NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent maturation of pro-IL-1β into active IL-1β. Although the mechanisms regulating the formation and activity of NLRP3 inflammasome are yet not fully elucidated, data suggest that the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome requires microtubules to induce the proximity of ASC and NLRP3. In this study we show that microfilaments (F-actin) inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activity and interact with NLRP3 and ASC...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352801/use-of-fluorescent-nanoparticles-to-investigate-nutrient-acquisition-by-developing-eimeria-maxima-macrogametocytes
#13
Sonja Frölich, Michael Wallach
The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253626/phenotypes-of-aging-postovulatory-oocytes-after-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-mice
#14
Ah Reum Lee, Takashi Shimoike, Teruhiko Wakayama, Satoshi Kishigami
Oocytes rapidly lose their developmental potential after ovulation, termed postovulatory oocyte aging, and often exhibit characteristic phenotypes, such as cytofragmentation, abnormal spindle shapes, and chromosome misalignments. Here, we reconstructed mouse oocytes using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to reveal the effect of somatic cell-derived nuclei on oocyte physiology during aging. Normal oocytes started undergoing cytofragmentation 24 hours after oocyte collection; however, this occurred earlier in SCNT oocytes and was more severe at 48 hours, suggesting that the transferred somatic cell nuclei affected oocyte physiology...
June 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252680/silencing-the-nucleocytoplasmic-o-glcnac-transferase-reduces-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-of-cancer-and-fetal-human-colon-cell-lines
#15
Agata Steenackers, Stéphanie Olivier-Van Stichelen, Steffi F Baldini, Vanessa Dehennaut, Robert-Alain Toillon, Xuefen Le Bourhis, Ikram El Yazidi-Belkoura, Tony Lefebvre
The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216191/lim-kinase-inhibitor-pyr1-reduces-the-growth-and-metastatic-load-of-breast-cancers
#16
Chloé Prunier, Véronique Josserand, Julien Vollaire, Evelyne Beerling, Christos Petropoulos, Olivier Destaing, Christopher Montemagno, Amandine Hurbin, Renaud Prudent, Leanne de Koning, Reuben Kapur, Pascale A Cohen, Corinne Albiges-Rizo, Jean-Luc Coll, Jacco van Rheenen, Marc Billaud, Laurence Lafanechère
LIM kinases (LIMK) are emerging targets for cancer therapy, and they function as network hubs to coordinate actin and microtubule dynamics. When LIMKs are inhibited, actin microfilaments are disorganized and microtubules are stabilized. Owing to their stabilizing effect on microtubules, LIMK inhibitors may provide a therapeutic strategy to treat taxane-resistant cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of LIMK inhibition on breast tumor development and on paclitaxel-resistant tumors, using a novel selective LIMK inhibitor termed Pyr1...
June 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145014/formin-1-regulates-microtubule-and-f-actin-organization-to-support-spermatid-transport-during-spermatogenesis-in-the-rat-testis
#17
Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Elizabeth I Tang, Will M Lee, Chris K C Wong, C Yan Cheng
Formin 1 confers actin nucleation by generating long stretches of actin microfilaments to support cell movement, cell shape, and intracellular protein trafficking. Formin 1 is likely involved in microtubule (MT) dynamics due to the presence of a MT binding domain near its N terminus. Here, formin 1 was shown to structurally interact with α-tubulin, the building block of MT, and also end-binding protein 1 (a MT plus [+]-end-binding protein that stabilizes MT) in the testis. Knockdown of formin 1 in Sertoli cells with an established tight junction barrier was found to induce down-regulation of detyrosinated MT (a stabilized form of MT), and disorganization of MTs, in which MTs were retracted from the cell cortical zone, mediated through a loss of MT polymerization and down-regulation of Akt1/2 signaling kinase...
July 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053663/single-microfilaments-mediate-the-early-steps-of-microtubule-bundling-during-preprophase-band-formation-in-onion-cotyledon-epidermal-cells
#18
Miyuki Takeuchi, Ichirou Karahara, Naoko Kajimura, Akio Takaoka, Kazuyoshi Murata, Kazuyo Misaki, Shigenobu Yonemura, L Andrew Staehelin, Yoshinobu Mineyuki
The preprophase band (PPB) is a cytokinetic apparatus that determines the site of cell division in plants. It originates as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) in G2 and narrows to demarcate the future division site during late prophase. Studies with fluorescent probes have shown that PPBs contain F-actin during early stages of their development but become actin depleted in late prophase. Although this suggests that actins contribute to the early stages of PPB formation, how actins contribute to PPB-MT organization remains unsolved...
June 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041483/apicomplexans-pulling-the-strings-manipulation-of-the-host-cell-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#19
Rita Cardoso, Helena Soares, Andrew Hemphill, Alexandre Leitão
Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division...
July 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001114/stability-of-the-cytoskeleton-of-matured-buffalo-oocytes-pretreated-with-cytochalasin-b-prior-to-vitrification
#20
C L Wang, H Y Xu, L Xie, Y Q Lu, X G Yang, S S Lu, K H Lu
Stabilizing the cytoskeleton system during vitrification can improve the post-thaw survival and development of vitrified oocytes. The cytoskeleton stabilizer cytochalasin B (CB) has been used in cryopreservation to improve the developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. To assess the effect of pretreating matured buffalo oocytes with CB before vitrification, we applied 0, 4, 8, or 12 μg/mL CB for 30 min. The optimum concentration of CB treatment (8 μg/mL for 30 min) was then used to evaluate the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments, the expression of the cytoskeleton proteins actin and tubulin, and the developmental potential of matured oocytes that were vitrified-warmed by the Cryotop method...
June 2016: Cryobiology
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