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Microtubules microfilaments actin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671923/sucrose-assists-selection-of-high-quality-oocytes-in-pigs
#1
Thanh Quang Dang-Nguyen, Hiep Thi Nguyen, Tamas Somfai, David Wells, Nguyen Thi Men, Nguyen Viet-Linh, Junko Noguchi, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Takashi Nagai
We investigated whether high-quality in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes can be distinguished from poor ones based on the morphological changes after treatment with hyperosmotic medium containing 0.2 mol/L sucrose in pigs. We hypothesize that IVM oocytes maintaining round shape have higher quality than mis-shapened oocytes following dehydration. Oocyte quality was verified by determining embryonic developmental competence using in vitro fertilization, nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation. In all cases, the round oocytes had greater (p < ...
April 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578510/imaging-intermediate-filaments-and-microtubules-with-2-dimensional-direct-stochastic-optical-reconstruction-microscopy
#2
Cécile Leduc, Audrey Salles, Spencer L Shorte, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
The cytoskeleton, composed of actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments (IF), plays a key role in the control of cell shape, polarity, and motility. The organization of the actin and microtubule networks has been extensively studied but that of IFs is not yet fully characterized. IFs have an average diameter of 10 nm and form a network extending throughout the cell cytoplasm. They are physically associated with actin and microtubules through molecular motors and cytoskeletal linkers. This tight association is at the heart of the regulatory mechanisms that ensure the coordinated regulation of the three cytoskeletal networks required for most cell functions...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434191/actin-nucleator-spire-1-is-a-regulator-of-ectoplasmic-specialization-in-the-testis
#3
Qing Wen, Nan Li, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Darren S Chu, Chris K C Wong, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
Germ cell differentiation during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis is accompanied by extensive remodeling at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli cell-spermatid interface to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes and developing spermatids across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, respectively. The unique cell junction in the testis is the actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) designated basal ES at the Sertoli cell-cell interface, and the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250526/mk-styx-alters-the-morphology-of-primary-neurons-and-outgrowths-in-mk-styx-overexpressing-pc-12-cells-develop-a-neuronal-phenotype
#4
Dallas A Banks, Arya Dahal, Alexander G McFarland, Brittany M Flowers, Christina A Stephens, Benjamin Swack, Ayele Gugssa, Winston A Anderson, Shantá D Hinton
We previously reported that the pseudophosphatase MK-STYX (mitogen activated kinase phosphoserine/threonine/tyrosine binding protein) dramatically increases the number of what appeared to be primary neurites in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells; however, the question remained whether these MK-STYX-induced outgrowths were bona fide neurites, and formed synapses. Here, we report that microtubules and microfilaments, components of the cytoskeleton that are involved in the formation of neurites, are present in MK-STYX-induced outgrowths...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232101/a-driver-switchover-mechanism-of-influenza-virus-transport-from-microfilaments-to-microtubules
#5
Li-Juan Zhang, Li Xia, Shu-Lin Liu, En-Ze Sun, Qiu-Mei Wu, Li Wen, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Dai-Wen Pang
When infecting host cells, influenza virus must move on microfilaments (MFs) at the cell periphery and then move along microtubules (MTs) through the cytosol to reach the perinuclear region for genome release. But how viruses switch from the actin roadway to the microtubule highway remains obscure. To settle this issue, we systematically dissected the role of related motor proteins in the transport of influenza virus between cytoskeletal filaments in situ and in real-time using quantum dot (QD)-based single-virus tracking (SVT) and multicolor imaging...
January 23, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179785/toxoplasma-gondii-reorganizes-the-host-cell-architecture-during-spontaneous-cyst-formation-in-vitro
#6
T C Paredes-Santos, E S Martins-Duarte, W de Souza, M Attias, R C Vommaro
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a prevalent infection related to abortion, ocular diseases and encephalitis in immuno-compromised individuals. In the untreatable (and life-long) chronic stage of toxoplasmosis, parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs, containing T. gondii tachyzoites) transform into tissue cysts, containing slow-dividing bradyzoite forms. While acute-stage infection with tachyzoites involves global rearrangement of the host cell cytoplasm, focused on favouring tachyzoite replication, the cytoplasmic architecture of cells infected with cysts had not been described...
November 28, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150642/rescue-of-pfos-induced-human-sertoli-cell-injury-by-overexpressing-a-p-fak-y407e-phosphomimetic-mutant
#7
Haiqi Chen, Ying Gao, Dolores D Mruk, Xiang Xiao, Constance M John, Paul J Turek, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. Herein, we maintained human Sertoli cells in a mitotically active state in vitro, thus enabling transfection experiments that altered gene expression to explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying toxicant-induced cell injury. Human Sertoli cells obtained from men at ages 15, 23, 36 and 40 were cultured in vitro. These differentiated Sertoli cells remained mitotically active when cultured in the presence of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), with a replication time of ~1-3 weeks...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149411/elusive-role-of-tctp-protein-and-mrna-in-cell-cycle-and-cytoskeleton-regulation
#8
Jacek Z Kubiak, Malgorzata Kloc
Translationally Controlled Tumor-associated Protein (TCTP) is a small, 23 kDa multifunctional and ubiquitous protein localized both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is evolutionarily highly conserved. Certain aspects of its structure show remarkable similarities to guanine nucleotide-free chaperons Mss4 and Dss4 suggesting that at least some functions of TCTP may depend on its chaperon-like action on other proteins. Besides other functions, TCTP is clearly involved in cell cycle regulation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056490/nucleus-positioning-within-drosophila-egg-chamber
#9
REVIEW
Fred Bernard, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Antoine Guichet
Both types of Drosophila egg chamber germ cells, i.e. oocyte and nurse cells, have to control their nucleus positions in order to produce a viable gamete. Interestingly, while actin microfilaments are crucial to position the nuclei in nurse cells, these are the microtubules that are important for oocyte nucleus to migrate and adopt the correct position. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying these positioning processes in the two cell types with respect to the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule skeleton...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040437/sperm-release-at-spermiation-is-regulated-by-changes-in-the-organization-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons-at-the-apical-ectoplasmic-specialization-a-study-using-the-adjudin-model
#10
Linxi Li, Elizabeth I Tang, Haiqi Chen, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The mechanism that regulates sperm release at spermiation is unknown. Herein, we used an animal model wherein rats were treated with adjudin, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, via oral gavage to induce premature release of elongating/elongated spermatids, followed by round spermatids and spermatocytes. Spermatid release mimicking spermiation occurred within 6 to 12 hours following adjudin treatment and, by 96 hours, virtually all tubules were devoid of elongating/elongated spermatids. Using this model, we tracked the organization of F-actin and microtubules (MTs) by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the association of actin or MT regulatory proteins that either promote or demolish cytoskeletal integrity through changes in the organization of actin microfilaments or MTs by coimmunoprecipitation...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970591/consecutive-entosis-stages-in-human-substrate-dependent-cultured-cells
#11
Anastasiia S Garanina, Olga P Kisurina-Evgenieva, Maria V Erokhina, Elena A Smirnova, Valentina M Factor, Galina E Onishchenko
Entosis, or cell death by invading another cell, is typical for tumor epithelial cells. The formation of cell-in-cell structures is extensively studied in suspension cultures, but remains poorly understood in substrate-dependent cells. Here, we used electron, confocal and time-lapse microscopy in combination with pharmacological inhibition of intracellular components to study the kinetics of entosis using two human substrate-dependent tumor cultures, A431 and MCF7. In total, we identified and characterized five consecutive stages of entosis, which were common for both examined cell lines...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917581/an-engineering-insight-into-the-relationship-of-selective-cytoskeletal-impairment-and-biomechanics-of-hela-cells
#12
Daniele Borin, Luca Puzzi, Valentina Martinelli, Matteo Cibinel, Romano Lapasin, Orfeo Sbaizero
It is widely accepted that the pathological state of cells is characterized by a modification of mechanical properties, affecting cellular shape and viscoelasticity as well as adhesion behaviour and motility. Thus, assessing these parameters could represent an interesting tool to monitor disease development and progression, but also the effects of drug treatments. Since biomechanical properties of cells are strongly related to cytoskeletal architecture, in this work we extensively studied the effects of selective impairments of actin microfilaments and microtubules on HeLa cells through force-deformation curves and stress relaxation tests with atomic force microscopy...
November 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747699/osfh15-a-class-i-formin-interacts-with-microfilaments-and-microtubules-to-regulate-grain-size-via-affecting-cell-expansion-in-rice
#13
Tiantian Sun, Shanwei Li, Haiyun Ren
Grain size is an important agronomic trait determining rice yield and is mainly restricted by spikelet hull size. However, it remains largely unknown how the spikelet hull size is regulated. In this study, OsFH15, a class I formin protein in Oryza sativa, was found to be able to regulate the size of cells and spikelet hull. OsFH15-Cas9 and OsFH15-RNAi mutants had decreased grain size with reduced cell length, cell width and cell area of inner epidermal cells of the lemma compared with wild-type plants. By contrast, OsFH15-overexpressed plants had increased grain size with larger cells, as well as more abundant microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) arrays...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744815/mammalian-diaphanous-related-formin-1-restricts-early-phases-of-influenza-a-nws-33-virus-h1n1-infection-in-llc-mk2-cells-by-affecting-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#14
Flora De Conto, Alessandra Fazzi, Sergey V Razin, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Silvana Belletti, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Viruses depend on cellular machinery to efficiently replicate. The host cytoskeleton is one of the first cellular systems hijacked by viruses in order to ensure their intracellular transport and promote the development of infection. Our previous results demonstrated that stable microfilaments and microtubules interfered with human influenza A/NWS/33 virus (H1N1) infection in semi-permissive LLC-MK2 cells. Although formins play a key role in cytoskeletal remodelling, few studies addressed a possible role of these proteins in development of viral infection...
January 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720756/pixuna-virus-modifies-host-cell-cytoskeleton-to-secure-infection
#15
Pedro Ignacio Gil, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Estela Cecilia Mlewski, Marina Monetti, Laura Fozzatti, Cecilia Cuffini, José Fernández Romero, Patricia Kunda, María Gabriela Paglini
Pixuna virus (PIXV) is an enzootic member of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus complex and belongs to the New World cluster of alphaviruses. Herein we explore the role of the cellular cytoskeleton during PIXV replication. We first identified that PIXV undergoes an eclipse phase consisting of 4 h followed by 20 h of an exponential phase in Vero cells. The infected cells showed morphological changes due to structural modifications in actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671765/guiding-cellular-activity-with-polarized-light
#16
Colin Constant, Andrea Bergano, Kiminobu Sugaya, Aristide Dogariu
Actin, cytoskeleton protein forming microfilaments, play a crucial role in cellular motility. Here we show that exposure to very low levels of polarized light guide their orientation in-vivo within the live cell. Using a simple model to describe the role of actin-filament orientation in directional cellular motion, we demonstrate that the actin polymerization/depolymerization mechanism develops primarily along this direction and, under certain conditions, can lead to guidance of the cell movement. Our results also show a dose dependent increase in actin activity in direct correspondence to the level of laser irradiance...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615348/jak2-inhibitor-cep-33779-prevents-mouse-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#17
Changli Wu, Rong Li, Haibing Luo, Mingfeng Xu, Xiujuan Zhang
The inhibitor CEP-33779 is a specific selective inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). In most somatic cells, JAK2 plays essential roles in cellular signal transduction and in the regulation of cell cycle. Little is known regarding the effects of JAK2 on mammalian oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CEP-33779 on mouse oocytes' meiosis and the possible mechanisms of JAK2 during mouse oocyte maturation. We detected the distribution of JAK2 during the mouse oocyte maturation. The results showed that JAK2 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm during maturation...
August 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487282/regulation-of-spermatogenesis-by-a-local-functional-axis-in-the-testis-role-of-the-basement-membrane-derived-noncollagenous-1-domain-peptide
#18
Haiqi Chen, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
Spermatogenesis takes place in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of the testes, producing millions of spermatozoa per day in an adult male in rodents and humans. Thus, multiple cellular events that are regulated by an array of signaling molecules and pathways are tightly coordinated to support spermatogenesis. Here, we report findings of a local regulatory axis between the basement membrane (BM), the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES; a testis-specific, actin-rich adherens junction at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface) to coordinate cellular events across the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle...
August 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445157/lim-kinases-cofilin-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Chloé Prunier, Renaud Prudent, Reuben Kapur, Karin Sadoul, Laurence Lafanechère
LIM kinases are common downstream effectors of several signalization pathways and function as a signaling node that controls cytoskeleton dynamics through the phosphorylation of the cofilin family proteins. These last 10 years, several reports indicate that the functions of LIM kinases are more extended than initially described and, specifically, that LIM kinases also control microtubule dynamics, independently of their regulation of actin microfilament. In this review we analyze the data supporting these conclusions and the possible mechanisms that could be involved in the control of microtubules by LIM kinases...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439067/perfluorooctanesulfonate-pfos-induced-sertoli-cell-injury-through-a-disruption-of-f-actin-and-microtubule-organization-is-mediated-by-akt1-2
#20
Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, Dolores D Mruk, C Yan Cheng
PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate, or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant widely used in consumer products. While its use in Europe, Canada and the U.S. has been banned due to its human toxicity, it continues to be used in China and other developing countries as a global pollutant. Herein, using an in vitro model of Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB), PFOS was found to induce Sertoli cell injury by perturbing actin cytoskeleton through changes in the spatial expression of actin regulatory proteins...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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