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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#2
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087578/distinct-binding-of-pet-ligands-pbb3-and-av-1451-to-tau-fibril-strains-in-neurodegenerative-tauopathies
#3
Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Katsushi Kumata, Bin Ji, Ruiqing Ni, Shunsuke Koga, Dennis W Dickson, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Mari Yoshida, Isao Hozumi, Yasumasa Yoshiyama, John C van Swieten, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makoto Higuchi
Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples...
January 12, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#4
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079813/surgical-treatment-for-male-prolactinoma-a-retrospective-study-of-184-cases
#5
Yi-Jun Song, Mei-Ting Chen, Wei Lian, Bing Xing, Yong Yao, Ming Feng, Ren-Zhi Wang
A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079249/fractal-analysis-of-visual-search-activity-for-mass-detection-during-mammographic-screening
#6
Folami Alamudun, Hong-Jun Yoon, Kathleen B Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Tracy Hammond, Georgia D Tourassi
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. METHODS: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078508/prioritization-of-liver-mri-for-distinguishing-focal-lesions
#7
Qinghua Su, Shusheng Bi, Xuedong Yang
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is often used by radiologists for diagnosis and surgical planning. Analysis of a large amount of liver MRI data for each patient limits the radiologist's efficiency and may lead to misdiagnoses. The redundant MRI data, especially from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) sequences, is also a bottleneck in transmitting the images via the internet or PACS for remote consultancy in a reasonable amount of time...
January 4, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078170/computational-fluid-dynamics-assisted-characterization-of-parafoveal-hemodynamics-in-normal-and-diabetic-eyes-using-adaptive-optics-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy
#8
Yang Lu, Miguel O Bernabeu, Jan Lammer, Charles C Cai, Martin L Jones, Claudio A Franco, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Jennifer K Sun
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss in working-age adults worldwide. Previous studies have found hemodynamic changes in the diabetic eyes, which precede clinically evident pathological alterations of the retinal microvasculature. There is a pressing need for new methods to allow greater understanding of these early hemodynamic changes that occur in DR. In this study, we propose a noninvasive method for the assessment of hemodynamics around the fovea (a region of the eye of paramount importance for vision)...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077463/novel-method-for-detection-of-glycogen-in-cells
#9
Alexander V Skurat, Dyann Segvich, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Peter J Roach
Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs...
January 10, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077397/relationships-between-flortaucipir-pet-tau-binding-and-amyloid-burden-clinical-diagnosis-age-and-cognition
#10
Michael J Pontecorvo, Michael D Devous, Michael Navitsky, Ming Lu, Stephen Salloway, Frederick W Schaerf, Danna Jennings, Anupa K Arora, Anne McGeehan, Nathaniel C Lim, Hui Xiong, Abhinay D Joshi, Andrew Siderowf, Mark A Mintun
The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir ((18)F-AV-1451, also known as (18)F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24-30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10)...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#11
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076933/3-hydroxi-anthranilic-acid-is-early-expressed-in-stroke
#12
A Mangas, J Yajeya, N González, I Ruiz, M Geffard, R Coveñas
Using an immunohistochemical technique, we have studied the distribution of 3-OH-anthranilic acid (3-HAA) in the rat brain. Our study was carried out in control animals and in rats in which a stroke model (single transient middle cerebral artery occlusion) was performed. A monoclonal antibody directed against 3-HAA was also developed. 3-HAA was exclusively observed in the infarcted regions (ipsilateral striatum/cerebral cortex), 2, 5 and 21 days after the induction of stroke. In control rats and in the contralateral side of the stroke animals, no immunoreactivity for 3-HAA was visualized...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#13
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072961/-a-case-report-of-childhood-farber-s-disease-and-literature-review
#14
X H Bao, J M Tian, T Y Ji, X Z Chang
Objective: To explore the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and the prognosis of Farber disease by case report and literature review. Method: The clinical information of a case with farber's disease diagnosed in October 2015 at Peking University First Hospital was collected and analyzed, including clinical manifestation, electrophysiology, magnetic resonance imaging, pathology, treatments and prognosis.ASAH1 gene mutational analysis was conducted in the patient and her parents.By using "Farber's disease, ASAH1" as keywords, literature was searched from Pubmed, CHKD and HGMD database from January 1951 to January 2016...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072713/-11c-r-pk11195-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#15
So Yeon Jeon, Seongho Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyeong Lee, Ye-Ha Jung, Man-Kyu Song, Kyung-Jun Lee, Yong Chul Kim, Hyun Woo Kwon, Hyung-Jun Im, Dong Soo Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Do-Hyung Kang
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case-control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [C]-(R)-PK11195. [C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30-55 years) and 12 control subjects (30-52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070627/-tendinopathy-in-rheumatic-diseases
#16
M Henniger, S Rehart
Involvement of tendons and tendon sheaths is frequently found in the most common inflammatory systemic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis tendon manifestations occur as tenosynovitis, with swelling and pain of the tendons mainly on the hands and feet. In spondyloarthritis the involvement of tendons presents as enthesitis with pain and swelling directly at the attachment points of tendons to the bony structures and more commonly in the lower extremities. Pathological alterations of tendons can be normally visualized by sonography and only sometimes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or scintigraphy...
January 9, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069541/a-bispecific-tribody-pet-radioligand-for-visualization-of-amyloid-beta-protofibrils-a-new-concept-for-neuroimaging
#17
Stina Syvänen, Xiaotian T Fang, Greta Hultqvist, Silvio R Meier, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin
Antibodies are highly specific for their target molecules, but their poor brain penetrance has restricted their use as PET ligands for imaging of targets within the CNS. The aim of this study was to develop an antibody-based radioligand, using the Tribody(TM) format, for PET imaging of soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) protofibrils, which are suggested to cause neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Antibodies, even when expressed in smaller engineered formats, are large molecules that do not enter the brain in sufficient amounts for imaging purposes...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068565/retinal-thinning-is-uniquely-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-neurologically-normal-older-adults
#18
Kaitlin B Casaletto, Michael E Ward, Nicholas S Baker, Brianne M Bettcher, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Yaqiao Li, Robert Chen, Shubir Dutt, Bruce Miller, Joel H Kramer, Ari J Green
Given the converging pathologic and epidemiologic data indicating a relationship between retinal integrity and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), we aimed to determine if retinal structure correlates with medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure and function in neurologically normal older adults. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, verbal and visual memory testing, and 3T-magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were performed in 79 neurologically normal adults enrolled in a healthy aging cohort study...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068526/herniated-gyrus-rectus-causing-idiopathic-compression-of-the-optic-chiasm
#19
Jacob Smith, Megan M Jack, Jeremy C Peterson, Roukoz B Chamoun
Anomalies in the frontal lobe can interfere with visual function by compression of the optic chiasm and nerve. The gyrus rectus is located at the anterior cranial fossa floor superior to the intracranial optic nerves and chiasm. Compression of these structures by the gyrus rectus is often caused by neoplastic or dysplastic growth in the area. We report a rare case of a herniated gyrus rectus impinged on the optic chiasm and nerve without a clear pathological cause for the herniation.
January 3, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066669/agar-blue-localization-of-small-pulmonary-nodules-and-ground-glass-opacifications-for-thoracoscopic-resection
#20
Ara S Klijian
BACKGROUND: Screening for lung cancer using high resolution computed tomography (CT) has produced encouraging early results. Extremely small nodules and non-palpable areas of opacifications are able to be detected, but pose a challenge to the thoracic surgeon trying to resect these areas. METHODS: Forty five patients with ground glass opacifications (GGOs) or small pulmonary nodules underwent pre-operative CT-guided placement of methylene blue dyed agar and/or hook wire needle localization prior to thoracoscopic resection...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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