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visual pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221318/lung-densitometry-why-how-and-when
#2
REVIEW
Mario Mascalchi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Stefano Diciotti
Lung densitometry assesses with computed tomography (CT) the X-ray attenuation of the pulmonary tissue which reflects both the degree of inflation and the structural lung abnormalities implying decreased attenuation, as in emphysema and cystic diseases, or increased attenuation, as in fibrosis. Five reasons justify replacement with lung densitometry of semi-quantitative visual scales used to measure extent and severity of diffuse lung diseases: (I) improved reproducibility; (II) complete vs. discrete assessment of the lung tissue; (III) shorter computation times; (IV) better correlation with pathology quantification of pulmonary emphysema; (V) better or equal correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212562/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-monoaminergic-stabiliser-osu6162-in-treatment-of-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#3
Marie Karin Lena Nilsson, Olof Zachrisson, Carl-Gerhard Gottfries, Michael Matousek, Birgitta Peilot, Sara Forsmark, Robert Christiaan Schuit, Maria Lizzie Carlsson, Angelica Kloberg, Arvid Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: The monoaminergic stabiliser (-)-OSU6162 has in previous studies shown promising effects on mental fatigue after stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of (-)-OSU6162 in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. METHODS: A total of 62 patients were randomly assigned to placebo or (-)-OSU6162. Primary outcomes were assessment on the mental fatigue scale (MFS) and the clinical global impression of change (CGI-C) scale...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204069/the-role-of-focal-laser-in-the-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-era
#5
REVIEW
Jason N Crosson, Lauren Mason, John O Mason
Introduction: To review important studies examining focal laser for diabetic macular edema (DME), to examine real-world data regarding actual treatments patients are receiving, to present long-term visual outcomes in real-world practice, and to suggest an evidence-based approach for the use of focal laser. Methods: This study is a review of landmark studies evaluating focal laser and pharmacologic therapy for DME. In addition, the authors include a retrospective review of 102 consecutive eyes of 53 patients in our practice setting in rural Alabama...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201170/a-network-pharmacology-approach-to-investigate-the-pharmacological-effects-of-guizhi-fuling-wan-on-uterine-fibroids
#6
Liuting Zeng, Kailin Yang, Huiping Liu, Guomin Zhang
To investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) in the treatment of uterine fibroids, a network pharmacology approach was used. Information on GFW compounds was collected from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) databases, and input into PharmMapper to identify the compound targets. Genes associated with uterine fibroids genes were then obtained from the GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The interaction data of the targets and other human proteins was also collected from the STRING and IntAct databases...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196183/nmda-receptor-antagonist-rodent-models-for-cognition-in-schizophrenia-and-identification-of-novel-drug-treatments-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Cadinu, Ben Grayson, Giovanni Podda, Michael K Harte, Nazanin Doostdar, Joanna C Neill
Negative and cognitive deficit symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Improved understanding of the neuro- and psychopathology of cognitive dysfunction in the illness is urgently required to enhance the development of new improved therapeutic strategies. Careful validation of animal models that mimic the behaviour and pathology of complex psychiatric disorders is an essential step towards this goal. Non-competitive NMDAR (N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonists e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and dizocilpine (MK-801) can effectively replicate certain aspects of negative and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in animals...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185087/assistive-devices-an-effective-strategy-in-non-pharmacological-treatment-for-hand-osteoarthritis-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
D S Amaral, A L B P Duarte, S S Barros, S V Cavalcanti, A Ranzolin, V M M Leite, A T Dantas, A S C R C Oliveira, P S Santos, J C A Silva, C D L Marques
This study aims to evaluate the use of assistive devices as a strategy in non-pharmacological treatment for hand osteoarthritis (HOA). This is a randomized, prospective, parallel, assessor-blinded clinical trial, in which patients with a diagnosis of HOA were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), where they received assistive devices for daily life activities, or to a control group (CG), where they received a guideline leaflet with information on joint protection and disease features. The primary outcomes considered were occupational performance, measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and hand function was evaluated through the Score for the Assessment and Quantification of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands (SACRAH)...
November 28, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184999/lc-ms-ms-imaging-with-thermal-film-based-laser-microdissection
#9
Michiko Oya, Hiromi Suzuki, Andrea Roxanne J Anas, Koichi Oishi, Kenji Ono, Shun Yamaguchi, Megumi Eguchi, Makoto Sawada
Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging is a useful tool for direct and simultaneous visualization of specific molecules. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the abundance of molecules in tissues using sample homogenates. To date, however, LC-MS/MS has not been utilized as an imaging tool because spatial information is lost during sample preparation. Here we report a new approach for LC-MS/MS imaging using a thermal film-based laser microdissection (LMD) technique. To isolate tissue spots, our LMD system uses a 808-nm near infrared laser, the diameter of which can be freely changed from 2...
November 28, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182798/pharmacological-interventions-for-pain-relief-during-orthodontic-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Aoife B Monk, Jayne E Harrison, Helen V Worthington, Annabel Teague
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. It increases in proportion to the amount of force applied to the teeth, and the type of orthodontic appliance used can affect the intensity of the pain. Pain during orthodontic treatment has been shown to be the most common reason for people wanting to discontinue treatment, and has been ranked as the worst aspect of treatment. Although pharmacological methods of pain relief have been investigated, there remains some uncertainty among orthodontists about which painkillers are most suitable and whether pre-emptive analgesia is beneficial...
November 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181592/selection-and-qualification-of-simplified-qsp-models-when-using-model-order-reduction-techniques
#11
Chihiro Hasegawa, Stephen B Duffull
Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models are increasingly used in drug development to provide a deep understanding of the mechanism of action of drugs and to identify appropriate disease targets. Such models are, however, not suitable for estimation purposes due to their high dimensionality. Based on any desired and specific input-output relationship, the system may be reduced to a model with fewer states and parameters. However, any simplification process will be a trade-off between model performance and complexity...
November 27, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167538/a-deep-dream-virtual-reality-platform-for-studying-altered-perceptual-phenomenology
#12
Keisuke Suzuki, Warrick Roseboom, David J Schwartzman, Anil K Seth
Altered states of consciousness, such as psychotic or pharmacologically-induced hallucinations, provide a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms underlying conscious perception. However, the phenomenological properties of these states are difficult to isolate experimentally from other, more general physiological and cognitive effects of psychoactive substances or psychopathological conditions. Thus, simulating phenomenological aspects of altered states in the absence of these other more general effects provides an important experimental tool for consciousness science and psychiatry...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164845/current-therapeutic-options-and-treatments-in-development-for-the-management-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#13
Jeffrey M Liebmann, Jeannie K Lee
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, and is responsible for approximately 90% of glaucoma cases in North America. POAG is characterized by an asymptomatic onset, where patients do not present with symptoms until significant visual loss occurs in late stages of the disease. Importantly, while glaucoma is associated with several risk factors that contribute to damage and disease progression, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven modifiable risk factor at this time. Treatments for POAG include use of pharmacologic and surgical interventions...
September 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163768/inhibitor-of-growth-protein-4-interacts-with-beclin-1-and-represses-autophagy
#14
Valentina Sica, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guo Chen, Guillermo Mariño, Sylvie Lachkar, Valentina Izzo, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Mireia Niso-Santano, Guido Kroemer
Beclin 1 (BECN1) is a multifunctional protein that activates the pro-autophagic class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3C3, best known as VPS34), yet also interacts with multiple negative regulators. Here we report that BECN1 interacts with inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4), a tumor suppressor protein that is best known for its capacity to interact with the tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) and the acetyltransferase E1A binding protein p300 (EP300). Removal of TP53 or EP300 did not affect the BECN1/ING4 interaction, which however was lost upon culture of cells in autophagy-inducing, nutrient free conditions...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163441/antifungal-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-essential-oil-active-components-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-laurentii
#15
Poonam Kumari, Rutusmita Mishra, Neha Arora, Apurva Chatrath, Rashmi Gangwar, Partha Roy, Ramasare Prasad
Cryptococcosis is an emerging and recalcitrant systemic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. This invasive fungal infection is difficult to treat due to the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii to form biofilms resistant to standard antifungal treatment. The toxicity concern of these drugs has stimulated the search for natural therapeutic alternatives. Essential oil and their active components (EO-ACs) have shown to possess the variety of biological and pharmacological properties...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157577/single-molecule-imaging-of-gpcr-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Davide Calebiro, Titiwat Sungkaworn
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of great interest as pharmacological targets. Although the occurrence of GPCR signaling nanodomains has long been hypothesized based on indirect evidence, this and other fundamental aspects of GPCR signaling have been difficult to prove. The advent of single-molecule microscopy methods, which allow direct visualization of individual membrane proteins with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution, provides unique opportunities to address several of these open questions...
November 17, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155265/neuroanatomical-distribution-and-function-of-the-vasopressin-v1b-receptor-in-the-rat-brain-deciphered-using-specific-fluorescent-ligands
#17
Maithé Corbani, Rafik Marir, Miguel Trueba, Magda Chafai, Anne Vincent, Amélie M Borie, Michel G Desarménien, Yoichi Ueta, Csaba Tomboly, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Gilles Guillon
It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V1A/V1B receptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective V1B markers. In the present study, we have determined the pharmacological properties of three new potent rat V1B fluorescent ligands and demonstrated that they constitute valuable tools for simultaneous visualization and activation of native V1B receptors in living rat brain tissue...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155192/external-genital-development-urethra-formation-and-hypospadias-induction-in-guinea-pig-a-double-zipper-model-for-human-urethral-development
#18
Shanshan Wang, Mingxin Shi, Dongqing Zhu, Ranjiv Mathews, Zhengui Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the guinea pig phallus would be an appropriate model of human penile development, we characterized the embryology and sexual differentiation of guinea pig external genitalia and attend to induce hypospadias in males and tubular urethra formation in females pharmacologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The external genitalia of guinea pig were collected from genital swelling initiation to newborn stages and Scanning Electronic Microscopy and histology were performed to visualize the morphology and structure...
November 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143692/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-lewy-body-dementia-a-systematic-review
#19
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Ian McKeith, Henry Brodaty, Louise Allan, Claire Bamford, Alan Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this, we sought to review evidence for non-pharmacological interventions with patients with Lewy body dementia and their carers. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms and no restrictions were placed on study design, language, or clinical setting...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138905/fatigue-in-familial-mediterranean-fever-and-its-relations-with-other-clinical-parameters
#20
Mehmet Tuncay Duruoz, Cagri Unal, Duygu Karali Bingul, Firat Ulutatar
Fatigue is a common problem in patients with rheumatic disease. It may cause disability and poor quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate fatigue in FMF patients as a disabling symptom and its associations with clinical and demographic variables. FMF patients were recruited into the study according to FMF Tel Hashomer criteria. Control group is composed of healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the patients including PRAS scores were noted. Visual analogue score of pain (VAS-pain) and VAS-fatigue were used as clinical parameters...
November 14, 2017: Rheumatology International
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