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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913889/ocular-pharmacology-of-tear-film-dry-eye-and-allergic-conjunctivitis
#1
Shilpa Gulati, Sandeep Jain
Dry Eye Disease (DED) is "a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface." DED comprises two etiologic categories: aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye (EDE). Diagnostic workup of DED should include clinical history, symptom questionnaire, fluorescein TBUT, ocular surface staining grading, Schirmer I/II, lid and meibomian pathology, meibomian expression, followed by other available tests...
December 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913166/dose-dependent-effect-of-donepezil-administration-on-long-term-enhancement-of-visually-evoked-potentials-and-cholinergic-receptor-overexpression-in-rat-visual-cortex
#2
Mira Chamoun, Marianne Groleau, Menakshi Bhat, Elvire Vaucher
Stimulation of the cholinergic system tightly coupled with periods of visual stimulation boosts the processing of specific visual stimuli via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in terms of intensity, priority and long-term effect. However, it is not known whether more diffuse pharmacological stimulation with donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is an efficient tool for enhancing visual processing and perception. The goal of the present study was to potentiate cholinergic transmission with donepezil treatment (0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912201/anxiety-levels-of-patients-undergoing-coronary-procedures-in-the-catheterization-laboratory
#3
Ronak Delewi, Wieneke Vlastra, Wim J Rohling, Tineke C Wagenaar, Max Zwemstra, Martin G Meesterman, Marije M Vis, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Karel T Koch, Robbert J de Winter, Jan Baan, Jan J Piek, Mirjam A G Sprangers, José P S Henriques
BACKGROUND: High levels of anxiety are associated with worse outcomes in coronary artery disease patients. Little is known about anxiety levels in patients undergoing coronary procedures. Our objective is to examine the levels of anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the different phases of hospital stay and to evaluate which patient characteristics are associated with increased anxiety. METHODS: Patients undergoing CAG or PCI between April 2009 and April 2010 were included in this prospective cohort study...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#4
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#5
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890620/drug-induced-corneal-epithelial-changes
#6
REVIEW
Michael B Raizman, Pedram Hamrah, Edward J Holland, Terry Kim, Francis S Mah, Christopher J Rapuano, Roger G Ulrich
Drugs across many pharmacologic classes induce corneal epithelial changes. Many of these drugs have cationic amphiphilic structures, with a hydrophobic ring and hydrophilic cationic amine side chain that allow them to cross cell membranes. These drugs lead to intracellular phospholipid accumulation, often manifested in the cornea by vortex keratopathy, with no effect on visual acuity and few ocular symptoms. Other drugs, notably antineoplastic agents, produce a fine diffuse corneal haze, sometimes accompanied by decreased vision that can be dose limiting...
November 24, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886889/update-on-ocular-myasthenia-gravis
#7
REVIEW
Stacy V Smith, Andrew G Lee
Ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) is a localized form of myasthenia gravis in which autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors block or destroy these receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. The hallmark of OMG is a history of painless weakness or fatigability of the extraocular muscles and ptosis with normal pupillary function and visual acuity. Clinical, laboratory, electrophysiologic, and pharmacologic tests are available for diagnosis. Treatment can begin with symptom management; there is no cure...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879184/-myopia-a-growing-health-problem
#8
J W L Tideman, J R Polling, A van der Schans, V J M Verhoeven, C C W Klaver
- Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873123/vestibular-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Thyra Langhagen, Mirjam N Landgraf, Doreen Huppert, Florian Heinen, Klaus Jahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an actualized overview on vestibular migraine in childhood and adolescence, with focus on the epidemiology and clinical presentation as well as its treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Vertigo spells in childhood can evolve into other periodic syndromes and/or migraine types and persist even into adulthood. Vestibular migraine (VM) and benign paroxysmal vertigo are the most common causes of vertigo in children and adolescents...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861312/peripheral-ulcerative-keratitis-secondary-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#10
David W Wei, Christian Pagnoux, Clara C Chan
PURPOSE: To report a unique case of peripheral ulcerative keratitis secondary to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cryoglobulinemia and vasculitis and its pharmacological and surgical treatment and 2-year follow-up. METHODS: A 52-year-old woman presented with unilateral eye pain and photophobia, arthralgia, remnants of a maculopapular rash, and subsequently facial numbness several weeks later. Her best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) in the affected eye was 20/80...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855460/-diagnosis-and-current-therapy-of-vestibular-syndromes
#11
Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt
Vertigo and dizziness are with an annual incidence of more than 10% and a lifetime prevalence of more than 30% among the most frequent symptoms. The keys to the diagnosis are the patient history and the bedside examination: a) for the patient history the time course, type and triggers of symptoms and accompanying symptoms, b) for the clinical examination of the vestibular system the head-impulse test (HIT), the examination for a spontaneous nystagmus, a displacement of subjective visual vertical, a positional nystagmus and the Romberg test, and c) for the differentiation between an acute peripheral and central vestibular lesion the skew deviation, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit and a normal HIT...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852780/functional-organization-of-flash-induced-v1-offline-reactivation
#12
Kenta Funayama, Nobuhiro Hagura, Hiroshi Ban, Yuji Ikegaya
: The primary visual cortex exhibits a late, long response with a latency of >300 ms and an immediate early response that occurs ∼100 ms after a visual stimulus. The late response is thought to contribute to visual functions such as sensory perception, iconic memory, working memory, and forming connections between temporally separated stimuli. However, how the visual late response is generated and organized is not completely understood. In the mouse primary visual cortex in vivo, we isolated long-delayed responses by using a brief light-flash stimulus for which the stimulus late response occurred long after the stimulus offset and was not contaminated by the instantaneous response evoked by the stimulus...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849111/pharmacological-interventions-for-pruritus-in-adult-palliative-care-patients
#13
REVIEW
Waldemar Siemens, Carola Xander, Joerg J Meerpohl, Sabine Buroh, Gerd Antes, Guido Schwarzer, Gerhild Becker
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2013 (Issue 6). Pruritus occurs in patients with disparate underlying diseases and is caused by different pathologic mechanisms. In palliative care patients, pruritus is not the most prevalent but is one of the most puzzling symptoms. It can cause considerable discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological treatments for preventing or treating pruritus in adult palliative care patients...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843305/does-the-use-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-have-an-influence-on-our-vision
#14
REVIEW
Katarzyna Michalska-Małecka, Agnieszka Regucka, Dorota Śpiewak, Magdalena Sosnowska-Pońska, Alfred Niewiem
PURPOSE: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. This review aims to describe the relationship between acetylsalicylic acid and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - a chronic disease that causes deterioration of visual acuity and is one of the most common ophthalmological diseases these days. METHODS: Data presented in this review were collected from both research and review articles concerning ophthalmology and pharmacology...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837530/freeze-fracture-electron-microscopy-on-domains-in-lipid-mono-and-bilayer-on-nano-resolution-scale
#15
Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg
Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) as a cryofixation, replica, and transmission electron microscopy technique is unique in membrane bilayer and lipid monolayer research because it enables us to excess and visualize pattern such as domains in the hydrophobic center of lipid bilayer as well as the lipid/gas interface of lipid monolayer. Since one of the preparation steps of this technique includes fracturing the frozen sample and since during this fracturing process the fracture plane follows the area of weakest forces, these areas are exposed allowing us to explore pattern built up by lipids and/or intrinsic proteins but also initiated by peptides, drugs, and toxins reaching into these normally hard to access areas...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830412/nobiletin-improves-emotional-and-novelty-recognition-memory-but-not-spatial-referential-memory
#16
Jiyun Kang, Jung-Won Shin, Yoo-Rim Kim, Kelley M Swanberg, Yooseung Kim, Jae Ryong Bae, Young Ki Kim, Jinwon Lee, Soo-Yeon Kim, Nak-Won Sohn, Sungho Maeng
How to maintain and enhance cognitive functions for both aged and young populations is a highly interesting subject. But candidate memory-enhancing reagents are tested almost exclusively on lesioned or aged animals. Also, there is insufficient information on the type of memory these reagents can improve. Working memory, located in the prefrontal cortex, manages short-term sensory information, but, by gaining significant relevance, this information is converted to long-term memory by hippocampal formation and/or amygdala, followed by tagging with space-time or emotional cues, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825327/treatment-of-trauma-affected-refugees-with-venlafaxine-versus-sertraline-combined-with-psychotherapy-a-randomised-study
#17
Charlotte Sonne, Jessica Carlsson, Per Bech, Ask Elklit, Erik Lykke Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of trauma-related psychiatric disorders is high among refugees. Despite this, little is known about the effect of pharmacological treatment for this patient group. The objective of the present study was therefore to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairment in trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: The study was a randomised pragmatic trial comparing venlafaxine and sertraline in combination with psychotherapy and social counselling...
November 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822391/ultrasound-guided-genicular-nerve-thermal-radiofrequency-ablation-for-chronic-knee-pain
#18
Joshua Wong, Nicholas Bremer, Paul D Weyker, Christopher A J Webb
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most common joint diseases affecting adults in the United States. For elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who do not wish to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lifestyle modification, pharmacologic management, and injections are the mainstay of therapy. Previously, pain management interventions were limited to intra-articular joint injections and viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid. Fluoroscopic-guided techniques for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the genicular nerves have been previously described and a recent cadaveric study suggests that ultrasound-guided genicular nerve blocks can be performed accurately...
2016: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820709/current-status-of-neuromuscular-reversal-and-monitoring-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
Sorin J Brull, Aaron F Kopman
Postoperative residual neuromuscular block has been recognized as a potential problem for decades, and it remains so today. Traditional pharmacologic antagonists (anticholinesterases) are ineffective in reversing profound and deep levels of neuromuscular block; at the opposite end of the recovery curve close to full recovery, anticholinesterases may induce paradoxical muscle weakness. The new selective relaxant-binding agent sugammadex can reverse any depth of block from aminosteroid (but not benzylisoquinolinium) relaxants; however, the effective dose to be administered should be chosen based on objective monitoring of the depth of neuromuscular block...
November 7, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#20
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. CLINICAL QUESTION: After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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