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visual pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225826/assessing-mycoplasma-contamination-of-cell-cultures-by-qpcr-using-a-set-of-universal-primer-pairs-targeting-a-1-5-kb-fragment-of-16s-rrna-genes
#1
Audrey Jean, Florence Tardy, Omran Allatif, Isabelle Grosjean, Bariza Blanquier, Denis Gerlier
Mycoplasmas (a generic name for Mollicutes) are a predominant bacterial contaminant of cell culture and cell derived products including viruses. This prokaryote class is characterized by very small size and lack of a cell wall. Consequently, mycoplasmas escape ultrafiltration and visualization under routine microscopic examination, hence the ease with which cells in culture can be contaminated, with routinely more than 10% of cell lines being contaminated. Mycoplasma are a formidable threat both in fundamental research by perverting a whole range of cell properties and functions and in the pharmacological use of cells and cell derived products...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217868/an-anti-nicotinic-cognitive-challenge-model-using-mecamylamine-in-comparison-with-the-anti-muscarinic-cognitive-challenge-using-scopolamine
#2
A C Baakman, R Alvarez-Jimenez, R Rissmann, E S Klaassen, J Stevens, S C Goulooze, J Burger, E L Swart, J M A van Gerven, G J Groeneveld
INTRODUCTION: The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove pharmacology of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. This study aims to characterize a nicotinic anticholinergic challenge model using mecamylamine and to compare it to the scopolamine model...
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216858/impact-of-scrambler-therapy-on-pain-management-and-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-a-study-of-twenty-cases
#3
Komal Kashyap, Saurabh Joshi, Saurabh Vig, Vishwajeet Singh, Sushma Bhatnagar
AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the effect of scrambler therapy on patients with chronic cancer pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted on patients with chronic pain due to malignancy which is not responding to oral analgesics. A total of twenty patients were included in the study (ten males, ten females) with a visual analog scale score of >4 on oral analgesics. Patients aged 18-70 years with a life expectancy of >3 months having bony, neuropathic, or mixed type of pain were included in the study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216314/visual-working-memory-requires-permissive-and-instructive-no-cgmp-signaling-at-presynapses-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#4
Sara Kuntz, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
The gaseous second messenger nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate memory formation by activating retrograde signaling cascades from post- to presynapse that involve cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production to induce synaptic plasticity and transcriptional changes. In this study, we analyzed the role of NO in the formation of a visual working memory that lasts only a few seconds. This memory is encoded in a subset of ring neurons that form the ellipsoid body in the Drosophila brain. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that NO signaling is required for cGMP-mediated CREB activation, leading to the expression of competence factors like the synaptic homer protein...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215998/photosensitivity-in-generalized-epilepsies
#5
REVIEW
Shervonne Poleon, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Photosensitivity, which is the hallmark of photosensitive epilepsy (PSE), is described as an abnormal EEG response to visual stimuli known as a photoparoxysmal response (PPR). The PPR is a well-recognized phenomenon, occurring in 2-14% of patients with epilepsy but its pathophysiology is not clearly understood. PPR is electrographically described as 2-5Hz spike, spike-wave, or slow wave complexes with frontal and paracentral prevalence. Diagnosis of PPR is confirmed using intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) as well as video monitoring...
February 16, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211449/translational-use-of-event-related-potentials-to-assess-circuit-integrity-in-asd
#6
REVIEW
Meera E Modi, Mustafa Sahin
Deficits in social cognition are the defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social cognition requires the integration of several neural circuits in a time-sensitive fashion, so impairments in social interactions could arise as a result of alterations in network connectivity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has revealed abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory and visual sensory stimuli in humans with ASD, indicating disruption of neural connectivity. Similar abnormalities in sensory-evoked ERPs have been observed in animal models of ASD, suggesting that ERPs have the potential to provide a translational biomarker of the disorder...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196403/morphologic-patterns-formed-by-the-anomalous-fibers-occurring-along-the-anterior-capsule-of-the-crystalline-lens-in-people-with-the-long-anterior-zonule-trait
#7
Daniel K Roberts, Yongyi Yang, Christina E Morettin, Tricia L Newman, Mary F Roberts, Jacob T Wilensky
People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. In order to further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL, USA...
February 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192423/elucidation-of-molecular-kinetic-schemes-from-macroscopic-traces-using-system-identification
#8
Miguel Fribourg, Diomedes E Logothetis, Javier González-Maeso, Stuart C Sealfon, Belén Galocha-Iragüen, Fernando Las-Heras Andrés, Vladimir Brezina
Overall cellular responses to biologically-relevant stimuli are mediated by networks of simpler lower-level processes. Although information about some of these processes can now be obtained by visualizing and recording events at the molecular level, this is still possible only in especially favorable cases. Therefore the development of methods to extract the dynamics and relationships between the different lower-level (microscopic) processes from the overall (macroscopic) response remains a crucial challenge in the understanding of many aspects of physiology...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188728/trabeculectomy-bleb-associated-infections
#9
REVIEW
M Reza Razeghinejad, Shane J Havens, L Jay Katz
Trabeculectomy with antimetabolites is the most commonly performed surgery worldwide for glaucoma patients with progressive optic nerve head injury and visual field loss despite maximum pharmacologic intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapy. Trabeculectomy bleb-associated infections (BAI) remain one of the most feared early and long-term complications of trabeculectomy surgery because of their poor prognosis and variable response to antimicrobial therapy. Several studies have evaluated how surgical technique, conjunctival incision location, comorbid ocular pathology, concurrent medication use, and bleb morphology affect the risk of BAI...
February 7, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#10
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the amygdala's influence on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the olfactory system's primary sensory neurons, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182661/representing-high-throughput-expression-profiles-via-perturbation-barcodes-reveals-compound-targets
#11
Tracey M Filzen, Peter S Kutchukian, Jeffrey D Hermes, Jing Li, Matthew Tudor
High throughput mRNA expression profiling can be used to characterize the response of cell culture models to perturbations such as pharmacologic modulators and genetic perturbations. As profiling campaigns expand in scope, it is important to homogenize, summarize, and analyze the resulting data in a manner that captures significant biological signals in spite of various noise sources such as batch effects and stochastic variation. We used the L1000 platform for large-scale profiling of 978 representative genes across thousands of compound treatments...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176044/lens-management-of-cataract-surgery-cataract-prevention-and-floppy-iris-syndrome
#12
Joao Crispim, Wallace Chamon
According to the World Health Organization, cataract is the major cause of reversible visual impairment in the world. It is present as the cause of decreased visual acuity in 33% of the visual impaired citizens. With the increase of life expectancy in the last decades, the number of patients with cataract is expected to grow for the next 20 years. Nowadays, the only effective treatment for cataracts is surgery and its surgical outcomes have been increasingly satisfactory with the technological advancement...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164761/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-interacting-kinases-1-and-2-mnk1-and-mnk2-as-targets-for-cancer-therapy-recent-progress-in-the-development-of-mnk-inhibitors
#13
Agnieszka Dreas, Maciej Mikulski, Mariusz Milik, Charles-Henry Fabritius, Krzysztof Brzózka, Tomasz Rzymski
BACKGROUND: MNK1 and MNK2 are MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine kinases, which are activated by RAS and MAPK signaling pathways and are involved in regulation of protein translation. Both kinases phosphorylate translation initiation factor eIF4E on a conserved serine 209. Overactivated eIF4E can act as an oncogene and contribute to the transformation both in vitro and in vivo and is highly expressed in diverse types of cancer. Interestingly, knockout mice that lack both Mnk1 and Mnk2 do not have any apparent phenotype...
February 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154891/dopamine-dependent-visual-attention-preference-to-social-stimuli-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
Yoshie Yamaguchi, Takeshi Atsumi, Romain Poirot, Young-A Lee, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) plays a central role in reward processing. Accumulating evidence suggests that social interaction and social stimuli have rewarding properties that activate the DA reward circuits. However, few studies have attempted to investigate how DA is involved in the processing of social stimuli. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological manipulations of DA D1 and D2 receptors on social vs. nonsocial visual attention preference in macaques...
February 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132063/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-transplantation-of-neural-stem-cells-into-the-porcine-spinal-cord
#15
Jason J Lamanna, Lindsey N Urquia, Carl V Hurtig, Juanmarco Gutierrez, Cody Anderson, Pete Piferi, Thais Federici, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapies are a promising treatment option for traumatic, tumorigenic and degenerative diseases of the spinal cord. Transplantation into the spinal cord is achieved with intravascular, intrathecal, or direct intraparenchymal injection. The current standard for direct injection is limited by surgical invasiveness, difficulty in reinjection, and the inability to directly target anatomical or pathological landmarks. The objective of this study was to present the proof of principle for minimally invasive, percutaneous transplantation of stem cells into the spinal cord parenchyma of live minipigs under MR guidance...
January 28, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129853/analysis-of-myelinated-axon-formation-in-zebrafish
#16
M D'Rozario, K R Monk, S C Petersen
Myelin is a lipid-rich sheath formed by the spiral wrapping of specialized glial cells around axon segments. Myelinating glia allow for rapid transmission of nerve impulses and metabolic support of axons, and the absence of or disruption to myelin results in debilitating motor, cognitive, and emotional deficits in humans. Because myelin is a jawed vertebrate innovation, zebrafish are one of the simplest vertebrate model systems to study the genetics and development of myelinating glia. The morphogenetic cellular movements and genetic program that drive myelination are conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and myelin develops rapidly in zebrafish larvae, within 3-5days postfertilization...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128668/animal-models-of-secondary-lymphedema-new-approaches-in-the-search-for-therapeutic-options
#17
Rebecca Hadrian, Daniel Palmes
Secondary lymphedema is still a worldwide problem. Symptomatic approaches to lymphedema therapy have been mainly used, with complete decongestive therapy as the cornerstone. Due to a lack of regenerative therapy, researchers have established various animal models to obtain insights into pathomechanisms and to reveal the best therapeutic option. Since the first reproducible and reliable animal model of lymphedema was reported in dogs, the technique of circumferential excision of lymphatic tissue has been translated mainly to rodents to induce secondary lymphedema...
January 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126850/structural-insights-into-the-atomistic-mechanisms-of-action-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-targeting-the-kca3-1-channel-pore
#18
Hai M Nguyen, Vikrant Singh, Brandon Pressly, David Paul Jenkins, Heike Wulff, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy
The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 constitutes an attractive pharmacological target for immunosuppression, fibroproliferative disorders, atherosclerosis and stroke. However, there currently is no available crystal structure of this medically relevant channel that could be used for structure-assisted drug design. Using the Rosetta molecular modeling suite we generated a molecular model of the KCa3.1 pore and tested the model by first confirming previously mapped binding sites and visualizing the mechanism of TRAM-34, senicapoc and NS6180 inhibition at the atomistic level...
January 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123397/methods-for-the-analysis-of-neuronal-plasticity-and-brain-connectivity-during-neurological-recovery
#19
REVIEW
Eduardo H Sanchez-Mendoza, Tayana Silva de Carvalho, Dirk M Hermann
The study of neuronal plasticity under pathological conditions is now a major point of focus on the field of neurological recovery. After the repeated failure of acute neuroprotection strategies for stroke treatment, the design of studies aimed at promoting the reconstruction of neuronal networks has become essential. Methods for the delivery of therapeutic agents on a steady dosage, thus preventing pharmacological peaks or excessive manipulation of experimental animals, are thus required. Additionally, methods that allow the visualization of neurological remodeling processes are fundamental to the understanding of how a therapeutic agent exerts its function...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119401/electrical-microstimulation-of-the-pulvinar-biases-saccade-choices-and-reaction-times-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#20
Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Lukas Schneider, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
: The pulvinar complex is extensively interconnected with brain regions involved in spatial processing and eye movement control. Recent inactivation studies have shown that the dorsal pulvinar plays a role in saccade target selection. However, it remains unknown whether it exerts effects on visual processing or at planning/execution stages. We employed electrical microstimulation of the dorsal pulvinar while monkeys performed saccade tasks towards instructed and freely-chosen targets...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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