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visual pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#1
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679640/cepfostering-efficacy-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-natural-products
#2
REVIEW
Tong Wu, Gui-Yuan Yu, Jia Xiao, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Kwok-Fai So, Rong-Rong He
Efficacy and safety assessments are essential thresholds for drug candidates from preclinical to clinical research. Conventional mammalian in vivo models cannot offer rapid pharmacological and toxicological screening, whereas cell-based or cell-free in vitro systems often lead to inaccurate results because of the lack of physiological environment. Within the avian species, chick is the first bird to have its genome sequencing. Meantime, chick embryo is an easily operating, relatively transparent and extensively accessible model, whose physiological and pathological alterations can be visualized by egg candler, staining and image technologies...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675448/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-by-pharmacologic-inhibition-of-the-organic-solute-transporter-%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#3
Sandra M W van de Wiel, D Rudi de Waart, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Stan F J van de Graaf
Background & Aims: The organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ) mainly facilitates transport of bile acids across the basolateral membrane of ileal enterocytes. Therefore, inhibition of OSTα-OSTβ might have similar beneficial metabolic effects as intestine-specific agonists of the major nuclear receptor for bile acids, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, no OSTα-OSTβ inhibitors have yet been identified. Methods: Here, we developed a screen to identify specific inhibitors of OSTα-OSTβ using a genetically encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-bile acid sensor that enables rapid visualization of bile acid efflux in living cells...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668881/hyperactive-ryanodine-receptors-in-human-heart-failure-and-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-reside-outside-of-couplons
#4
Eef Dries, Demetrio J Santiago, Guillaume Gilbert, Ilse Lenaerts, Bert Vandenberk, Chandan K Nagaraju, Daniel M Johnson, Patricia Holemans, H Llewelyn Roderick, Niall Macquaide, Piet Claus, Karin R Sipido
Aims: In ventricular myocytes from humans and large mammals, the transverse and axial tubular system (TATS) network is less extensive than in rodents with consequently a greater proportion of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) not coupled to this membrane system. TATS remodeling in heart failure (HF) and after myocardial infarction (MI) increases the fraction of non-coupled RyR. Here we investigate whether this remodeling alters the activity of coupled and non-coupled RyR sub-populations through changes in local signaling...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667927/biophysics-of-object-segmentation-in-a-collision-detecting-neuron
#5
Richard Burkett Dewell, Fabrizio Gabbiani
Collision avoidance is critical for survival, including in humans, and many species possess visual neurons exquisitely sensitive to objects approaching on a collision course. Here, we demonstrate that a collision-detecting neuron can detect the spatial coherence of a simulated impending object, thereby carrying out a computation akin to object segmentation critical for proper escape behavior. At the cellular level, object segmentation relies on a precise selection of the spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs by dendritic membrane potential-activated channels...
April 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656072/enhanced-wound-healing-of-tissue-engineered-human-corneas-through-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-creb-and-akt-signal-transduction-pathways
#6
Camille Couture, Pascale Desjardins, Karine Zaniolo, Lucie Germain, Sylvain L Guérin
The cornea is a transparent organ, highly specialized and unique that is continually subjected to abrasive forces and occasional mechanical or chemical trauma because of its anatomical localization. Upon injury, the extracellular matrix (ECM) rapidly changes to promote wound healing through integrin-dependent activation of specific signal transduction mediators whose contribution is to favor faster closure of the wound by altering the adhesive and migratory properties of the cells surrounding the damaged area...
April 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651739/prognostic-utility-of-splenic-response-ratio-in-dipyridamole-pet-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#7
Karan Bami, Shrankhala Tewari, Fadi Guirguis, Linda Garrard, Ann Guo, Alomgir Hossain, Terrence D Ruddy, Rob S B Beanlands, Robert A deKemp, Benjamin J W Chow, Girish Dwivedi
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion studies with adenosine stress have shown that splenic response can identify patients with inadequate pharmacologic stress. We investigate the incremental prognostic impact of splenic response ratio (SRR) in patients with normal Rubidium (Rb)-82 PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing dipyridamole Rb-82 PET MPI for the evaluation of coronary artery disease were screened. Spleen and liver Rb-82 activity was measured and the SRR was calculated: SRR = (Spleen stress/Liver stress)/(Spleen rest/Liver rest)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649979/ginseng-genome-database-an-open-access-platform-for-genomics-of-panax-ginseng
#8
Murukarthick Jayakodi, Beom-Soon Choi, Sang-Choon Lee, Nam-Hoon Kim, Jee Young Park, Woojong Jang, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Shobhana V G Mohan, Dong-Yup Lee, Tae-Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb...
April 12, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#9
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649082/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-reduces-resting-pain-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-a-randomized-and-placebo-controlled-double-blind-pilot-study
#10
Jennifer E Lee, Carryn M Anderson, Yelena Perkhounkova, Brittany M Sleeuwenhoek, Rebecca R Louison
BACKGROUND: Individuals receiving radiation for head and neck cancer (HNC) often develop painful oral mucositis that impairs function, possibly leading to feeding tubes, hospitalization, and treatment delays. Although pharmacologic medications provide some relief, many report inadequate analgesia and adverse effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a safe, nonpharmacologic intervention; it decreases pain and analgesics and improves function, yet no studies examined TENS for HNC...
April 11, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648982/effects-of-mitochondrial-transplantation-on-bioenergetics-cellular-incorporation-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Renee R Donahue, Brad Taylor, Pat Sulllivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Our previous studies reported that pharmacological maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) provided functional neuroprotection. Recent evidence indicates that endogenous mitochondrial transfer is neuroprotective as well, and so we extended these studies with a novel approach to transplant exogenous mitochondria into the injured rat spinal cord. Using a rat model of L1/L2 contusion SCI, we herein report that transplantation of exogenous mitochondria derived from either cell culture or syngeneic leg muscle maintain acute bioenergetics of the injured spinal cord in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623978/in-vitro-elucidation-of-the-role-of-pericellular-matrix-in-metastatic-extravasation-and-invasion-of-breast-carcinoma-cells
#12
Marie-Elena Brett, Heather E Bomberger, Geneva R Doak, Matthew A Price, James B McCarthy, David K Wood
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of altered hyaluronan metabolism to malignant progression of multiple tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Increased hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in the stroma of primary tumors promotes activation of oncogenic signaling pathways that impact tumor initiation, growth, and invasion. Carcinoma cell synthesis and assembly of HA-rich pericellular matrices induces a stromal-independent phenotype, which is associated with cancer progression. Although the pro-tumorigenic role of stromal HA is well established, a novel but unexplored hypothesis is that carcinoma cell-associated HA pericellular matrices promote metastasis of circulating tumor cells...
April 6, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621808/in-vitro-human-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-inhibitory-anti-inflammatory-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-alkaloids-from-the-seeds-of-nigella-glandulifera
#13
Jun-Bo Gao, Xing-Jie Zhang, Rui-Han Zhang, Li-Li Zhu, De-Bing Pu, Xiao-Li Li, Hong-Lin Li, Min Xu, Wei-Lie Xiao
Four new dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids, glandulamines A - D (1:  - 4: ), together with twelve known compounds (5:  - 16: ), were isolated from the seeds of Nigella glandulifera using repeated column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. The structures of 1:  - 16: were elucidated based on NMR data analysis, HRMS experiments and other spectroscopic interpretations. The absolute configuration of 5: was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the first time. Compounds 10: and 12: showed human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 61...
April 5, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618439/drug-target-network-of-taxanes-revealed-by-data-mining
#14
Shao-Jun Chen, - Wei-Cai, Zhao-Hui Li
Taxanes, mainly group paclitaxel and docetaxel, are amongst the most promising anticancer agents that are widely used for a variety of tumor types. It is a great challenge to gain a quick overview of the molecular mechanisms of taxanes, owning to the massive amounts of data have been produced. Network pharmacology will be a powerful tool to uncover the drug-targets network of taxanes. In this study, drug-targets network of paclitaxel and docetaxel were constructed via STITCH by database mining, and its topological parameters and important nodes were analyzed...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616607/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-persons-with-dementia-what-are-they-and-how-should-they-be-studied
#15
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield
The publication of four papers concerning non-pharmacological interventions for persons with dementia heralds progress in the science of dementia care. The four papers are very diverse in focus and methodology, and include a study of the impact of a visual arts program on quality of life, communication, and well-being by Windle et al. (2017); an overview of systematic reviews of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by Dyer et al...
March 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606354/visualization-of-membrane-pore-in-live-cells-reveals-a-dynamic-pore-theory-governing-fusion-and-endocytosis
#16
Wonchul Shin, Lihao Ge, Gianvito Arpino, Seth A Villarreal, Edaeni Hamid, Huisheng Liu, Wei-Dong Zhao, Peter J Wen, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang, Ling-Gang Wu
Fusion is thought to open a pore to release vesicular cargoes vital for many biological processes, including exocytosis, intracellular trafficking, fertilization, and viral entry. However, fusion pores have not been observed and thus proved in live cells. Its regulatory mechanisms and functions remain poorly understood. With super-resolution STED microscopy, we observed dynamic fusion pore behaviors in live (neuroendocrine) cells, including opening, expansion, constriction, and closure, where pore size may vary between 0 and 490 nm within 26 milliseconds to seconds (vesicle size: 180-720 nm)...
March 28, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601577/an-open-source-tool-for-automatic-spatiotemporal-assessment-of-calcium-transients-and-local-signal-close-to-noise-activity-in-calcium-imaging-data
#17
Juan Prada, Manju Sasi, Corinna Martin, Sibylle Jablonka, Thomas Dandekar, Robert Blum
Local and spontaneous calcium signals play important roles in neurons and neuronal networks. Spontaneous or cell-autonomous calcium signals may be difficult to assess because they appear in an unpredictable spatiotemporal pattern and in very small neuronal loci of axons or dendrites. We developed an open source bioinformatics tool for an unbiased assessment of calcium signals in x,y-t imaging series. The tool bases its algorithm on a continuous wavelet transform-guided peak detection to identify calcium signal candidates...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600655/-exploration-on-antibacterial-activity-and-mechanism-of-flowers-and-leaves-from-paeonia-rockii-based-on-network-pharmacology
#18
Ya-Ting Bao, Yue Wang, Xiao-Dong Ren, Lin-Fang Huang, Rui Zeng
This paper aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of flowers and leaves from Paeonia rockii, screen antibacterial compounds and predict targets of antibacterial to explore its multi-component, multi-target antibacterial mechanism. In this study, minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of seven strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by microdilution method. Uniprot databases was used to find the antibacterial targets, and RCSB was used to identify targets associated with antimicrobial activity as docked receptor proteins...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599720/ethnopharmacology-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-a-field-of-research-meandering-between-medicine-and-food-science
#19
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Michael Heinrich, Atanas G Atanasov
Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years. Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations) and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field. Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596906/atrial-electrogram-quality-in-single-pass-defibrillator-leads-with-floating-atrial-bipole-in-patients-with-permanent-atrial-fibrillation-and-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#20
Christian Sticherling, Dirk Müller, Beat A Schaer, Silke Krüger, Christof Kolb
Many patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) suffer from permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Knowledge of the atrial rhythm is important to direct pharmacological or interventional treatment as well as maintaining AV-synchronous biventricular pacing if sinus rhythm can be restored. A single pass single-coil defibrillator lead with a floating atrial bipole has been shown to obtain reliable information about the atrial rhythm but has never been employed in a CRT-system. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of implanting a single coil right ventricular ICD lead with a floating atrial bipole and the signal quality of atrial electrograms (AEGM) in CRT-defibrillator recipients with permanent AF...
March 26, 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
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