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visual pharmacology

Maria Aparecida Dos Santos Traverzim, Sergio Makabe, Daniela Fátima Teixeira Silva, Christiane Pavani, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Kristianne Santos Porta Fernandes, Lara Jansiski Motta
BACKGROUND: Labor pain is one of the most intense pains experienced by women, which leads to an increase in the number of women opting to undergo a cesarean delivery. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological analgesia methods are used to control labor pain. Epidural analgesia is the most commonly used pharmacological analgesia method. However, it may have side effects on the fetus and the mother. Light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation is an effective and noninvasive alternative to pharmacological methods...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Martin Barth, Andreas Dunzinger, Irina Wimmer, Johanna Winkler, Hans Rittmannsberger, Michael Nader, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: More than 50% of patients with major depressive episode (MDE) fail to respond to initial treatment with first line pharmacological therapy. Altered receptor and serotonin transporter function are considered to be associated with mental disorders. Our investigation aimed on the density of the HT1A receptor in mesiotemporal cortex (MTC) and raphe measured by F18-Mefway in patients with MDD. METHODS: Patients with untreated clinically suspected major depressive episode were recruited from June 2012 to May 2014...
June 14, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Soren T Skou, Thomas Graven-Nielsen, Lasse Lengsoe, Ole Simonsen, Mogens B Laursen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Background Peripheral and central sensitisation is prominent in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and could be important for the reduced efficacy in some cases after as well surgery as pharmacological interventions. Although sensitisation is important in KOA it is not known to what degree it contributes to the overall clinical pain problem. The aim was therefore to investigate how much a combination of quantitative pain measures assessing various pain mechanisms (local and spreading hyperalgesia, temporal and spatial summation, descending inhibition) could predict peak pain intensity in patients with KOA...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Mats Persson, Jan Sörensen, Björn Gerdle
Objectives The present study challenges chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)-subjects to a pharmacological intravenous (i.v.) test with morphine, ketamine, and active placebo (midazolam). The aim was to describe the short-term responses to drugs and the assumed heterogeneity in the patterns of responses. We related the different responder groups to the results from psychometric tests. Methods The study includes 95 patients, all with chronic WAD and referred to our departments. They answered a questionnaire including the following psychometric instruments relevant for chronic pain: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Life Satisfaction Checklist, SF36 and EuroQol...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Søren Schou Olesen, Carina Graversen, Trine Andresen, Dina Lelic, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
During the last decades there has been a tremendous development of non-invasive methods for assessment of brain activity following visceral pain. Improved methods for neurophysiological and brain imaging techniques have vastly increased our understanding of the central processing of gastrointestinal sensation and pain in both healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. The techniques used are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG)/evoked brain potentials (EPs), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the multimodal combinations of these techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Adriana Miclescu, Björn Hägglöf, Martin Schmelz, Torsten Gordh
Aims Spontaneous and evoked pains are key symptoms of patients with neuropathic pain and there is a current discussion on the predictive value of evoked pain read outs for the reduction of spontaneous pain. Here we describe a new clinical model of neuropathic pain that may be useful for evaluation of new drugs. We also report the effects of lidocaine in this model as reference values. Methods In a randomized double-blind experiment, the analgesic effects of local lidocaine were investigated separately for spontaneous pain and for stimulus-evoked allodynia and hyperalgesia in sixteen patients with painful neuromas after traumatic nerve injuries in the upper extremities...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Michael P Stryker, Siegrid Löwel
Emerging technologies are now giving us unprecedented access to manipulate brain circuits, shedding new light on treatments for amblyopia. This research is identifying key circuit elements that control brain plasticity and highlight potential therapeutic targets to promote rewiring in the visual system during and beyond early life. Here, we explore how such recent advancements may guide future pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral approaches to treat amblyopia. We will discuss how animal research, which allows us to probe and tap into the underlying circuit and synaptic mechanisms, should best be used to guide therapeutic strategies...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Tommaso Bocci, Francesco Nasini, Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani, Davide Barloscio, Gianluca Ardolino, Alberto Priori, Lamberto Maffei, Marco Nardi, Ferdinando Sartucci
Objective: Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity loss, refractory to pharmacological and optical treatments in adulthood. In animals, the corpus callosum (CC) contributes to suppression of visual responses of the amblyopic eye. To investigate the role of interhemispheric pathways in amblyopic patients, we studied the response of the visual cortex to transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied over the primary visual area (V1) contralateral to the "lazy eye...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yasir Jalal, Aftab Ahmad, Altaf Ur Rahman, Muhammad Daud
Every individual in his/her life experiences cervical pain at some stage which may restrict daily activities. Various approaches are available for the management of cervical pain, which include surgical, pharmacological and physical therapy. Different Manual therapy techniques are used for the treatment of neck pain. Muscle energy techniques and active isolated stretching are under consideration. This case series study was conducted at physical therapy department of North West General Hospital, Peshawar from August 2015 to January 2016 to find out the effectiveness of muscles energy techniques on cervical range of motion and pain...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Boglarka Racz, Andras Varadi, Jian Kong, Rando Allikmets, Paul G Pearson, Graham Johnson, Christopher L Cioffi, Konstantin Petrukhin
A primary pathological defect in the heritable eye disorder Stargardt disease is excessive accumulation of cytotoxic lipofuscin bisretinoids in the retina. Age-dependent accumulation of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) matches the age-dependent increase in the incidence of the atrophic (dry) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and therefore may be one of several pathogenic factors contributing to AMD progression. Lipofuscin bisretinoid synthesis in the retina depends on the influx of serum retinol from the circulation into the RPE...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lesley A Smith, Ethel Burns, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Parenteral opioids (intramuscular and intravenous drugs including patient-controlled analgesia) are used for pain relief in labour in many countries throughout the world. This review is an update of a review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability to women of different types, doses and modes of administration of parenteral opioid analgesia in labour. A second objective is to assess the effects of opioids in labour on the baby in terms of safety, condition at birth and early feeding...
June 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Krishna Chintaluri, Brady D Goulden, Camilyn Celmenza, Golam Saffi, Emily Miraglia, Gerald R V Hammond, Roberto J Botelho
Phosphoinositide (PtdInsP) lipids recruit effector proteins to membranes to mediate a variety of functions including signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Each PtdInsP binds to a specific set of effectors through characteristic protein domains such as the PH, FYVE and PX domains. Domains with high affinity for a single PtdInsP species are useful as probes to visualize the distribution and dynamics of that PtdInsP. The endolysosomal system is governed by two primary PtdInsPs: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2], which are thought to localize and control early endosomes and lysosomes/late endosomes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Kuberan Pushparajah, Henry Chubb, Reza Razavi
Diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization is routinely used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. There are well-established concerns regarding the risk of radiation exposure to patients and staff, particularly in children given the cumulative effects of repeat exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the advantage of being able to provide better soft tissue visualization, tissue characterization, and quantification of ventricular volumes and vascular flow. Initial work using MRI catheterization employed fusion of x-ray and MRI techniques, with x-ray fluoroscopy to guide catheter placement and subsequent MRI assessment for anatomical and hemodynamic assessment...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Abraham Yosipof, Rita C Guedes, Alfonso T García-Sosa
Data mining approaches can uncover underlying patterns in chemical and pharmacological property space decisive for drug discovery and development. Two of the most common approaches are visualization and machine learning methods. Visualization methods use dimensionality reduction techniques in order to reduce multi-dimension data into 2D or 3D representations with a minimal loss of information. Machine learning attempts to find correlations between specific activities or classifications for a set of compounds and their features by means of recurring mathematical models...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Justine Schneider
The growing prevalence of dementia, combined with an absence of effective pharmacological treatments, highlights the potential of psychosocial interventions to alleviate the effects of dementia and enhance quality of life. With reference to a manifesto from the researcher network Interdem, this paper shows how arts activities correspond to its definition of psycho-social care. It presents key dimensions that help to define different arts activities in this context, and illustrates the arts with reference to three major approaches that can be viewed online; visual art, music and dance...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
H H Andersen, S Lo Vecchio, P Gazerani, L Arendt-Nielsen
Aims Transient receptor potential ion channel A1 (TRPA1) has been shown to play a pathoetiological role in several painful and inflammatory conditions and therefore several new drug candidates, targeting TRPA1 are currently being developed [1]. While the natural TRPA1-agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC, known as "mustard oil") is an exceedingly common animal pain model, it has only been sparsely investigated as a potential human surrogate model of pain and neurogenic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate dose-response features of AITC as a sensitizing, algogenic irritant in human skin...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
D Origo, A G Tarantino, A Nonis, L Vismara
BACKGROUND: Coccydynia is a disorder associated with pain/discomfort at the base of the spine. The role of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in chronic coccydynia as well as for low back pain (LBP) and radicular pain (RP) associated with coccydynia, has not previously been investigated. This study seeks to analyse the effects of OMT on chronic coccydynia compared to physical therapy and pharmacological treatment (PTPT). The secondary objective is to analyse the effect of OMT on LBP and RP associated with coccydynia...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Jessica Carlsson, Charlotte Sonne, Erik Vindbjerg, Erik Lykke Mortensen
The aim of this randomised trial was to compare the effectiveness of stress management (SM) versus cognitive restructuring (CR) in trauma-affected refugees. The intention-to-treat sample comprised 126 refugees with PTSD (SM = 62, CR = 64). The treatment consisted of 16 sessions of psychotherapy with manualised SM or CR in addition to 10 sessions with a medical doctor (psychoeducation and pharmacological treatment). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Ratings), quality of life (WHO-5), functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning, Sheehan Disability Scale), pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and somatisation (Symptom Checklist)...
May 24, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Harald Hampel, M-Marsel Mesulam, A Claudio Cuello, Martin R Farlow, Ezio Giacobini, George T Grossberg, Ara S Khachaturian, Andrea Vergallo, Enrica Cavedo, Peter J Snyder, Zaven S Khachaturian
Cholinergic synapses are ubiquitous in the human central nervous system. Their high density in the thalamus, striatum, limbic system, and neocortex suggest that cholinergic transmission is likely to be critically important for memory, learning, attention and other higher brain functions. Several lines of research suggest additional roles for cholinergic systems in overall brain homeostasis and plasticity. As such, the brain's cholinergic system occupies a central role in ongoing research related to normal cognition and age-related cognitive decline, including dementias such as Alzheimer's disease...
May 29, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Mariusz Chabowski, Jacek Polański, Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Dariusz Janczak, Joanna Rosińczuk
Background: Nutritional deficiencies are common in lung cancer patients, especially in those with advanced and metastatic cancers. The pathogenesis of the development of nutritional disorders in cancer patients has not been fully explained. The study was performed in order to research associations between nutritional status and mental condition and pain. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between nutritional status and the level of anxiety, depression and perceived pain in patients with lung cancer...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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