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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241289/-radiology-in-the-light-of-evolutionary-cognitive-theory
#1
Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241233/hyperbaric-oxygen-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-artery-occlusion
#2
Mark J Elder, John A Rawstron, Michael Davis
INTRODUCTION: Acute retinal artery occlusion (ARAO) is a major cause of sudden, painless visual loss, often leaving no useful vision in the affected eye. Its incidence is cited at 0.85 per 100,000 persons per year but may be higher because of under-reporting. The natural history is difficult to study, but a spontaneous resolution rate of < 1-8% for acute, non-arteritic ARAO has been cited. Occurrence in an only eye is devastating for the patient. There is currently no consensus regarding management of ARAO and little evidence to support any treatment modality...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241186/strengthening-gastric-cancer-therapy-by-trastuzumab-conjugated-nanoparticles-with-simultaneous-encapsulation-of-anti-mir-21-and-5-fluorouridine
#3
Nan Hu, Jun Feng Yin, Ze Ji, Yidong Hong, Puyuan Wu, Baoxiang Bian, Ziyan Song, Rutian Li, Qin Liu, Fenglei Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-21 is an oncogenic miR (oncomiR) frequently elevated in gastric cancer (GC). Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-fluorouridine (5-Fu) and trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). This study is a continuation of earlier findings involving poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target GC with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 (AMO-21) and 5-Fu...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#4
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241136/submillimeter-scale-heterogeneity-of-labile-phosphorus-in-sediments-characterized-by-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-and-spatial-analysis
#5
Yuting Meng, Shiming Ding, Mengdan Gong, Musong Chen, Yan Wang, Xianfang Fan, Lei Shi, Chaosheng Zhang
Sediments have a heterogeneous distribution of labile redox-sensitive elements due to a drastic downward transition from oxic to anoxic condition as a result of organic matter degradation. Characterization of the heterogeneous nature of sediments is vital for understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes. However, there are limited reports on the related specialized methodology. In this study, the monthly distributions of labile phosphorus (P), a redox-sensitive limiting nutrient, were measured in the eutrophic Lake Taihu by Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) on a two-dimensional (2D) submillimeter level...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241100/the-effect-of-spatial-auditory-landmarks-on-ambulation
#6
Adham M Karim, Kavelin Rumalla, Laurie A King, Timothy E Hullar
The maintenance of balance and posture is a result of the collaborative efforts of vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual sensory inputs, but a fourth neural input, audition, may also improve balance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auditory inputs function as environmental spatial landmarks whose effectiveness depends on sound localization ability during ambulation. Eight blindfolded normal young subjects performed the Fukuda-Unterberger test in three auditory conditions: silence, white noise played through headphones (head-referenced condition), and white noise played through a loudspeaker placed directly in front at 135 centimeters away from the ear at ear height (earth-referenced condition)...
December 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241019/quantitative-analysis-of-a-multiplexed-immunofluorescence-panel-in-t-cell-lymphoma
#7
Siok-Bian Ng, Shuangyi Fan, Shoa-Nian Choo, Michal Hoppe, Hoang Mai Phuong, Sanjay De Mel, Anand D Jeyasekharan
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides clinically useful information on protein expression in cancer cells. However, quantification of colocalizing signals using conventional IHC and visual scores is challenging. Here we describe the application of quantitative immunofluorescence in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma characterized by cellular heterogeneity that impedes IHC interpretation and quantification. A multiplexed immunofluorescence (IF) panel comprising T- and B-lymphocyte markers along with T-follicular helper (TFH) markers was validated for appropriate cellular localization in sections of benign tonsillar tissue and tested in two samples of AITL, using a Vectra microscope for spectral imaging and InForm software for analysis...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241017/older-adult-multitasking-performance-using-a-gaze-contingent-useful-field-of-view
#8
Nathan Ward, John G Gaspar, Mark B Neider, James Crowell, Ronald Carbonari, Hank Kaczmarski, Ryan V Ringer, Aaron P Johnson, Lester C Loschky, Arthur F Kramer
Objective We implemented a gaze-contingent useful field of view paradigm to examine older adult multitasking performance in a simulated driving environment. Background Multitasking refers to the ability to manage multiple simultaneous streams of information. Recent work suggests that multitasking declines with age, yet the mechanisms supporting these declines are still debated. One possible framework to better understand this phenomenon is the useful field of view, or the area in the visual field where information can be attended and processed...
December 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240900/evaluation-of-differential-pulmonary-perfusion-using-99mtc-macroaggregated-albumin-after-the-fontan-procedure
#9
Sachin Talwar, Lakshmi Sankhyan, Chetan Patel, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Shiv Kumar Choudhary, Balram Airan
OBJECTIVES: The Fontan procedure [total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC)] is the final palliation for patients with univentricular physiology. We studied differential perfusion ratio and percentage uptake of a radiotracer in different zones of each lung following TCPC. METHODS: Between July 2015 and June 2017, 45 patients underwent 99mTc macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan at a mean follow-up period of 49.3 ± SD 26.1 days following TCPC. Differential perfusion ratio and percentage uptake of the radiotracer in the upper, middle and lower zones of each lung were calculated...
December 11, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240880/assessment-of-histological-remission-in-ulcerative-colitis-discrepancies-between-daily-practice-and-expert-opinion
#10
Tessa E H Römkens, Pim Kranenburg, Arjan van Tilburg, Carolien Bronkhorst, Iris D Nagtegaal, Joost P H Drenth, Frank Hoentjen
Background and aims: Histological remission (HR) is a potential treatment target in ulcerative colitis (UC). Limited 'real world ' data is available on reliability of histological scoring when assessing minimal histological inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of UC histological scores in colonic biopsies showing mucosal healing (MH) and limited histological inflammation, and to compare the 'daily practice' histological assessment with expert reviews by gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240824/high-abundance-of-arfgap1-found-in-the-mossy-fibers-in-hilus-of-the-dentate-gyrus-region-of-the-mouse-brain
#11
Sergiy Chornyy, Anna Parnis, Michael Shmoish, Dan Cassel
The Arf GTPase-activating protein ArfGAP1 and its brain-specific isoform ArfGAP1B play an important role in neurotransmission. Here we analyzed the distribution of ArfGAP1 in the mouse brain. We found high levels of ArfGAP1 in the mouse dentate gyrus where it displayed especially elevated level in the polymorph layer (hilus). Importantly, the ArfGAP1 signal follows the pathway of the granular cell axons so-called mossy fibers which extend from the dentate gyrus to CA3 via stratum lucidum and partially stratum oriens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240817/more-visual-mind-wandering-occurrence-during-visual-task-performance-modality-of-the-concurrent-task-affects-how-the-mind-wanders
#12
HeeSun Choi, Michael Geden, Jing Feng
Mind wandering has been considered as a mental process that is either independent from the concurrent task or regulated like a secondary task. These accounts predict that the form of mind wandering (i.e., images or words) should be either unaffected by or different from the modality form (i.e., visual or auditory) of the concurrent task. Findings from this study challenge these accounts. We measured the rate and the form of mind wandering in three task conditions: fixation, visual 2-back, and auditory 2-back...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240813/feature-reliability-determines-specificity-and-transfer-of-perceptual-learning-in-orientation-search
#13
Amit Yashar, Rachel N Denison
Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240808/altered-cerebral-hemodyamics-and-cortical-thinning-in-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#14
Randolph S Marshall, Iris Asllani, Marykay A Pavol, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ronald M Lazar
Cortical thinning is a potentially important biomarker, but the pathophysiology in cerebrovascular disease is unknown. We investigated the association between regional cortical blood flow and regional cortical thickness in patients with asymptomatic unilateral high-grade internal carotid artery disease without stroke. Twenty-nine patients underwent high resolution anatomical and single-delay, pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with partial volume correction to assess gray matter baseline flow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240774/pharmacological-inactivation-does-not-support-a-unique-causal-role-for-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-discrimination-of-visual-number
#15
Nicholas K DeWind, Jiyun Peng, Andrew Luo, Elizabeth M Brannon, Michael L Platt
The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240769/specific-excitatory-connectivity-for-feature-integration-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#16
Dylan R Muir, Patricia Molina-Luna, Morgane M Roth, Fritjof Helmchen, Björn M Kampa
Local excitatory connections in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) are stronger and more prevalent between neurons that share similar functional response features. However, the details of how functional rules for local connectivity shape neuronal responses in V1 remain unknown. We hypothesised that complex responses to visual stimuli may arise as a consequence of rules for selective excitatory connectivity within the local network in the superficial layers of mouse V1. In mouse V1 many neurons respond to overlapping grating stimuli (plaid stimuli) with highly selective and facilitatory responses, which are not simply predicted by responses to single gratings presented alone...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240758/increased-gamma-band-activity-for-lateral-interactions-in-humans
#17
Alon Shapira, Anna Sterkin, Moshe Fried, Oren Yehezkel, Zeev Zalevsky, Uri Polat
Collinear facilitation of contrast sensitivity supported by lateral interactions within primary visual cortex is implicated in contour and object perception, with neural correlates in several frequency bands. Although higher component of the ERP power spectrum, the gamma-band, is postulated to reflect object representation, attention and memory, its neuronal source has been questioned, suggesting it is an artifact reflecting saccadic eye movements. Here we explored the gamma-band activity during collinear facilitation with no saccade-related confounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240733/use-of-tai-fish-to-visualize-neural-ensembles-activated-by-multiple-stimuli
#18
Qi Zhang, Qiye He, Jihua Wang, Chaoying Fu, Hailan Hu
Researchers in behavioral neuroscience have long sought imaging techniques that can identify and distinguish neural ensembles that are activated by sequentially applied stimuli at single-cell resolution across the whole brain. Taking advantage of the different kinetics of immediate-early genes' mRNA and protein expression, we addressed this problem by developing tyramide-amplified immunohistochemistry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TAI-FISH), a dual-epoch neural-activity-dependent labeling protocol. Here we describe the step-by-step procedures for TAI-FISH on brain sections from mice that were sequentially stimulated by morphine (appetitive first stimulus) and foot shock (aversive second stimulus)...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240599/title-prevalence-and-visual-outcome-of-glaucoma-with-uveitis-in-a-thai-population
#19
Neha Sharma, Amit Kumar Purang, Julie Pegu, Madhu Bhoot, Suneeta Dubey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240562/occurrence-of-impaired-physical-performance-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#20
Jurre H Verwer, Geert-Jan Biessels, Rutger Heinen, Lieza G Exalto, Marielle H Emmelot-Vonk, Huiberdina L Koek
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) occurs often in memory clinic patients. Apart from cognitive deficits, these patients can express physical decline, which predicts adverse health outcomes. In this study, we investigated the cooccurrence of clinically relevant impairments in physical performance and CSVD in memory clinic patients. We included 131 patients with vascular brain injury, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease with available 3T MRI and physical performance scores. CSVD was visually rated according to 3 subtypes and as a total burden score, composed of the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunar infarcts (LI), and cerebral microbleeds (MB)...
December 13, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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