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placenta UPR

Aline R Lorenzon-Ojea, Cristiane R Guzzo, Mirhan Kapidzic, Susan J Fisher, Estela Bevilacqua
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from changes in ER homeostasis and folding of proteins. ER stress initiates cellular adaptive mechanisms to rescue cell homeostasis or, if that does not work, to elicit apoptosis. We have previously shown that mouse SDF2 is sublocalized in the ER, is ubiquitously expressed, and shows strong similarities with stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) 2L1 and SDF2-like from Arabidopsis, ER proteins involved in chaperone network and protein folding. Thus, we hypothesized that SDF2 plays a role in the ER stress and unfolded protein response...
August 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Masahito Mizuuchi, Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Matts Olovsson, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Graham J Burton, Hong Wa Yung
Low maternal circulating concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) are one of the hallmarks of human pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE). Currently, PlGF is used clinically with other biomarkers to screen for high-risk cases, although the mechanisms underlying its regulation are largely unknown. Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been found to be elevated in cases of FGR, and to an even greater extent in early-onset PE complicated with FGR...
March 2016: Journal of Pathology
Hong Wa Yung, Daniel Atkinson, Tim Campion-Smith, Matts Olovsson, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Graham J Burton
Based on gestational age at diagnosis and/or delivery, pre-eclampsia (PE) is commonly divided into early-onset (<34 weeks) and late-onset (≥34 weeks) forms. Recently, the distinction between 'placental' and 'maternal' causation has been proposed, with 'placental' cases being more frequently associated with early-onset and intrauterine growth restriction. To test whether molecular placental pathology varies according to clinical presentation, we investigated stress-signalling pathways, including unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, MAPK stress pathways, heat-shock proteins and AMPKα in placentae delivered by caesarean section for clinical indications at different gestational ages...
October 2014: Journal of Pathology
Li Yuan, Xinxin Li, Jiaojiao Feng, Chenyang Yin, Fang Yuan, Xinru Wang
Inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) is highly conserved from yeasts to humans. Upon the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, IRE1 activates X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) by unconventionally splicing XBP1 mRNA, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. In mice, IRE1α inactivity leads to embryonic death and IRE1α plays an essential role in extraembryonic tissues and the placenta. However, its precise action in the embryo proper is still unknown. In this study, the loss of function analysis was performed to investigate the function of Xenopus IRE1α (xIRE1α) during pancreas development...
March 2014: Journal of Biomedical Research
Zhen Wang, Hua Wang, Zhong Mei Xu, Yan-Li Ji, Yuan-Hua Chen, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Hong Meng, Mei Zhao, De-Xiang Xu
The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (4.5mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses...
March 1, 2012: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L Lipson, Karen E Sargent, Arthur M Mercurio, Joan S Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial to many physiological and pathological processes including development and cancer cell survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is the predominant mediator of angiogenesis in the VEGF family. During development, adverse environmental conditions like nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and increased protein secretion occur. IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha, master regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated under these conditions and are proposed to have a role in mediating angiogenesis...
2010: PloS One
Lenka A Vodstrcil, Mary E Wlodek, Laura J Parry
The peptide hormone relaxin stimulates uterine growth and endometrial angiogenesis and inhibits myometrial contractions in a variety of species. The receptor for relaxin is a leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor Lgr7 (RXFP1) that is highly expressed in the myometrium of late pregnant mice, with a significant decrease in receptor density observed at term. The present study first compared the expression of Lgr7 with another relaxin-family receptor Lgr8 (RXFP2) in the uterus and placenta of late pregnant rats...
2007: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
S Yanai, S Satoh, T Koyanagi, N Kinukawa, H Nakano
To clarify whether twin fetuses could be clustered quantitatively observing in utero cardiovascular system function, 71 twin-paired fetuses between 24 and 40 weeks' gestation were subjected. Cluster analysis was performed using four variables; end-diastolic dimension and fractional shortening in the right ventricle (EDD, FS), resistance index in the umbilical artery (RIUA) and urine production rate (UPR). Three different groups were revealed. In Cluster 1 (C1), larger fetuses showed a significant increase in both EDD and UPR, and a significant decrease in FS, while smaller fetuses had a significant increase in RIUA and a decrease in UPR...
April 25, 1997: Early Human Development
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