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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208842/assessment-of-serum-vaspin-levels-among-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-or-without-acute-coronary-syndrome
#1
Aswathy Jaya Sathyaseelan, Prashant Shankarrao Adole, Mukta Wyawahare, Rama Prakasha Saya
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is on the verge of becoming a pandemic in India. Type 2 DM patient have two to four times increased risk of carotid artery disease. Adipokines have been regarded recently as direct link between diabetes and atherosclerosis. Visceral Adipose Tissue Derived Serine Protease Inhibitor (VASPIN); one of the most recently discovered adipokine, inhibits the proteases responsible for insulin resistance, carotid plaque development and rupture. In literature, few studies have addressed the role of VASPIN in pathogenesis of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in patients with type 2 DM...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204821/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induce-il-1%C3%AE-production-by-macrophages-in-combination-with-lipopolysaccharide
#2
Zhongshuang Hu, Taisuke Murakami, Hiroshi Tamura, Johannes Reich, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Toshiaki Iba, Yoko Tabe, Isao Nagaoka
Upon exposure to invading microorganisms, neutrophils undergo NETosis, a recently identified type of programmed cell death, and release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are described as an antimicrobial mechanism, based on the fact that NETs can trap microorganisms and exhibit bactericidal activity through the action of NET‑associated components. In contrast, the components of NETs have been recognized as damage‑associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which trigger inflammatory signals to induce cell death, inflammation and organ failure...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#3
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196471/characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-serine-protease-inhibitors-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae
#4
Hailan Lin, Xijian Lin, Jiwei Zhu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiaofeng Xia, Fengluan Yao, Guang Yang, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. RESULTS: A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194160/highlights-in-the-knowledge-of-brown-spider-toxins
#5
REVIEW
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Martins Wille, Luiza Helena Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193451/prolonged-pharmacological-inhibition-of-cathepsin-c-results-in-elimination-of-neutrophil-serine-proteases
#6
Carla Guarino, Yveline Hamon, Cécile Croix, Anne-Sophie Lamort, Sandrine Dallet-Choisy, Sylvain Marchand-Adam, Adam Lesner, Thomas Baranek, Marie-Claude Viaud-Massuard, Conni Lauritzen, John Pedersen, Nathalie Heuzé-Vourc'h, Mustapha Si-Tahar, Erhan Fıratlı, Dieter E Jenne, Francis Gauthier, Marshall S Horwitz, Niels Borregaard, Brice Korkmaz
Cathepsin C (CatC) is a tetrameric cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that plays a key role in activation of pro-inflammatory serine protease zymogens by removal of an N-terminal pro-dipeptide sequence. Loss of function mutations in the CatC gene are associated with lack of immune cell serine proteases activities and cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS). Also, only very low levels of elastase-like protease zymogens are detected by proteome analysis of neutrophils from PLS patients. Thus, CatC inhibitors represent new alternatives for the treatment of neutrophil protease-driven inflammatory or autoimmune diseases...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191683/immediate-type-allergic-and-protease-mediated-reactions-are-involved-in-scratching-behavior-induced-by-topical-application-of-dermatophagoides-farinae-extract-in-nc-nga-mice
#7
Yoshihito Yamada, Yuhki Ueda, Aki Nakamura, Shoji Kanayama, Rie Tamura, Kei Hashimoto, Tatsumi Matsumoto, Ritsuko Ishii
Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like dermatitis can be induced by repeated topical application of an ointment containing Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb) extract in NC/Nga mice. This AD-like murine model also exhibits a biphasic increase in the number of scratching behavior after topical application of Dfb ointment. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the scratching behavior in each phase. An increase in the content of mast cell derived mediators such as histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the lesional skin and increased vascular permeability were observed in the early phase after the Dfb ointment application...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#8
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
February 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183045/new-process-for-purifying-high-purity-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-from-cohn-fraction-iv-by-chromatography-a-promising-method-for-the-better-utilization-of-plasma
#9
Chaoji Huangfu, Jinchao Zhang, Yuyuan Ma, Junting Jia, Maomin Lv, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52kDa serine protease inhibitor that is abundant in plasma. It is synthesized mainly by hepatic cells, and widely used to treat patients with emphysema due to congenital deficiency of AAT. A new isolation method for the purification of AAT from Cohn Fraction IV (Cohn F IV) is described. Cohn F IV is usually discarded as a byproduct from Cohn process. Using Cohn F IV as starting material does not interfere with the production of other plasma proteins and the cost of purification could be reduced greatly...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179435/protean-proteases-at-the-cutting-edge%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-lung-diseases
#10
Clifford Taggart, Marcus A Mall, Gilles Lalmanach, Didier Cataldo, Andreas Ludwig, Sabina Janciauskiene, Nicole Heath, Silke Meiners, Christopher M Overall, Carsten Schultz, Boris Turk, Keren S Borensztajn
Proteases were traditionally viewed as mere protein-degrading enzymes with a very restricted spectrum of substrates. A major expansion in protease research has uncovered a variety of novel substrates, and it is now evident that proteases are critical pleiotropic actors orchestrating pathophysiological processes. Recent findings evidenced that the net proteolytic activity also relies upon interconnections between different protease and protease inhibitor families in the protease web.In this review, we provide an overview of these novel concepts with a particular focus on pulmonary pathophysiology...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#11
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172513/p111-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-a-serine-protease-inhibitor-in-a-chronic-colitis-transfer-model-is-mediated-by-the-suppression-of-th1-cell-differentiation
#12
H Van Spaendonk, S Francque, J De Man, B De Winter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167355/development-of-a-new-bioactivatable-fluorescent-probe-for-quantification-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-proteolytic-degradation-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#13
Foued Maafi, Baoqiang Li, Catherine Gebhard, Mathieu R Brodeur, Walid Nachar, Louis Villeneuve, Frédéric Lesage, David Rhainds, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential benefits of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) against atherosclerosis are attributed to its major protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Most of the apoA-I in the vascular wall appears to be in its lipid-poor form. The latter, however, is subjected to degradation by proteases localized in atherosclerotic plaques, which, in turn, has been shown to negatively impact its atheroprotective functions. Here, we report the development and in vivo use of a bioactivatable near-infrared full-length apoA-I-Cy5...
January 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163123/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-metalloprotease-inhibitor-from-bothrops-alternatus-snake-serum
#14
Tatiana Z Palacio, Norival A Santos-Filho, José Cesar Rosa, Rui S Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Suely V Sampaio
Resistance of snakes and some other animals to snake envenomation has been attributed to soluble factors present in their tissues. Here we report the isolation of a novel metalloprotease inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus snake serum (named BaltMPI) with high purity, using a four-step chromatographic method. BaltMPI has molecular weights of 60.5 and 42.4kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, respectively, and pI=5.27. The first 60 amino acids from the N-terminal region of BaltMPI, determined by Edman's degradation, showed high homology (97%) with the snake venom metalloprotease inhibitor (SVMPI) BJ46a and other SVMPIs (78-82%)...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161438/molecular-and-evolutionary-perspectives-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-from-lamprey
#15
Marty K S Wong, Yoshio Takei
The recent advance and revision on the renin-angiotensin system in lamprey were summarized and we emphasized that presence of two types of angiotensins (Angs) in lamprey. Due to the parasitic nature on fish blood, teleost-type Angs were produced in their buccal gland and secreted into the lamphredin to evade the host immunorejection. A native lamprey angiotensinogen (AGT) was identified in genome and it retains serine-protease inhibitor activity for thrombin that regulates the blood coagulation pathway. The native lamprey angiotensin II (Lp-Ang II) is hypotensive instead of hypertensive, suggesting a functional divergence on cardiovascular regulation from the main vertebrate groups...
February 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159692/identification-of-cvsi-3-and-evidence-for-the-wide-distribution-and-active-evolution-of-the-i84-family-of-protease-inhibitors-in-mollusks
#16
Qinggang Xue, Jean-Phillipe Beguel, Julie Gauthier, Jerome La Peyre
Protease inhibitors are an extremely diverse group of proteins that control the proteolytic activities of proteases and play a crucial role in biological processes including host defenses. The I84 family of protease inhibitors in the MEROPS database currently consists of cvSI-1 and cvSI-2, two novel serine protease inhibitors purified and characterized from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica plasma and believed to play a role in host defense and disease resistance. In the present study, a third member of I84 family, named cvSI-3, was identified from C...
January 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157311/structure-based-library-design-and-fragment-screening-for-the-identification-of-reversible-complement-factor-d-protease-inhibitors
#17
Anna Vulpetti, Stefan Randl, Simon Rüdisser, Nils Ostermann, Paulus Erbel, Aengus MacSweeney, Thomas Zoller, Bahaa Salem, Bernd Gerhartz, Frederic Cumin, Ulrich Hommel, Claudio Dalvit, Edwige Lorthiois, Jürgen Maibaum
Chronic dysregulation of alternative complement pathway activation has been associated with diverse clinical disorders including age-related macular degeneration and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinurea. Factor D is a trypsin-like serine protease with a narrow specificity for arginine in the P1 position, which catalyses the first enzymatic reaction of the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. In this paper, we describe two hit finding approaches leading to the discovery of new chemical matter for this pivotal protease of the complement system: in silico active site mapping for hot spots identification to guide rational structure-based design and NMR screening of focussed and diverse fragment libraries...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150441/characterization-of-the-binding-of-a-glycosylated-serine-protease-from-euphorbia-cf-lactea-latex-to-human-fibrinogen
#18
Jaruwan Siritapetawee, Chutima Talabnin, Jarunee Vanichtanankul, Chomphunuch Songsiriritthigul, Kanjana Thumanu, Chun-Jung Chen, Nantarat Komanasin
In this study, the binding of a glycosylated serine protease (EuP-82) with human fibrinogen was investigated by the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The ITC analysis indicated that the binding of EuP-82 to fibrinogen in the conditions with or without the activator (Ca(2+) ) was an exothermic reaction (dominant negative enthalpy), which tended to be driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. In contrast, the binding of fibrinogen-EuP-82 in the condition with the inhibitor (Zn(2+) ) was an unfavorable endothermic reaction...
February 1, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148786/neurovirulent-murine-coronavirus-jhm-sd-uses-cellular-zinc-metalloproteases-for-virus-entry-and-cell-cell-fusion
#19
Judith M Phillips, Tom Gallagher, Susan R Weiss
: The coronavirus S protein requires cleavage by host cell proteases to mediate virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Many strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) have distinct, S-dependent organ and tissue tropisms despite using a common receptor, suggesting that they employ different cellular proteases for fusion. In support of this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of endosomal acidification only modestly decreased entry and overexpression of the cell surface protease TMPRSS2 greatly enhanced entry of the highly neurovirulent MHV strain JHM...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139439/neutrophil-protease-cleavage-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-glomeruli-an-anti-thrombotic-mechanism-in-the-kidney
#20
Ramesh Tati, Ann-Charlotte Kristoffersson, Minola Manea Hedström, Matthias Mörgelin, Jörgen Wieslander, Cees van Kooten, Diana Karpman
Adequate cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF) prevents formation of thrombi. ADAMTS13 is the main VWF-cleaving protease and its deficiency results in development of thrombotic microangiopathy. Besides ADAMTS13 other proteases may also possess VWF-cleaving activity, but their physiological importance in preventing thrombus formation is unknown. This study investigated if, and which, proteases could cleave VWF in the glomerulus. The content of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was studied as a reflection of processes occurring in the subendothelial glomerular space...
January 24, 2017: EBioMedicine
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