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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#1
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221984/postharvest-reduction-of-coliphage-ms2-from-romaine-lettuce-during-simulated-commercial-processing-with-and-without-a-chlorine-based-sanitizer
#2
Samantha L Wengert, Tiong Gim Aw, Elliot T Ryser, Joan B Rose
Viral foodborne outbreaks are a serious threat to public health, and fresh produce is becoming increasingly recognized as a transmission vehicle. To limit foodborne disease, ready-to-eat leafy greens are typically washed with a chlorine-based sanitizer during commercial production. This study assessed the efficacy of a chlorine-based sanitizer against coliphage MS2, as a potential surrogate for foodborne viruses, on fresh-cut romaine lettuce during simulated commercial production using a small-scale processing line...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221959/efficacy-of-ozonation-treatments-of-smoked-fish-for-reducing-its-benzo-a-pyrene-concentration-and-toxicity
#3
Irina Rozentale, Janis Ancans, Elena Bartkiene, Arturs Viksna, Vadims Bartkevics
Ozone is widely used in food processing, for example, to decompose mycotoxins or pesticide residues, to extend the shelf life of products, and for sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of expanding the application of ozone for oxidative degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The evaluation was conducted by ozonation of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) standard solution and smoked fish (sprats) contaminated with PAHs. The effect of ozonation was immediate in the BaP solution; 89% of this toxic compound was decomposed after only 1 min of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221936/evaluation-of-a-recirculating-dipper-well-combined-with-ozone-sanitizer-for-control-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-food-service-operations
#4
Giselle Almeida, Kristen E Gibson
In the retail food service industry, small countertop sinks, or dipper wells, are utilized to rinse and store serving utensils between uses. These dipper wells are designed to operate under a constant flow of water, which serves both to prevent the accumulation of microorganisms and to aid in the cleanliness of the dipper well itself. Here, a recirculating dipper well ozone sanitation system (DWOSS) was evaluated for the control and inactivation of Escherichia coli , Listeria innocua , PRD1 bacteriophage, and Staphylococcus aureus present on a stainless steel disher...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221923/matrix-specific-method-validation-of-an-automated-most-probable-number-system-for-use-in-measuring-bacteriological-quality-of-grade-a-milk-products
#5
Samantha Lindemann, Matthew Kmet, Ravinder Reddy, Steffen Uhlig
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees a long-standing cooperative federal and state milk sanitation program that uses the grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards to maintain the safety of grade "A" milk sold in the United States. The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance requires that grade "A" milk samples be tested using validated total aerobic bacterial and coliform count methods. The objective of this project was to conduct an interlaboratory method validation study to compare performance of a film plate method with an automated most-probable-number method for total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts, using statistical approaches from international data standards...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221917/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strains-isolated-from-high-event-period-beef-contamination-have-strong-biofilm-forming-ability-and-low-sanitizer-susceptibility-which-are-associated-with-high-po157-plasmid-copy-number
#6
Rong Wang, Brandon E Luedtke, Joseph M Bosilevac, John W Schmidt, Norasak Kalchayanand, Terrance M Arthur
In the meat industry, a high-event period (HEP) is defined as a time period when beef processing establishments experience an increased occurrence of product contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Our previous studies suggested that bacterial biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance might contribute to HEPs. We conducted the present study to further characterize E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated during HEPs for their potential to cause contamination and to investigate the genetic basis for their strong biofilm-forming ability and high sanitizer resistance...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221909/effect-of-temperature-and-nutrient-concentration-on-survival-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-deciduous-fruit-processing-environments-for-effective-hygiene-management
#7
Stacey Duvenage, Lise Korsten
Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221901/prevalence-and-persistence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-ready-to-eat-tilapia-sashimi-processing-plants
#8
Bang-Yuan Chen, Chung-Yi Wang, Chia-Lan Wang, Yang-Chi Fan, I-Ting Weng, Chung-Hsi Chou
A 2-year study was performed at two ready-to-eat tilapia sashimi processing plants (A and B) to identify possible routes of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes during processing. Samples were collected from the aquaculture environments, transportation tanks, processing plants, and final products. Seventy-nine L. monocytogenes isolates were found in the processing environments and final products; 3.96% (50 of 1,264 samples) and 3.86% (29 of 752 samples) of the samples from plants A and B, respectively, were positive for L...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221856/enumeration-and-identification-of-coliform-bacteria-injured-by-chlorine-or-fungicide-mixed-with-agricultural-water
#9
Hidemi Izumi, Yuji Nakata, Ayano Inoue
Chemical sanitizers may induce no injury (bacteria survive), sublethal injury (bacteria are injured), or lethal injury (bacteria die). The proportion of coliform bacteria that were injured sublethally by chlorine and fungicide mixed with agricultural water (pond water), which was used to dilute the pesticide solution, was evaluated using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. In pure cultures of Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and E. coli O157:H7 (representing a human pathogen), the percentage of chlorine-injured cells was 69 to 77% for dilute electrolyzed water containing an available chlorine level of 2 ppm...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217588/promotion-of-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-a-rural-area-of-south-india-a-community-based-study
#10
Nagapraveen Veerapu, P Subramaniyan, B A Praveenkumar, G Arun
INTRODUCTION: Globally, billions of people do not have access to improved sanitation and many defecate in the open air. Poor hand washing practices and limited access to sanitation facilities perpetuate the transmission of disease-causing germs. The objectives of the study were to find out the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) on sanitary latrine, footwear, and hand washing among rural people and to assess the improvement in KAP after health education intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A health education intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2014 in a rural area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, South India among the people aged 15 years and above...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216695/continuous-self-sustaining-smouldering-destruction-of-simulated-faeces
#11
Ivo Fabris, Daniel Cormier, Jason I Gerhard, Tomek Bartczak, Mark Kortschot, Jose L Torero, Yu-Ling Cheng
A new approach for the rapid destruction of human waste using smouldering combustion is presented. Recently, self-sustaining smouldering combustion was shown to destroy the organic component of simulated human solid waste and dog faeces resulting in the sanitization of all pathogens using a batch process (Yermán et al., 2015). Here, a continuous smouldering process is demonstrated for the first time, allowing for a much smaller reactor size and much less energy input per mass of waste treated. The self-sustained smouldering of simulated human faeces mixed with sand is evaluated over long periods (more than 16 h) based on a single ignition...
February 15, 2017: Fuel
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216080/patterns-of-waste-generation-a-gradient-boosting-model-for-short-term-waste-prediction-in-new-york-city
#12
Nicholas E Johnson, Olga Ianiuk, Daniel Cazap, Linglan Liu, Daniel Starobin, Gregory Dobler, Masoud Ghandehari
Historical municipal solid waste (MSW) collection data supplied by the New York City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) was used in conjunction with other datasets related to New York City to forecast municipal solid waste generation across the city. Spatiotemporal tonnage data from the DSNY was combined with external data sets, including the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics data, the American Community Survey, the New York City Department of Finance's Primary Land Use and Tax Lot Output data, and historical weather data to build a Gradient Boosting Regression Model...
February 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215808/urea-stabilisation-and-concentration-for-urine-diverting-dry-toilets-urine-dehydration-in-ash
#13
Jenna Senecal, Björn Vinnerås
Human excreta contain the same nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K) as the fertilisers used to produce the food consumed. However, human excreta are considered unwanted waste throughout the world, creating humanitarian and environmental problems. In order to replace the nutrients removed from fields during crop harvesting, more fertilisers are manufactured, in processes contributing to environmental changes at global level. The limitation of human urine as a fertiliser is its low nutrient concentration compared with commercial fertilisers...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#14
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213035/influence-of-electro-activated-solutions-of-weak-organic-acid-salts-on-microbial-quality-and-overall-appearance-of-blueberries-during-storage
#15
Viacheslav Liato, Riadh Hammami, Mohammed Aïder
The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213027/differences-in-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorine-against-twelve-most-prevalent-poultry-associated-salmonella-serotypes
#16
Narayan C Paul, Tarah S Sullivan, Devendra H Shah
Chlorine is the most widely used carcass sanitizer in poultry processing in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of organic matter on the susceptibility of twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) to chlorine. To mimic the microenvironment of the water used for immersion chilling, we manipulated organic matter contamination levels in pre-chilled (pH∼6, T∼4 °C) chlorinated (50 ppm) water using varying concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) of chicken-meat-extract (CME) produced from frozen chicken carcasses...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213024/sanitizer-efficacy-in-preventing-cross-contamination-of-heads-of-lettuce-during-retail-crisping
#17
Yangjin Jung, Hyein Jang, Mengqi Guo, Jingwen Gao, Karl R Matthews
This study was conducted to provide information regarding mitigation of cross-contamination through the use of sanitizer during crisping at retail outlets. Seven non-inoculated heads and one inoculated head (≈5 log CFU/g) of lettuce were placed into commercial sink filled with 76 L of tap water (TW), electrolyzed water (EW, free chlorine: 43 ± 6 ppm), lactic acid and phosphoric acid-based sanitizer (LPA, pH 2.89), or citric acid-based sanitizer (CA, pH 2.78) and soaked for 5 min. Two subsequent batches (eight non-inoculated heads per batch) were soaked in the same solution...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212668/association-of-community-sanitation-usage-with-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-among-school-aged-children-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#18
William E Oswald, Aisha E P Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Matthew C Freeman, W Dana Flanders, Thomas F Clasen, Christine L Moe
BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210242/biocidal-inactivation-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacteriophages-efficacy-and-targets-of-commonly-used-sanitizers
#19
Stephen Hayes, James Murphy, Jennifer Mahony, Gabriele A Lugli, Marco Ventura, Jean-Paul Noben, Charles M A P Franz, Horst Neve, Arjen Nauta, Douwe Van Sinderen
Lactococcus lactis strains, being intensely used in the dairy industry, are particularly vulnerable to members of the so-called 936 group of phages. Sanitization and disinfection using purpose-made biocidal solutions is a critical step in controlling phage contamination in such dairy processing plants. The susceptibility of 36 936 group phages to biocidal treatments was examined using 14 biocides and commercially available sanitizers. The targets of a number of these biocides were investigated by means of electron microscopic and proteomic analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209148/prevalence-and-distribution-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-in-india
#20
Nasir Salam, Saud Azam
BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections is necessary to plan control strategies and focus on highly endemic regions for preventive chemotherapy and improved sanitation facilities. India is known to be endemic for soil-transmitted helminth infections. METHODS: To understand the prevalence, spatial distribution and identify high-risk zones, a systematic search of published literature was carried out based on PRISMA guidelines from the year 2000 to 2015...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
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