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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776367/malaria-determining-risk-factors-at-the-household-level-in-two-rural-villages-of-mainland-equatorial-guinea
#1
Mónica Guerra, Bruno de Sousa, Nicolas Ndong-Mabale, Pedro Berzosa, Ana Paula Arez
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of an artemisinin-based combination therapy, the reduction of prevalence of malaria infections has shown a remarkable progress during the last decade. However due to the lack of a consistent malaria control programme and socioeconomic inequalities, Plasmodium infection is still one of the major cause of disease in Equatorial Guinea, namely in the rural communities. This study explored the associated risk factors of malaria transmission at the microeconomic level (households) in two rural villages of mainland Equatorial Guinea...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774843/listeriosis-outbreaks-associated-with-soft-cheeses-united-states-1998-2014-1
#2
Kelly A Jackson, L Hannah Gould, Jennifer C Hunter, Zuzana Kucerova, Brendan Jackson
Since 2006, the number of reported US listeriosis outbreaks associated with cheese made under unsanitary conditions has increased. Two-thirds were linked to Latin-style soft cheese, often affecting pregnant Hispanic women and their newborns. Adherence to pasteurization protocols and sanitation measures to avoid contamination after pasteurization can reduce future outbreaks.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774300/epidemiology-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-three-departments-of-south-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-before-the-implementation-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#3
Gaoussou Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Kouassi Dongo, Eveline Hürlimann, Fidèle K Bassa, Naférima Koné, Clémence Essé, Richard B Yapi, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K N'Goran
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773076/risk-factors-for-schistosomiasis-in-an-urban-area-in-northern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#4
Richard K M'Bra, Brama Kone, Yapi G Yapi, Kigbafori D Silué, Ibrahima Sy, Danielle Vienneau, Nagnin Soro, Guéladio Cissé, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease transmitted by trematodes belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of schistosomiasis and access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the city of Korhogo, northern Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 728 randomly selected households was conducted in Korhogo in March 2015...
May 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770565/a-review-of-child-stunting-determinants-in-indonesia
#5
REVIEW
Ty Beal, Alison Tumilowicz, Aang Sutrisna, Doddy Izwardy, Lynnette M Neufeld
Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain...
May 17, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767154/husbandry-practices-and-gut-health-outcomes-in-weaned-piglets-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Balachandar Jayaraman, Charles M Nyachoti
The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765776/what-is-the-impact-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-healthcare-facilities-on-care-seeking-behaviour-and-patient-satisfaction-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Maha Bouzid, Oliver Cumming, Paul R Hunter
Patient satisfaction with healthcare has clear implications on service use and health outcomes. Barriers to care seeking are complex and multiple and delays in seeking care are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the relationship between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) provision in healthcare facilities (HCF) and patient satisfaction/care seeking behaviour in low-income and middle-income countries. Pubmed and Medline Ovid were searched using a combination of search terms...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764873/individual-maternal-and-household-risk-factors-for-anaemia-among-young-children-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Peter P Moschovis, Matthew O Wiens, Lauren Arlington, Olga Antsygina, Douglas Hayden, Walter Dzik, Julius P Kiwanuka, David C Christiani, Patricia L Hibberd
OBJECTIVE: Anaemia affects the majority of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Previous studies of risk factors for anaemia have been limited by sample size, geography and the association of many risk factors with poverty. In order to measure the relative impact of individual, maternal and household risk factors for anaemia in young children, we analysed data from all SSA countries that performed haemoglobin (Hb) testing in the Demographic and Health Surveys. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study pooled household-level data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 27 SSA between 2008 and 2014...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757701/the-decoy-effect-as-a-nudge-boosting-hand-hygiene-with-a-worse-option
#9
Meng Li, Yan Sun, Hui Chen
This article provides the first test of the decoy effect as a nudge to influence real-world behavior. The decoy effect is the phenomenon that an additional but worse option can boost the appeal of an existing option. It has been widely demonstrated in hypothetical choices, but its usefulness in real-world settings has been subject to debate. In three longitudinal experiments in food-processing factories, we tested two decoy sanitation options that were worse than the existing sanitizer spray bottle. Results showed that the presence of a decoy, but not an additional copy of the original sanitizer bottle in a different color, drastically increased food workers' hand sanitizer use from the original sanitizer bottle and, consequently, improved workers' passing rate in hand sanitary tests from 60% to 70% to above 90% for 20 days...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757372/does-safe-disposal-of-child-faeces-matter-an-assessment-of-access-to-improved-sanitation-and-child-faeces-disposal-behaviour-and-diarrhoea-in-rural-nepal
#10
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757181/use-of-life-cycle-assessment-to-evaluate-environmental-impacts-associated-with-the-management-of-sludge-and-biogas
#11
Karina Cubas do Amaral, Miguel Mansur Aisse, Gustavo Rafael Collere Possetti, Marcelo Real Prado
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors used in sewage treatment generate two by-products that can be reused: sludge and biogas. At the present time in Brazil, most of this resulting sludge is disposed of in sanitary landfills, while biogas is commonly burned off in low-efficiency flares. The aim of the present study was to use life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impacts from four different treatment and final destination scenarios for the main by-products of wastewater treatment plants...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753483/sanitation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-genotype-b-positive-dairy-herds-a-field-study
#12
C Sartori, R Boss, M Bodmer, A Leuenberger, I Ivanovic, H U Graber
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most widespread mastitis pathogens infecting dairy cattle worldwide. In Switzerland, different bovine genotypes of Staph. aureus have been identified, and genotype B (GTB) was demonstrated to be a highly contagious subtype, causing herd problems in cattle. As the efficacy of antibiotic therapy against Staph. aureus is not satisfactory, the most promising strategy for controlling this udder pathogen is the implementation of specific sanitation programs for affected farms. The aim of the present longitudinal study was the field evaluation of 2 analytical approaches for the sanitation of Staph...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751539/the-relationship-between-household-sanitation-and-women-s-experience-of-menstrual-hygiene-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-kaduna-state-nigeria
#13
Julie Hennegan, Linnea Zimmerman, Alexandra K Shannon, Natalie G Exum, Funmilola OlaOlorun, Elizabeth Omoluabi, Kellogg J Schwab
Global efforts to improve sanitation have emphasized the needs of women and girls. Managing menstruation is one such need, yet there is scarce research capturing current practices. This study investigated the relationships between household sanitation and women’s experience of menstrual management. Secondary analyses were undertaken on data from 1994 women and girls collected through the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 survey in Kaduna, Nigeria. In multivariable models, women had higher odds of using the main household sanitation facility for menstrual management when they had access to a basic (OR = 1...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745756/transfer-and-redistribution-of-salmonella-typhimurium-lt2-and-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-during-pilot-scale-processing-of-baby-spinach-cilantro-and-romaine-lettuce
#14
Haley S Smolinski, Siyi Wang, Lin Ren, Yuhuan Chen, Barbara Kowalcyk, Ellen Thomas, Jane VAN Doren, Elliot T Ryser
Several outbreaks of foodborne illness traced to leafy greens and culinary herbs have been hypothesized to involve cross-contamination during washing and processing. This study aimed to assess the redistribution of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 during pilot-scale production of baby spinach and cilantro and redistribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during pilot-scale production of romaine lettuce. Four inoculated surrogate:uninoculated product weight ratios (10:100, 5:100, 1:100, and 0.5:100) and three inoculation levels (103 , 101 , and 10-1 CFU/g) were used for the three commodities...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745351/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-latrine-intervention-in-the-reduction-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-health-in-nyando-district-kisumu-county-kenya
#15
C Babb, N Makotsi, I Heimler, R C Bailey, R C Hershow, P Masanga, S D Mehta
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an intervention that strives to end the practice of open defaecation. This study measured the effectiveness of CLTS in Nyando District by examining the association between community open defaecation-free (ODF) status and childhood diarrhoeal illness. A cross-sectional study design was used among households with children ⩽5 years old to ascertain information on acute diarrhoea in the past year (outcome), sanitation and health behaviours. Water testing was conducted to determine Escherichia coli and turbidity levels for 55 water sources...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745026/taking-the-technical-microbiome-into-the-next-decade
#16
EDITORIAL
Jo De Vrieze, Nico Boon, Willy Verstraete
The "microbiome" has become a buzzword. Multiple new technologies allow to gather information about microbial communities as they evolve under stable and variable environmental conditions. The challenge of the next decade will be to develop strategies to compose and manage microbiomes. Here, key aspects are considered that will be of crucial importance for future microbial technological developments. First, the need to deal not only with genotypes, but particularly with phenotypes is addressed. Microbial technologies are often highly dependent on specific core organisms to obtain the desired process outcome...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743470/-interlaboratory-study-on-evaporation-residue-test-for-food-contact-products-report-2
#17
Hiroyuki Ohno, Motoh Mutsuga, Tomoyuki Abe, Yutaka Abe, Homare Amano, Kinuyo Ishihara, Ikue Ohsaka, Haruka Ohno, Yuichiro Ohno, Asako Ozaki, Yoshiteru Kakihara, Hisashi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Sakuragi, Hiroshi Shibata, Katsuhiro Shirono, Haruko Sekido, Noriko Takasaka, Yu Takenaka, Yoshiyasu Tajima, Aoi Tanaka, Hideyuki Tanaka, Toru Nakanishi, Chie Nomura, Nahoko Haneishi, Masato Hayakawa, Toshihiko Miura, Miku Yamaguchi, Kyohei Yamada, Kazunari Watanabe, Kyoko Sato
An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using heptane as a food-simulating solvent for oily or fatty foods, based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. In the official method, heating for evaporation was done with a water bath. In the modified method, a hot plate was used for evaporation, and/or a vacuum concentration procedure was skipped...
2018: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743469/-interlaboratory-study-on-evaporation-residue-test-for-food-contact-products-report-1
#18
Hiroyuki Ohno, Motoh Mutsuga, Tomoyuki Abe, Yutaka Abe, Homare Amano, Kinuyo Ishihara, Ikue Ohsaka, Haruka Ohno, Yuichiro Ohno, Asako Ozaki, Yoshiteru Kakihara, Hisashi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Sakuragi, Hiroshi Shibata, Katsuhiro Shirono, Haruko Sekido, Noriko Takasaka, Yu Takenaka, Yoshiyasu Tajima, Aoi Tanaka, Hideyuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Tonooka, Toru Nakanishi, Chie Nomura, Nahoko Haneishi, Masato Hayakawa, Toshihiko Miura, Miku Yamaguchi, Kazunari Watanabe, Kyoko Sato
An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using three food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid and 20% ethanol), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. For evaporation, a water bath was used in the official method, and a hot plate in the modified method...
2018: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739901/compositional-and-functional-differences-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-correlate-with-clinical-outcome-following-infection-with-wild-type-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#19
Yan Zhang, Arthur Brady, Cheron Jones, Yang Song, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Andrew J Pollard, Laurence S Magder, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein, Claire M Fraser
Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739319/characterization-of-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-resistance-to-sanitizers-of-a-range-of-e-coli-o26-pathotypes-from-clinical-cases-and-cattle-in-australia
#20
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation...
May 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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