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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792851/collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dark-agouti-rats-as-a-model-for-study-of-immunological-sexual-dimorphisms-in-the-human-disease
#1
Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović, Petar Milovanović, Marija Đurić, Jelena Sopta, Gordana Leposavić
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a frequently used animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, human autoimmune disease that exhibits clear sex bias in incidence and clinical course. Female Dark Agouti rats immunized for CIA showed also greater incidence and higher arthritic score than their male counterparts. The study investigated sex differences in mechanisms controlling the primary immune responses in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), as a factor contributing to this dimorphism. The higher frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3- cells, presumably activated effector T (Teff) cells, and IL-17+, IFN-γ + and IL-17 + IFN-γ + T cells were found in female comapared with male rat dLNs...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792689/selectivity-within-a-family-of-bacterial-phosphothreonine-lyases
#2
Kaitlin A Chambers, Nile S Abularrage, Rebecca A Scheck
Phosphothreonine lyases are bacterial effector proteins secreted into host cells to facilitate the infection process. This enzyme family catalyzes an irreversible elimination reaction that converts phosphothreonine or phosphoserine to dehydrobutyrine or dehydroalanine, respectively. Herein we report a study of substrate selectivity for each of the four known phosphothreonine lyases. This was accomplished using a combination of mass spectrometry and enzyme kinetics assays for a series of phosphorylated peptides derived from the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation loop...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792565/anticipatory-judgments-associated-with-vision-of-an-opponent-s-end-effector-an-approach-by-motion-perturbation-and-spatial-occlusion
#3
Hirofumi Ida, Kazunobu Fukuhara, Motonobu Ishii, Tetsuri Inoue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792038/downregulation-of-cancer-stemness-by-novel-diterpenoid-ovatodiolide-inhibits-hepatic-cancer-stem-cell-like-traits-by-repressing-wnt-formula-see-text-catenin-signaling
#4
Mingche Liu, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Wei-Hwa Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Alexander T H Wu, Hsiao M, Yew-Min Tzeng, Chi-Tai Yeh, Jo-Ting Tsai
The hierarchical tumor propagation or cancer stem cells (CSCs) model of carcinogenesis postulates that like physiologic adult stem cell (ASC), the CSCs positioned at the apex of any tumor population form the crux of tumor evolution with a constitutive regenerative capacity and differentiation potential. The propagation and recurrence of the characteristically heterogeneous and therapy-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adds to accumulating evidence to support this CSCs model. Based on the multi-etiologic basis of HCC formation which among others, focuses on the disruption of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, this study evaluated the role of cembrane-type phytochemical, Ovatodiolide, in the modulation of the Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathway, and its subsequent effect on liver CSCs' activities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791777/counting-on-death-quantitative-aspects-of-bcl-2-family-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Annika Hantusch, Markus Rehm, Thomas Brunner
The Bcl-2 protein family members critically regulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), a point-of-no-return in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. The common view on qualitative interaction and activation patterns of the three subclasses, the BH3-only proteins, prosurvivals and effectors, is static and currently being revolutionized by an emerging understanding of the complex dynamic equilibria that govern cellular fate. Recent experimental evidence on protein associations with the mitochondrial outer membrane, retrotranslocation to the cytosol and differential binding affinities in aqueous and membranous environments instigate the development of a revised model of Bcl-2 family interplay...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791499/perturbation-of-the-metabolic-network-in-salmonella-enterica-reveals-cross-talk-between-coenzyme-a-and-thiamine-pathways
#6
Dustin C Ernst, Andrew J Borchert, Diana M Downs
Microorganisms respond to a variety of metabolic perturbations by repurposing or recruiting pathways to reroute metabolic flux and overcome the perturbation. Elimination of the 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase, PanE, both reduces total coenzyme A (CoA) levels and causes a conditional HMP-P auxotrophy in Salmonella enterica. CoA or acetyl-CoA has no demonstrable effect on the HMP-P synthase, ThiC, in vitro. Suppressors aimed at probing the connection between the biosynthesis of thiamine and CoA contained mutations in the gene encoding the ilvC transcriptional regulator, ilvY...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791484/combining-r-gene-and-quantitative-resistance-increases-effectiveness-of-cultivar-resistance-against-leptosphaeria-maculans-in-brassica-napus-in-different-environments
#7
Yong-Ju Huang, Georgia K Mitrousia, Siti Nordahliawate M Sidique, Aiming Qi, Bruce D L Fitt
Using cultivar resistance against pathogens is one of the most economical and environmentally friendly methods for control of crop diseases. However, cultivar resistance can be easily rendered ineffective due to changes in pathogen populations or environments. To test the hypothesis that combining R gene-mediated resistance and quantitative resistance (QR) in one cultivar can provide more effective resistance than use of either type of resistance on its own, effectiveness of resistance in eight oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars with different R genes and/or QR against Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) was investigated in 13 different environments/sites over three growing seasons (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791232/the-role-of-interleukin-31-polymorphisms-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-genetic-susceptibility-and-clinical-outcome
#8
Yongfeng Yang, Li Li, Fei Chen, Li Zhang, Hong Bu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-31 (IL-31), a novel T helper type 2 effector cytokine, is known to have an important effect on the pathogenesis of allergic disease and tumors. However, the impact of IL-31 on human lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: This study explored the role of IL-31 polymorphisms in lung cancer and sought to characterize how IL-31 polymorphisms correlate with lung cancer tumorigenesis and patient survival rates. Using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype assay, we examined the expression of two IL-31 polymorphisms (rs7977932 and rs4758680) in samples from 302 lung cancer patients and 493 control cases...
May 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791207/activation-of-trpv4-stimulates-transepithelial-ion-flux-in-a-porcine-choroid-plexus-cell-line
#9
Daniel Preston, Stefanie Simpson, Dan Halm, Alexandra Hochstetler, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Bonnie L Blazer-Yost
The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium plays a major role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A polarized cell line, the porcine choroid plexus - Riems (PCP-R) line, that exhibits many of the characteristics of the native epithelium, was used to study the effect of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel found in the PCP-R cells as well as in the native epithelium. Ussing-style electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of TRPV4 with a specific agonist, GSK 1016790A, resulted in an immediate increase in both transepithelial ion flux and conductance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791133/design-construction-and-validation-of-histone-binding-effectors-in-vitro-and-in-cells
#10
Stefan J Tekel, Cassandra M Barrett, Daniel A Vargas, Karmella A Haynes
Chromatin is a system of nuclear proteins and nucleic acids that plays a pivotal role in gene expression and cell behavior, and is therefore the subject of intense study for cell development and cancer research. Biochemistry, crystallography, and reverse genetics have elucidated the macromolecular interactions that drive chromatin regulation. One of the central mechanisms is the recognition of post translational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins by a family of nuclear proteins known as "readers...
May 23, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791021/immtac-anti-pd-1-combination-to-enhance-killing-of-cancer-cells-by-reversing-treg-mediated-immunosuppression
#11
Huanling Zhang, Yanyan Li, Xiaoping Liu, Zhaoduan Liang, Mengyong Yan, Qiang Liu, Anan Chen, Yifeng Bao, Chengzhi Zhou, Shiyue Li, Cassian Yee, Yi Li
Recently, bi-functional molecules that can redirect immune effectors to tumor cells have emerged as potentially robust mediators of tumor regression in clinical trials. Two modalities, in particular, bi-specific antibodies for T cell redirection and activation (BiTe) and immune-mobilizing monoclonal T-cell receptors against cancer (ImmTAC) are being evaluated in efficacy studies as 'off-the-shelf' reagents. Optimal therapy will require an understanding and means to address regulatory mechanisms of limiting efficacy...
May 23, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790621/generation-and-application-of-human-induced-stem-cell-memory-t-it-scm-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#12
Taisuke Kondo, Yuuki Imura, Shunsuke Chikuma, Sana Hibino, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Makoto Ando, Takashi Akanuma, Mana Iizuka, Ryota Sakai, Rimpei Morita, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy. However, infused T cells frequently become functionally exhausted, and consequently offer a poor prognosis after transplantation into patients. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific stem cell memory T (TSCM ) cells is expected to overcome this shortcoming since TSCM cells are close to naïve T cells, but are also highly proliferative, long-lived, and produce a large number of effector T cells in response to antigen stimulation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790605/cd57-identifies-t-cells-with-functional-senescence-before-terminal-differentiation-and-relative-telomere-shortening-in-patients-with-activated-pi3-kinase-delta-syndrome
#13
Paola Cura Daball, Monica Sofia Ventura Ferreira, Sandra Ammann, Christian Klemann, Myriam Ricarda Lorenz, Ursula Warthorst, T Ronan Leahy, Niall Conlon, Justin Roche, Pere Soler-Palacín, Marina Garcia-Prat, Ilka Fuchs, Sebastian Fuchs, Fabian Beier, Tim H Brümmendorf, Carsten Speckmann, Peter Olbrich, Olaf Neth, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan Ehl, Anne Rensing-Ehl
Premature T cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression...
May 23, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790585/the-intracellular-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-slnrc4a-enhances-immune-signaling-elicited-by-extracellular-perception
#14
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Lorena Pizarro, Silvia Schuster, Z J Daniel Lin, Ofir Gershony, Maya Bar, Gitta Coaker, Adi Avni
Plant recognition and defense against pathogens employs a two-tiered perception system. Surface localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) act to recognize microbial features, while intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) directly or indirectly recognize pathogen effectors inside host cells. Employing the tomato PRR LeEIX2/EIX model system, we explored the molecular mechanism of signaling pathways. We identified an NLR that can associate with LeEIX2, termed SlNRC4a (NB-LRR Required for HR-associated Cell death-4)...
May 23, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790280/cas9-versus-cas12a-cpf1-structure-function-comparisons-and-implications-for-genome-editing
#15
REVIEW
Daan C Swarts, Martin Jinek
Cas9 and Cas12a are multidomain CRISPR-associated nucleases that can be programmed with a guide RNA to bind and cleave complementary DNA targets. The guide RNA sequence can be varied, making these effector enzymes versatile tools for genome editing and gene regulation applications. While Cas9 is currently the best-characterized and most widely used nuclease for such purposes, Cas12a (previously named Cpf1) has recently emerged as an alternative for Cas9. Cas9 and Cas12a have distinct evolutionary origins and exhibit different structural architectures, resulting in distinct molecular mechanisms...
May 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790247/the-promotion-of-tissue-engineering-blood-vessel-patency-by-cgs21680-through-regulating-pro-inflammatory-activities-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell
#16
Wen Chen, Li Xiao, Jian Bai, Wen Zeng, Mingcan Yang, Bingyi Shi, Chuhong Zhu
The mobilization and homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the rapid endothelialization of tissue engineering blood vessel (TEBV). Inflammation can affect TEBV patency, and monocytes/macrophages (MM) are the main effector cells. But it is not clear how EPCs interact with MM after TEBV transplantation. Our results showed acellular materials would not directly cause acute and severe inflammatory responses but activate E-selectin expression in homing EPCs, gradually promoting the polarization of MM to the M1...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789880/distinctive-cd8-t-cell-and-mhc-class-i-signatures-in-polycythemia-vera-patients
#17
Elsa M Cardoso, André J Esgalhado, Luís Patrão, Mónica Santos, Vasco Pinto Neves, Jorge Martinez, Maria Assunção Vaz Patto, Helena Silva, Fernando A Arosa
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by overproduction of red blood cells. We have performed a comprehensive characterization of blood immune cells for expression of naïve and memory receptors as well as β2 m-associated and β2 m-free MHC class I heavy chains, also known as closed and open conformers, respectively, in PV patients and age-matched controls (CTR). We show that the peripheral CD3+ CD8+ T cell pool in PV patients is clearly divided into two discrete populations, a more granular CD3+ CD8high T cell population enriched in effector-memory CD45RA+ T cells (CD8+ TEMRA) when compared to CTR (P < 0...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789867/map-kinase-signalling-interplays-between-plant-pamp-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Karen Thulasi Devendrakumar, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang
In plants, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in regulating many biological processes including immunity. They relay signals from membrane-residing immune receptors to downstream components for defense activation. Arabidopsis MPK3/6 and MPK4 are activated in two parallel MAPK cascades during PAMP-triggered immunity. MPK3/6 have been implicated in the activation of various immune responses and their inactivation leads to compromised defense against pathogens. On the other hand, the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 cascade plays critical roles in basal resistance...
May 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789755/regulatory-mechanisms-in-t-cell-receptor-signalling
#19
REVIEW
Guillaume Gaud, Renaud Lesourne, Paul E Love
The remarkable T cell receptor (TCR) performs essential functions in the initiation of intracellular signals required for T cell development, repertoire selection and effector responses to foreign antigens. How TCR signals elicit such diverse cellular responses and outcomes remains a major question for investigation. Recent years have witnessed important advances in our understanding of the regulatory processes that control and modulate the TCR signalling response. Here, we review newly identified mechanisms for the regulation of TCR signalling and then discuss how the TCR signalling response is regulated to control two critical cellular processes - namely, positive selection and T cell homeostasis...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789420/glycosylation-of-recombinant-anticancer-therapeutics-in-different-expression-systems-with-emerging-technologies
#20
REVIEW
Tariq Nadeem, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Bushra Ijaz, Nadeem Ahmed, Zia Ur Rahman, Muhammad Shahzad Latif, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Adeel Rana
Glycosylation, a posttranslational modification, has a major role in recombinant anticancer therapeutic proteins, as most of the approved recombinant therapeutics are glycoproteins. The constant amino acid sequence of therapeutics determines the enzymatic activity, while the presence of glycans influences their pharmacokinetics, solubility, distribution, serum half-life, effector function, and binding to receptors. Glycoproteins expressed in different expression systems acquire their own oligosaccharides, which increases the protein diversity...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
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