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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806376/classification-of-the-residual-cranial-defects-and-selection-of-reconstruction-materials
#1
Nanda Kishore Sahoo, Mohan Rangan N, Kapil Tomar, Sudarshan Bhat
The cranial defects are complex in nature and are due to various causes. Therefore, there is a need for a common term of reference to these defects. This requirement stood as a prime reason for proposing a classification system for cranial defects. The classification is based on 2 decades of experience in cranioplasty. This efficient and simple way of representation would fill the existing lacunae for a systematic communication on cranial defects. Over the ages the evolution of reconstruction and grafting had undergone a massive progress...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801336/isolated-clival-metastasis-a-rare-presentation-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Anil Mani, Priyank Yadav, Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Hira Lal
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignancies. Usual sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, lungs, bone, liver and brain. We describe a patient who presented with complaints of holocranial headache and diplopia. MRI of the head showed a clival-based lesion with associated bony erosion. With suspicion of a metastatic lesion, an ultrasonogram of the abdomen was done which showed a left renal mass that enhanced on contrast-enhanced CT. There were no other metastatic foci. Patient underwent radiotherapy for the clival lesion...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#3
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798808/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-after-chemotherapy-treatment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Konstantinos Bromis, Kostakis Gkiatis, Irene Karanasiou, George Matsopoulos, Eustratios Karavasilis, Matilda Papathanasiou, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Vasileios Kouloulias
Previous studies in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have mainly focused on exploring neurocognitive deficits associated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Little is known about functional brain alterations that might occur due to chemotherapy treatment in this population before PCI is administered. For this reason, we used resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine potential functional connectivity disruptions in brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), the Sensorimotor Network, and the Task-Positive Network (TPN)...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796547/do-superior-or-inferior-interlaminar-approach-or-bevel-orientation-predispose-to-nonepidural-needle-penetration
#5
Nicholas A Koontz, Richard H Wiggins, Gregory J Stoddard, Lubdha M Shah
OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of evidence-based literature regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the interlaminar approach and needle bevel orientation for performing a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection (ESI). The purpose of this study was to determine if superior versus inferior lamina approach, needle bevel tip orientation, or both may predispose to inadvertent nonepidural penetration during lumbar interlaminar ESI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed of patients with low back pain with or without radicular pain or neurogenic claudication referred for lumbar interlaminar ESI...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796089/anatomical-relationship-of-the-middle-cranial-fossa-dura-to-surface-landmarks-of-the-temporal-bone
#6
Mohamed A Alhussaini, Jameson K Mattingly, Stephen P Cass
HYPOTHESIS: The suprameatal crest and temporal line provides a reliable landmark to the middle fossa dura. BACKGROUND: Surface anatomy of the temporal bone is used to guide mastoid surgery, but studies investigating these landmarks are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the anatomical relationship of the middle fossa dura to the temporal line. METHODS: Thirty-two fresh hemicephalic temporal bones were prepared by drawing four lines along the mastoid including the suprameatal crest and temporal line (line 2), one line 5 mm superior to line 2 (line 1), and one 5 mm inferior to line 2 (line 3), and at Reid's base line (line 4)...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794276/a-test-for-paedomorphism-in-domestic-pig-cranial-morphology
#7
Allowen Evin, Joseph Owen, Greger Larson, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud, Thomas Cucchi, Una Strand Vidarsdottir, Keith Dobney
Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between wild and domestic pig cranial morphologies...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770382/population-specificity-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-cranial-and-pelvic-traits-evaluation-of-existing-and-proposal-of-new-functions-for-sex-assessment-in-a-greek-assemblage
#8
Eleni-Konstantina Oikonomopoulou, Efstratios Valakos, Efthymia Nikita
The current paper examines the accuracy of existing binary logistic regression equations for sex prediction based on pelvic and cranial traits in a modern Greek assemblage and proposes new equations with the aim of improving correct classification rates for Balkan material. Our results suggest that existing equations based on pelvic traits perform very well on the Greek material, which can be attributed to the fact that sexual dimorphism in the pelvis results from common evolutionary forces across populations...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767373/mixed-neural-network-approach-for-temporal-sleep-stage-classification
#9
Hao Dong, Akara Supratak, Wei Pan, Chao Wu, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages at lower cost in the home. However, these reports have involved recordings from electrodes placed on the cranial vertex or occiput, which are both uncomfortable and difficult to position...
July 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766896/novel-cranial-implants-of-yttria-stabilized-zirconia-as-acoustic-windows-for-ultrasonic-brain-therapy
#10
Mario I Gutierrez, Elias H Penilla, Lorenzo Leija, Arturo Vera, Javier E Garay, Guillermo Aguilar
Therapeutic ultrasound can induce changes in tissues by means of thermal and nonthermal effects. It is proposed for treatment of some brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, and cancer. However, cranium highly absorbs ultrasound reducing transmission efficiency. There are clinical applications of transcranial focused ultrasound and implantable ultrasound transducers proposed to address this problem. In this paper, biocompatible materials are proposed for replacing part of the cranium (cranial implants) based on low porosity polycrystalline 8 mol% yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) ceramics as acoustic windows for brain therapy...
August 2, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766118/dental-and-craniofacial-findings-in-91-individuals-with-agenesis-of-permanent-maxillary-canines
#11
K P Arvedsen, I Kjær
AIM: Agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is a rare form of agenesis (prevalence 0.07-0.13%). The aetiology is still unknown. The purpose was to focus on dentitions and craniofacial profiles in individuals with maxillary canine agenesis. METHOD: From 91 individuals (10-18 years of age) 91 Orthopantomograms and 77 profile radiographs were divided accordingly: Group I: agenesis of 1 or 2 maxillary canines. Group II: several ageneses including the maxillary canines...
August 1, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766024/usefulness-of-intraoperative-electromyographic-monitoring-of-oculomotor-and-abducens-nerves-during-skull-base-surgery
#12
Zi-Yi Li, Ming-Chu Li, Jian-Tao Liang, Yu-Hai Bao, Ge Chen, Hong-Chuan Guo, Feng Ling
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring of the extraocular cranial nerve (EOCN) is not commonly performed because of technical difficulty and risk, reliability of the result and predictability of the postoperative function of the EOCN. METHODS: We performed oculomotor nerve (CN III) and abducens nerve (CN VI) intraoperative monitoring in patients with skull base surgery by recording the spontaneous muscle activity (SMA) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP)...
August 2, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765863/-spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-cats-two-case-reports-and-literature-review
#13
George Manchi, Seyedhosein Jarolmasjed, Mathias Brunnberg, Muhammad Shahid, Sina Rehbein, Silke Stein, Achim D Gruber, Leo Brunnberg
Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a non-traumatic accumulation of air in the pleural cavity. This case report describes a cat with SP as a result of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A second cat was diagnosed with primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma and asthma. A thoracostomy tube was inserted in the first cat while in the second cat a thoracostomy tube was placed and lobectomy of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was performed. Both cats died following treatment. The current literature reviewed here covers the comparative etiologies of SP as well as clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, therapy and prognosis in cats...
August 2, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762040/case-update-on-cranial-osteopetrosis-which-is-the-role-of-the-neurosurgeon
#14
Irene Stella, Matthieu Vinchon, Pierre Guerreschi, Eva De Berranger, Ikram Bouacha
PURPOSE: Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare skeletal disease, which can affect the skull base and calvaria. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory and patient may need neurosurgical care. Few observations have been published, and optimal management of OP is not established yet. METHOD: We report a case of an infant with OP diagnosed at 5 months, who presented signs of intracranial hypertension associated with unilateral blindness. Bone marrow allograft was performed at 6 months of age...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757702/clinical-characteristics-of-crouzon-syndrome
#15
L Balyen, L S Deniz Balyen, S Pasa
Crouzon syndrome (CS) is an genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was described as one of the varieties of craniosynostosis. In this presented case, premature closure of the sutures had caused restricted skull growth and lack of space for the growing brain resulted to shallowed eyes and cranial and ophthalmic deformities and impairment in tooth development. Management of a patient of CS has two components. First is the release of prematurely fused sutures based on evidence of raised intracranial pressure...
May 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756967/the-self-defining-axis-of-symmetry-a-new-method-to-determine-optimal-symmetry-and-its-application-and-limitation-in-craniofacial-surgery
#16
Markus Martini, Anne Klausing, Martina Messing-Jünger, Guido Lüchters
PURPOSE: Analysis of symmetry represents an essential aspect of plastic-reconstructive surgery. For cases in which reference points are either not fixed or are changed due to corrective intervention the determination of a symmetry axis is sometimes almost impossible and a pre-defined symmetry axis would not always be helpful. To assess cranial shape of surgical patients with craniosynostosis, a new algebraic approach was chosen in which deviation from the optimal symmetry axis could be quantified...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755253/as-solid-as-a-rock-comparison-of-ce-and-mps-based-analyses-of-the-petrosal-bone-as-a-source-of-dna-for-forensic-identification-of-challenging-cranial-bones
#17
Galina Kulstein, Thorsten Hadrys, Peter Wiegand
Short tandem repeat (STR) typing from skeletal remains can be a difficult task. Dependent on the environmental conditions of the provenance of the bones, DNA can be degraded and STR typing inhibited. Generally, dense and compact bones are known to preserve DNA better. Several studies already proved that femora and teeth have high DNA typing success rates. Unfortunately, these elements are not present in all cases involving skeletal remains. Processing partial or singular skeletal elements, it is favorable to select bone areas where DNA preservation is comparably higher...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754643/probabilistic-tractography-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-vestibular-schwannoma
#18
Amir Zolal, Tareq A Juratli, Dino Podlesek, Bernhard Rieger, Hagen H Kitzler, Jennifer Linn, Gabriele Schackert, Stephan B Sobottka
OBJECTIVE: Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic non-tensor based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of sub-voxel size. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited...
July 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751167/volume-staged-gamma-knife-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-large-skull-base-meningioma-surrounding-the-optical-apparatus-a-snowman-shape-design
#19
Chain-Fa Su, Dai-Wei Liu, Cheng-Chia Lee, Tsung-Lang Chiu
BACKGROUND: In cases of meningioma surrounding the optical apparatus, this study sought to reduce the incidence of radiation-induced optical neuropathy resulting from gamma knife surgery (GKS) by dividing the treatment volume into 2 or 3 fractions. METHODS: Four patients with a large skull base meningioma (1 male and 3 females; median age: 42 years; range: 33-43 yrs) were treated using volume-staged GKS. In stage I, the large basal part of the tumor (13.2 mL; range: 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751118/description-of-a-reproducible-anatomically-based-surgical-algorithm-for-detection-of-pelvic-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-endometrial-cancer
#20
Jan Persson, Barbara Geppert, Céline Lönnerfors, Michele Bollino, Anna Måsbäck
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate a reproducible, anatomically based surgical algorithm, including reinjection of tracer to enhance technical success rate, for detection of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: A prospective study of 102 consecutive women with high risk EC scheduled for robotic surgery was conducted. Following cervical injection of a fluorescent dye, an algorithm for trans- and retroperitoneal identification of tracer display in the lower and upper paracervical pathways was strictly adhered to...
July 24, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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