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deep sleep

Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Álvaro Acosta-Serrano
Trypanosome parasites are hiding in human skin, a discovery that may undermine efforts to eliminate sleeping sickness by 2020.
October 14, 2016: ELife
Salome Kurth, Douglas C Dean, Peter Achermann, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children's developing brain networks respond to acute sleep restriction, and whether this response is linked to myelination, an ongoing process in childhood that is critical for brain development and cortical integration...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Paloma María Blasco-Bonora, Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of deep dry needling (DN) of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the masseter and temporalis on pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain-free maximal jaw opening and temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-related disability in patients with sleep bruxism (SB) and myofascial TMD. METHODS: Seventeen subjects (11 women, 6 men) aged 39±13 years (range 23-66) diagnosed with SB and myofascial TMD were invited to participate in this prospective case series study...
October 3, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Lynn M Trotti
The transition from sleep to wake is marked by sleep inertia, a distinct state that is measurably different from wakefulness and manifests as performance impairments and sleepiness. Although the precise substrate of sleep inertia is unknown, electroencephalographic, evoked potential, and neuroimaging studies suggest the persistence of some features of sleep beyond the point of awakening. Forced desynchrony studies have demonstrated that sleep inertia impacts cognition differently than do homeostatic and circadian drives and that sleep inertia is most intense during awakenings from the biological night...
September 4, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Lukas Eugster, Panagiotis Bargiotas, Claudio L Bassetti, W M Michael Schuepbach
Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) and have a great impact on quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment in PD. While the beneficial effects of DBS on cardinal PD motor symptoms are indisputable, the data for several NMS, including sleep-wake functions, are limited and often controversial. Our primary objective was to review the literature on the impact of DBS on sleep-wake functions in patients with PD. A systematic review of articles, published in PubMed between January 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2015 was performed to identify studies addressing the evolution of sleep-wake functions after DBS in patients with PD...
August 7, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Michael Siniatchkin, Helmut Laufs, Dante R Chialvo
Large efforts are currently under way to systematically map functional connectivity between all pairs of millimeter-scale brain regions based on large neuroimaging databases. The exploratory unraveling of this "functional connectome" based on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) can benefit from a better understanding of the contributors to resting state functional connectivity. In this work, we introduce a sparse representation of fMRI data in the form of a discrete point-process encoding high-amplitude events in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal and we show it contains sufficient information for the estimation of functional connectivity between all pairs of voxels...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Ahmed Elwali, Zahra Moussavi
Screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) disorder during wakefulness is challenging. In this paper, we present a set of tracheal breathing sounds characteristics with classification power for separating individuals with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 (OSA group) from those with AHI ≤ 5 (non-OSA group) during wakefulness. Tracheal breathing sound signals were recorded during wakefulness in supine position; subjects were instructed to have a few deep breaths through their nose, then through their mouth...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Stavros N Moysidis, Nicole Koulisis, Vivek R Patel, Amir H Kashani, Narsing A Rao, Mark S Humayun, Damien C Rodger
PURPOSE: To describe a case of small retinal vessel vasculopathy postvaccination. METHODS: We report the case of a 41-year-old white man who presented with a "second blind spot," describing a nasal scotoma in the right eye that started 4 days after vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis and the yellow fever virus, and after a 2-month period of high stress and decreased sleep. Clinical examination, Humphrey visual field testing, and multimodal imaging with fundus photographs, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and angiography were performed...
September 2, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Asaf Honig, Ruth Eliahou, Roni Eichel, Ari Aharon Shemesh, Tamir Ben-Hur, Eitan Auriel
Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
Sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) in the hippocampus are implied in memory consolidation, as shown by observational and interventional experiments. However, the mechanism of their generation remains unclear. Using two-dimensional silicon probe arrays, we investigated the propagation of SPW-Rs across the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions. Synchronous activation of CA2 ensembles preceded SPW-R-related population activity in CA3 and CA1 regions. Deep CA2 neurons gradually increased their activity prior to ripples and were suppressed during the population bursts of CA3-CA1 neurons (ramping cells)...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
Marie Barbier, Christophe Houdayer, Gabrielle Franchi, Fabrice Poncet, Pierre-Yves Risold
The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Antonio Cerasa, Fabiana Novellino, Aldo Quattrone
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder of the central nervous system characterized by widespread alterations in several non-motor aspects such as mood, sleep, olfactory, and cognition in addition to motor dysfunctions. Advanced neuroimaging using functional connectivity reconstruction of the human brain has provided a vast knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder, but this, however, does not cover the overall inter-/intra-individual variability of PD phenotypes...
October 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Gaspard Montandon, Sharon L Cushing, Fiona Campbell, Evan J Propst, Richard L Horner, Indra Narang
BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesia is an essential component of perioperative care, but effective analgesia can be limited by excessive sedation and respiratory depression. The cortical signatures associated with sedation by opioids and the relationship between changes in cortical activity and respiratory function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify the electroencephalogram signatures of sedation and respiratory changes induced by morphine in a pediatric population after elective surgery...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Iain Duncan, Sara Stevens, Sakina Dastagir, Adam Birdseye, Dimosthenis Lykouras, Rexford Muza, Nadia Gildeh, Ivana Rosenzweig, Adrian J Williams, Guy D Leschziner, Brian D Kent
OBJECTIVES: Catathrenia is an uncommon and poorly understood disorder, characterized by groaning during sleep occurring in tandem with prolonged expiration. Its classification, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance remain debated, substantially due to the limited number of cases reported to date. We report a series of consecutive cases of catathrenia, their clinical and polysomnographic characteristics, and their subsequent management. METHODS: Consecutive patients with catathrenia who had undergone full polysomnography in our institution over a 5...
July 20, 2016: Sleep Medicine
S Yosunkaya, R Kutlu, F G Cihan
BACKGROUND: Sleep fragmentation, repetitive hypoxemia during sleep, excessive sleepiness during the day, lack of concentration, memory loss, depression, decreased libido, and impotence are the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) that may impair quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to investigate the QOL and factors that may affect QOL in people with different OSAS severity and without sleep apnea. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Mina Amiri, Birgit Frauscher, Jean Gotman
The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
J M Klefot, J L Murphy, K D Donohue, B F O'Hara, M E Lhamon, J M Bewley
Limited research has been conducted to assess sleep in production livestock primarily because of limitations with monitoring capabilities. Consequently, biological understanding of production circumstances and facility options that affect sleep is limited. The objective of this study was to assess if data collected from a proof-of-concept, noninvasive 3-axis accelerometer device are correlated with sleep and wake-like behaviors in dairy cattle. Four Holstein dairy cows housed at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy in September 2013 were visually observed for 2 consecutive 24-h periods...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Jean-Philippe Langevin, James W Y Chen, Ralph J Koek, David L Sultzer, Mark A Mandelkern, Holly N Schwartz, Scott E Krahl
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion regulation. It could prove to be an effective neuromodulation target in the treatment of psychiatric conditions characterized by failure of extinction. We aim to describe our targeting technique, and intra-operative and post-operative electrodiagnostic findings associated with the placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the amygdala. We used a transfrontal approach to implant DBS electrodes in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLn) of a patient suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder...
August 10, 2016: Brain Sciences
Allison Young, Ralf D Wimmer
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is an inhibitory shell positioned between the thalamus and the cortex. It is uniquely situated to modulate the flow of sensory information from the surroundings to the cortex as well as influencing ongoing cortical activity by modulating cortico-thalamo-cortical transmission. Although the thinness, architecture and location of the TRN deep in the brain has previously made this a difficult structure to study, novel optical and genetic tools have allowed for more precise targeting of this area...
August 7, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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