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Multiple Chemical Sensitivities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905488/genetically-engineering-better-fungal-biopesticides
#1
REVIEW
Brian Lovett, Raymond John St Leger
Microbial insect pathogens offer an alternative means of pest control with potential to wean our heavy reliance on chemical pesticides. Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests. Most commercial products employ Ascomycetes in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria. However, their utilization has been limited by inconsistent field results due to sensitivity to abiotic stresses and naturally low virulence. Other naturally occurring biocontrol agents also face these hurdles to successful application, but the availability of complete genomes and recombinant DNA technologies have facilitated design of multiple fungal pathogens with enhanced virulence and stress resistance...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901750/synthesis-assembly-and-applications-of-hybrid-nanostructures-for-biosensing
#2
Shuaidi Zhang, Ren Geryak, Jeffrey Geldmeier, Sunghan Kim, Vladimir V Tsukruk
The robust, sensitive, and selective detection of targeted biomolecules in their native environment by prospective nanostructures holds much promise for real-time, accurate, and high throughput biosensing. However, in order to be competitive, current biosensor nanotechnologies need significant improvements, especially in specificity, integration, throughput rate, and long-term stability in complex bioenvironments. Advancing biosensing nanotechnologies in chemically "noisy" bioenvironments require careful engineering of nanoscale components that are highly sensitive, biorecognition ligands that are capable of exquisite selective binding, and seamless integration at a level current devices have yet to achieve...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894310/chemical-stability-of-plerixafor-after-opening-of-single-use-vial
#3
Jack T Seki, Andrea Bozovic, Roy Lee, Rita Kwong, Eshetu G Atenafu, Anna Xu, Jin-Hyeun Huh
BACKGROUND: The addition of the immunostimulant plerixafor to the current standard-of-care regimens of granulocyte colony-stimulating growth factor with or without chemotherapy has improved clinical results in terms of successful stem cell mobilization and the outcomes of stem cell transplant in various settings. With this medical innovation has come an added financial cost for institutions where stem cell transplants are routinely performed, and there may be a further financial burden when the contents of partial vials of the drug are wasted, given that plerixafor vials (Mozobil, Sanofi-Aventis Canada Inc) are currently deemed suitable only for single use...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889314/genetic-tools-to-study-c-di-gmp-dependent-signaling-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Livia Leoni, Sarika Vishnu Pawar, Giordano Rampioni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are often difficult or impossible to treat, mainly due to its ability to form antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Since c-di-GMP signaling strongly influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development and sensitivity to antibiotics, it is considered a promising target for the development of anti-biofilm drugs and it is under intensive investigation. However, studying c-di-GMP signaling in P. aeruginosa is challenging, mainly due to (1) the multiplicity of enzymes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism, (2) the difficulty to extract and measure c-di-GMP intracellular levels by chemical methods, and (3) the lack of genetic tools specifically dedicated to this purpose...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885544/chemical-genomics-approach-leads-to-the-identification-of-hesperadin-an-aurora-b-kinase-inhibitor-as-a-broad-spectrum-influenza-antiviral
#5
Yanmei Hu, Jiantao Zhang, Rami Musharrafieh, Raymond Hau, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for annual influenza epidemics and sporadic influenza pandemics. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is currently the only FDA-approved oral drug that is available for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus infection. However, its narrow therapeutic window, coupled with the increasing incidence of drug resistance, calls for the next generation of influenza antivirals. In this study, we discovered hesperadin, an aurora B kinase inhibitor, as a broad-spectrum influenza antiviral through forward chemical genomics screening...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878819/construction-of-an-easy-to-use-crispr-cas9-system-by-patching-a-newly-designed-exit-circuit
#6
Qiang Tang, Chunbo Lou, Shuang-Jiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Plasmid-borne genetic editing tools, including the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 system, have greatly facilitated bacterial programming to obtain novel functionalities. However, the lack of effective post-editing plasmid elimination methods impedes follow-up genetic manipulation or application. Conventional strategies including exposure to physical and chemical treatments, or exploiting temperature-sensitive replication origins have several drawbacks (e.g., they are limited for efficiency and are time-consuming)...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858468/real-time-continuous-identification-of-greenhouse-plant-pathogens-based-on-recyclable-microfluidic-bioassay-system
#7
Xiangmeng Qu, Min Li, Hongbo Zhang, Chenglie Lin, Fei Wang, Mingshu Xiao, Yi Zhou, Jiye Shi, Ali Aldalbahi, Hao Pei, Hong Chen, Li Li
The development of a real-time continuous analytical platform for the pathogen detection is of great scientific importance for achieving better disease control and prevention. In this work, we report a rapid and recyclable microfluidic bioassay system constructed from oligonucleotide arrays for selective and sensitive continuous identification of DNA targets of fungal pathogens. We employ the thermal denaturation method to effectively regenerate the oligonucleotide arrays for multiple sample detection, which could considerably reduce the screening effort and costs...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853886/quantitative-determination-of-ala-ala-conformer-ratios-in-solution-by-decomposition-of-raman-optical-activity-spectra
#8
Jakub Jungwirth, Jaroslav Sebestik, Martin Safarik, Josef Kapitan, Petr Bour
Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy combined with quantum-chemical simulations is a sensitive method to determine absolute configuration and conformation of chiral molecules in solutions. However, the precision of this approach varies for different systems. In the present study, the reliability and numerical stability of decomposing experimental spectra into calculated subspectra is tested on the Ala-Ala dipeptide. Molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots of Ala-Ala/water clusters are averaged to account for solvent effects and molecular flexibility...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841974/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensing-platform-based-on-graphene-wrapping-sno2-nanocorals-and-autonomous-cascade-dna-duplication-strategy
#9
Ying-Xu Chen, Ke-Jing Huang, Feng Lin, Lin-Xia Fang
In this work, a sensitive, universal and reusable electrochemical biosensor based on stannic oxide nanocorals-graphene hybrids (SnO2 NCs-Gr) is developed for target DNA detection by using two kinds of DNA enzymes for signal amplification through an autonomous cascade DNA duplication strategy. A hairpin probe is designed composing of a projecting part at the 3'-end as identification sequence for target, a recognition site for nicking endonuclease, and an 18-carbon shim to stop polymerization process. The designed DNA duplication-incision-replacement process is handled by KF polymerase and endonuclease, then combining with gold nanoparticles as signal carrier for further signal amplification...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841293/heading-toward-macromolecular-and-nanosized-bioresponsive-mri-probes-for-successful-functional-imaging
#10
Goran Angelovski
The quest for bioresponsive or smart contrast agents (SCAs) in molecular imaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is progressively increasing since they allow for the monitoring of essential biological processes on molecular and cellular levels in a dynamic fashion. These are offshoot molecules of common contrast agents that are sensitive to biochemical changes in their environment, capable of reporting on such changes by inducing MRI signal alteration. Various mechanistic approaches and different types of SCAs have been developed in order to visualize desired processes, using diverse imaging protocols and methods...
August 25, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837865/valproic-acid-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-to-hydroxyurea-through-inhibiting-rpa2-hyperphosphorylation-mediated-dna-repair-pathway
#11
Youjia Tian, Guochao Liu, Hui Wang, Zhujun Tian, Zuchao Cai, Fengmei Zhang, Yue Luo, Shue Wang, Gongshe Guo, Xiaowei Wang, Simon Powell, Zhihui Feng
It was reported that valproic acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) can sensitize cancer cells to hydroxyurea (HU, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor) for chemotherapy, although the mechanism of VPA-induced HU sensitization is unclear. In this study, we systematically characterized VPA-induced HU sensitization of breast cancer cells. Multiple breast cancer cell models were employed to investigate whether the safe concentration of 0.5mM VPA and 2mM HU can result in DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and impact cell survival...
August 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812353/dopamine-incorporated-dual-bioactive-electroactive-shape-memory-polyurethane-elastomers-with-physiological-shape-recovery-temperature-high-stretchability-and-enhanced-c2c12-myogenic-differentiation
#12
Xin Zhao, Ruonan Dong, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Soft tissue engineering needs elastic biomaterials not only mimicking the elasticity of soft tissue but also possessing multiple bioactivity to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, which still remain ongoing challenges. Herein, we synthesized a series of dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers by combining the properties of elastomeric poly(citric acid-co-polycaprolactone) (CA-PCL) polyurethane elastomer, bioactive dopamine (DA), and electroactive aniline hexamer (AH)...
August 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796633/developing-the-regulatory-utility-of-the-exposome-mapping-exposures-for-risk-assessment-through-lifestage-exposome-snapshots-lens
#13
Rachel M Shaffer, Marissa N Smith, Elaine M Faustman
BACKGROUND: Exposome-related efforts aim to document the totality of human exposures across the lifecourse. This field has advanced rapidly in recent years but lacks practical application to risk assessment, particularly for children's health. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to apply the exposome to children's health risk assessment by introducing the concept of Lifestage Exposome Snapshots (LEnS). Case studies are presented to illustrate the value of the framework...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780855/direct-surface-and-droplet-microsampling-for-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-analysis-with-an-integrated-dual-probe-microfluidic-chip
#14
Cong-Min Huang, Ying Zhu, Di-Qiong Jin, Ryan T Kelly, Qun Fang
Ambient mass spectrometry (MS) has revolutionized the way of MS analysis and broadened its application in various fields. This paper describes the use of microfluidic techniques to simplify the setup and improve the functions of ambient MS by integrating the sampling probe, electrospray emitter probe, and online mixer on a single glass microchip. Two types of sampling probes, including a parallel-channel probe and a U-shaped channel probe, were designed for dry-spot and liquid-phase droplet samples, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770050/resource-allocation-tradeoffs-in-caddisflies-facing-multiple-stressors
#15
Francisco Correa-Araneda, Ana Basaguren, Roberto T Abdala-Díaz, Alan Mosele Tonin, Luz Boyero
The replacement of native forests by exotic tree monocultures, such as those of Eucalyptus, decreases the quality of leaf litter inputs to streams and often reduces riparian cover, which can elevate water temperature. The combined effects of these stressors on the survival and performance of detritivores may be important, as detritivore species loss leads to reduced litter breakdown, a key ecosystem process. Potential loss of cased caddisfly larvae is of particular concern because they are the predominant detritivores in many streams, they are sensitive to warming, and they expend energy on building and carrying their cases, which may be an added burden under times of stress...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769919/cellular-response-to-ciprofloxacin-in-low-level-quinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli
#16
Jesús Machuca, Esther Recacha, Alejandra Briales, Paula Díaz-de-Alba, Jesús Blazquez, Álvaro Pascual, José-Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez
Bactericidal activity of quinolones has been related to a combination of DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and programmed cell death (PCD) systems. The underlying molecular systems responsible for reducing bactericidal effect during antimicrobial therapy in low-level quinolone resistance (LLQR) phenotypes need to be clarified. To do this and also define possible new antimicrobial targets, the transcriptome profile of isogenic Escherichia coli harboring quinolone resistance mechanisms in the presence of a clinical relevant concentration of ciprofloxacin was evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767220/engineering-intracellularly-retained-gaussia-luciferase-reporters-for-improved-biosensing-and-molecular-imaging-applications
#17
Shuchi Gaur, Aarohi Bhargava-Shah, Sharon Hori, Rayhaneh Afjei, Thillai V Sekar, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Tarik F Massoud, Ramasamy Paulmurugan
Gaussia luciferase (GLUC) is a bioluminescent reporter protein of increasing importance. As a secretory protein, it has increased sensitivity in vitro and in vivo (∼20 000-fold, and ∼1000-fold, respectively) over its competitor, secreted alkaline phosphatase. Unfortunately, this same advantageous secretory nature of GLUC limits its usefulness for many other possible intracellular applications, e.g., imaging signaling pathways in intact cells, in vivo imaging, and in developing molecular imaging biosensors to study protein-protein interactions and protein folding...
August 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766982/serum-met-5-enkephalin-levels-are-reduced-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-restored-by-low-dose-naltrexone
#18
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
Low-dose naltrexone is a widely used off-label therapeutic prescribed for a variety of immune-related disorders. The mechanism underlying low-dose naltrexone's efficacy for fatigue, Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, and multiple sclerosis is, in part, intermittent blockade of opioid receptors followed by upregulation of endogenous opioids. Short, intermittent blockade by naltrexone specifically blocks the opioid growth factor receptor resulting in biofeedback events that increase production of the endogenous opioid growth factor (OGF) (chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin) facilitating interactions between opioid growth factor and opioid growth factor receptor that ultimately, result in inhibited cell proliferation...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761264/a-case-report-of-verruca-vulgaris-on-basis-of-alopecia-areata-successfully-treated-with-diphenylcyclopropenone
#19
Tugba Kevser Uzuncakmak, Mahmut Can Koska, Ayşe Serap Karadağ, Necmettin Akdeniz
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune skin disease which is usually characterized by patchy hair loss in effected regions. Diagnosis usually based on clinical findings and main treatment options include topical, intralesional, systemic corticosteroids, and topical immunotherapy. Verruca vulgaris is an infectious disease caused by human papillomavirus which is usually characterized by well-marginated hyperkeratotic papules or plaques. There are several treatment modalities such as physical and chemical destruction and topical immunotherapy...
January 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758600/current-strategies-to-improve-the-target-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-used-for-antitumor-therapeutics
#20
Fang Zhang, Dandan Yang, Shanshan Jiang, Lei Wu, Li Qin, Huiyang He, Peng Zhang
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) equipped with a high penetrating ability are used as a promising tool to gain access to the cell interior, cross the cell membrane and deliver bioactive small or macromolecular cargos into the cytoplasm or nucleus. The superiority of wide range of applications, high transport efficiency and low biological toxicity make them particularly desirable in laboratory or clinical studies. Previous studies have shown that their non-selectivity and reaction with proteins in plasma hamper their application for tumor therapy, which might adversely affect the treatment effect and even induce some side effects...
July 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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