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Multiple Chemical Sensitivities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909446/functional-toxicogenomic-profiling-expands-insight-into-modulators-of-formaldehyde-toxicity-in-yeast
#1
Matthew North, Brandon D Gaytán, Carlos Romero, Vanessa Y De La Rosa, Alex Loguinov, Martyn T Smith, Luoping Zhang, Chris D Vulpe
Formaldehyde (FA) is a commercially important chemical with numerous and diverse uses. Accordingly, occupational and environmental exposure to FA is prevalent worldwide. Various adverse effects, including nasopharyngeal, sinonasal, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, have been linked to FA exposure, prompting designation of FA as a human carcinogen by U.S. and international scientific entities. Although the mechanism(s) of FA toxicity have been well studied, additional insight is needed in regard to the genetic requirements for FA tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900618/3d-carbon-nanofiber-microelectrode-arrays-fabricated-by-plasma-assisted-pyrolysis-to-enhance-sensitivity-and-stability-of-real-time-dopamine-detection
#2
Wenwen Yi, Yuanyuan Yang, Parastoo Hashemi, Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
In this paper, we have fabricated 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with highly reproducible and rich chemical surface areas for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Carbon nanofibers are created from negative photoresist by a new process called dual O2 plasma-assisted pyrolysis. The proposed approach significantly improves film adhesion and increases surface reactivity. We showcase our sensor's compatibility with FSCV analysis by demonstrating highly sensitive and stable FSCV dopamine measurements on a prototype 4-channel array...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892850/determination-of-16-mycotoxins-in-vegetable-oils-using-a-quechers-method-combined-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Hongxia Zhao, Xiuying Chen, Chen Shen, Baocheng Qu
A simple and efficient method for determining multiple mycotoxins was developed using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) based extraction procedure in vegetable oils. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSMS) was used for the quantification and confirmation of 16 chemically diversified mycotoxins. Different extraction procedures were studied and optimized by spiking 16 analytes into blank matrix, and the extraction with 85% MeCN solution and C18 as cleaning sorbent allowed an efficient recovery of 72...
November 28, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867704/quantitative-chemical-imaging-with-background-free-multiplex-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-by-dual-soliton-stokes-pulses
#4
Kun Chen, Tao Wu, Haoyun Wei, Tian Zhou, Yan Li
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy (CARS) is a quantitative, chemically specific, and label-free optical imaging technique for studying inhomogeneous systems. However, the complicating influence of the nonresonant response on the CARS signal severely limits its sensitivity and specificity and especially limits the extent to which CARS microscopy has been used as a fully quantitative imaging technique. On the basis of spectral focusing mechanism, we establish a dual-soliton Stokes based CARS microspectroscopy and microscopy scheme capable of quantifying the spatial information of densities and chemical composition within inhomogeneous samples, using a single fiber laser...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859528/the-effects-of-pharmaceuticals-on-a-unionid-mussel-lampsilis-siliquoidea-an-examination-of-acute-and-chronic-endpoints-of-toxicity-across-life-stages
#5
Ève A M Gilroy, Patricia L Gillis, Laura E King, Nicholas A Bendo, Joseph Salerno, Marina Giacomin, Shane R de Solla
The toxicity and bioconcentration of three pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, iopamidol and sertraline) were examined using multiple life stages (larval, juvenile, and adult) of the unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea. The endpoints examined varied with life stage, but included survival, behavior (algal clearance rate, filtering frequency), and oxidative stress. Iopamidol was not toxic at concentrations up to 101 mg/L. Sertraline was the most toxic chemical (LC/EC50 = 0.02-0.04 mg/L), but exposure did not induce oxidative stress...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854335/development-of-a-detection-algorithm-for-use-with-reflectance-based-real-time-chemical-sensing
#6
Anthony P Malanoski, Brandy J Johnson, Jeffrey S Erickson, David A Stenger
Here, we describe our efforts focused on development of an algorithm for identification of detection events in a real-time sensing application relying on reporting of color values using commercially available color sensing chips. The effort focuses on the identification of event occurrence, rather than target identification, and utilizes approaches suitable to onboard device incorporation to facilitate portable and autonomous use. The described algorithm first excludes electronic noise generated by the sensor system and determines response thresholds...
November 16, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851882/uncovering-a-third-dissolved-phase-129-xe-resonance-in-the-human-lung-quantifying-spectroscopic-features-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Scott H Robertson, Rohan S Virgincar, Elianna A Bier, Mu He, Geoffrey M Schrank, Rose Marie Smigla, Craig Rackley, H Page McAdams, Bastiaan Driehuys
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to accurately characterize the spectral properties of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to healthy volunteers. METHODS: Subjects underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe breath-hold spectroscopy, during which 38 dissolved-phase free induction decays (FIDs) were acquired after reaching steady state (echo time/repetition time = 0.875/50 ms; bandwidth = 8.06 kHz; flip angle≈22 °)...
November 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847190/comparative-toxicity-of-pesticides-and-environmental-contaminants-in-bees-are-honey-bees-a-useful-proxy-for-wild-bee-species
#8
Matthew S Heard, Jan Baas, Jean-Lou Dorne, Elma Lahive, Alexander G Robinson, Agnes Rortais, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Helen Hesketh
Threats to wild and managed insect pollinators in Europe are cause for both ecological and socio-economic concern. Multiple anthropogenic pressures may be exacerbating pollinator declines. One key pressure is exposure to chemicals including pesticides and other contaminants. Historically the honey bee (Apis mellifera spp.) has been used as an 'indicator' species for 'standard' ecotoxicological testing but it has been suggested that it is not always a good proxy for other types of eusocial and solitary bees because of species differences in autecology and sensitivity to various stressors...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836174/effect-based-tools-for-monitoring-estrogenic-mixtures-evaluation-of-five-in%C3%A2-vitro-bioassays
#9
Petra Y Kunz, Eszter Simon, Nicolas Creusot, B Sumith Jayasinghe, Cornelia Kienle, Sibylle Maletz, Andrea Schifferli, Christine Schönlau, Selim Aït-Aïssa, Nancy D Denslow, Henner Hollert, Inge Werner, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen
In vitro estrogen receptor transactivation assays (ERTAs) are increasingly used to measure the overall estrogenic activity of environmental water samples, which may serve as an indicator of exposure of fish or other aquatic organisms to (xeno)estrogens. Another potential area of application of ERTAs is to assist the monitoring of the potent steroids 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) watch-list mechanism. Chemical analysis of E2 and EE2 is currently hampered by limits of quantification being mostly above the proposed annual average Environmental Quality Standards (AA-EQS) of 0...
October 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830499/carotenoids-and-retinoids-nomenclature-chemistry-and-analysis
#10
Earl H Harrison, Robert W Curley
Carotenoids are polyenes synthesized in plants and certain microorganisms and are pigments used by plants and animals in various physiological processes. Some of the over 600 known carotenoids are capable of metabolic conversion to the essential nutrient vitamin A (retinol) in higher animals. Vitamin A also gives rise to a number of other metabolites which, along with their analogs, are known as retinoids. To facilitate discussion about these important molecules, a nomenclature is required to identify specific substances...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818338/antimicrobial-and-host-cell-directed-activities-of-gly-ser-rich-peptides-from-salmonid-cathelicidins
#11
Francesca D'Este, Monica Benincasa, Giuseppe Cannone, Michela Furlan, Michele Scarsini, Donatella Volpatti, Renato Gennaro, Alessandro Tossi, Barbara Skerlavaj, Marco Scocchi
Cathelicidins, a major family of vertebrate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have a recognized role in the first line of defense against infections. They have been identified in several salmonid species, where the putative mature peptides are unusually long and rich in serine and glycine residues, often arranged in short multiple repeats (RLGGGS/RPGGGS) intercalated by hydrophobic motifs. Fragments of 24-40 residues, spanning specific motifs and conserved sequences in grayling or brown, rainbow and brook trout, were chemically synthesized and examined for antimicrobial activity against relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative salmonid pathogens, as well as laboratory reference strains...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816612/trapping-redox-partnerships-in-oxidant-sensitive-proteins-with-a-small-thiol-reactive-cross-linker
#12
Kristin M Allan, Matthew A Loberg, Juliet Chepngeno, Jennifer E Hurtig, Susmit Tripathi, Min Goo Kang, Jonathan K Allotey, Afton H Widdershins, Jennifer M Pilat, Herbert J Sizek, Wesley J Murphy, Matthew R Naticchia, Joseph B David, Kevin A Morano, James D West
A broad range of redox-regulated proteins undergo reversible disulfide bond formation on oxidation-prone cysteine residues. Heightened reactivity of the thiol groups in these cysteines also increases susceptibility to modification by organic electrophiles, a property that can be exploited in the study of redox networks. Here, we explored whether divinyl sulfone (DVSF), a thiol-reactive bifunctional electrophile, cross-links oxidant-sensitive proteins to their putative redox partners in cells. To test this idea, previously identified oxidant targets involved in oxidant defense (namely, peroxiredoxins, methionine sulfoxide reductases, sulfiredoxin, and glutathione peroxidases), metabolism, and proteostasis were monitored for cross-link formation following treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with DVSF...
November 2, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807827/emerging-methods-in-chemoproteomics-with-relevance-to-drug-discovery
#13
Chuong Nguyen, Graham M West, Kieran F Geoghegan
A powerful interplay exists between the recognition of gene families, sensitive techniques in proteomics, and the interrogation of protein function using chemical probes. The most prominent methods, such as affinity capture, activity-based protein profiling and photoaffinity labeling, are extensively reviewed in the literature. Here we briefly review additional methods developed in the past 15 years. These include "stability proteomics" methods such as proteomically analyzed cellular thermal shift assays and the use of chemical oxidation as a probe of structure, the use of multiple bead-linked kinase inhibitors to analyze inhibitor specificities, and advances in the use of proteolysis-targeting chimeras for selective protein elimination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805423/the-potential-of-multiparametric-mri-of-the-breast
#14
Katja Pinker, Thomas H Helbich, Elizabeth A Morris
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in breast imaging, with multiple established indications. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is the backbone of any breast MRI protocol and has an excellent sensitivity and good specificity for breast cancer diagnosis. DCE-MRI provides high-resolution morphological information, as well as some functional information about neo-angiogenesis as a tumour-specific feature. To overcome limitations in specificity, several other functional MRI parameters have been investigated and the application of these combined parameters is defined as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the breast...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804887/interaction-between-ionizing-radiation-and-phthalates-an-unrecognized-risk-for-human-health
#15
Giuseppe Latini, Lucia Dipaola, Maria Grazia Andreassi, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Marika Massaro, Eugenio Picano
Ionizing radiation has been shown to impact and possibly alter the normal structure and function of living cells and is dangerous for human health, especially when exposure occurs early in life. Additionally, radiation can interact with other dangerous substances in the same environment, such as phthalates. Phthalates are a group of multifunctional molecules used in a wide range of consumer products, as plasticizers to impart flexibility, durability and strength to otherwise rigid polyvinyl chloride. They are not chemically bound to polyvinyl chloride, and thus migrate into the environment with time and use, becoming ubiquitous environmental contaminants...
October 31, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783561/corrigendum-to-reliable-disease-biomarkers-characterizing-and-identifying-electrohypersensitivity-and-multiple-chemical-sensitivity-as-two-etiopathogenic-aspects-of-a-unique-pathological-disorder
#16
Dominique Belpomme, Christine Campagnac, Philippe Irigaray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781216/dynamic-viscosity-mapping-of-the-oxidation-of-squalene-aerosol-particles
#17
Athanasios Athanasiadis, Clare Fitzgerald, Nicholas M Davidson, Chiara Giorio, Stanley W Botchway, Andrew D Ward, Markus Kalberer, Francis D Pope, Marina K Kuimova
Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777246/managing-the-risk-of-cyp3a-induction-in-drug-development-a-strategic-approach
#18
Barry C Jones, Helen Rollison, Susanne A Johansson, Kajsa P Kanebratt, Craig Lambert, Karthick Vishwanathan, Tommy B Andersson
Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) can impact the efficacy and safety of a drug molecule upon multiple dosing of co-administered drugs. This strategy is focused on CYP3A since the majority of clinically relevant cases of CYP induction are related to this enzyme. However, the in vitro evaluation of induction is applicable to other CYP enzymes but the in vivo relevance cannot be assessed because the scarcity of relevant clinical data. In the pre-clinical phase, compounds are screened using PXR reporter gene assay and, if necessary, structure-activity relationships (SAR) are developed...
October 24, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775674/a-fast-and-robust-uhplc-mrm-ms-method-to-characterize-and-quantify-grape-skin-tannins-after-chemical-depolymerization
#19
Lucie Pinasseau, Arnaud Verbaere, Maryline Roques, Emmanuelle Meudec, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Nancy Terrier, Jean-Claude Boulet, Véronique Cheynier, Nicolas Sommerer
A rapid, sensitive, and selective analysis method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS) has been developed for the characterization and quantification of grape skin flavan-3-ols after acid-catalysed depolymerization in the presence of phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). The compound detection being based on specific MS transitions in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode, this fast gradient robust method allows analysis of constitutive units of grape skin proanthocyanidins, including some present in trace amounts, in a single injection, with a throughput of 6 samples per hour...
October 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774784/monitoring-in-vivo-changes-in-tonic-extracellular-dopamine-level-by-charge-balancing-multiple-waveform-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry
#20
Yoonbae Oh, Cheonho Park, Do Hyoung Kim, Hojin Shin, Yu Min Kang, Mark DeWaele, Jeyeon Lee, Hoon-Ki Min, Charles D Blaha, Kevin Bennet, In Young Kim, Kendall H Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
Dopamine (DA) modulates central neuronal activity through both phasic (second to second) and tonic (minutes to hours) terminal release. Conventional fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes, has been used to measure phasic DA release in vivo by adopting a background subtraction procedure to remove background capacitive currents. However, to-date, measuring tonic changes in DA concentrations using conventional FSCV has been difficult because background capacitive currents are inherently unstable over long recording periods...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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