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Multiple Chemical Sensitivities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156121/the-toxmatrix-chemo-genomic-profiling-identifies-interactions-that-reveal-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#1
Zhi-Bin Tong, Ruili Huang, Yuhong Wang, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, John Braisted, Zina Itkin, Paul Shinn, Menghang Xia, Anton Simeonov, David Gerhold
A chemical genomics 'Toxmatrix' method was developed to elucidate mechanisms of cytotoxicity using neuronal models. Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) was applied to systematically screen each toxicant against a panel of 70 modulators, drugs or chemicals that act on a known target, to identify interactions that either protect or sensitize cells to each toxicant. Thirty-two toxicants were tested at 10 concentrations for cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, with results fitted to the Hill equation to determine an IC50 for each toxicant...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145156/the-potential-of-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-for-high-throughput-and-high-resolution-lipidomics
#2
REVIEW
Christine Hinz, Sonia Liggi, Julian L Griffin
Lipids are a large and highly diverse family of biomolecules, which play essential structural, storage and signalling roles in cells and tissues. Although traditional mass spectrometry (MS) approaches used in lipidomics are highly sensitive and selective, lipid analysis remains challenging due to the chemical diversity of lipid structures, multiple isobaric species and incomplete separation using many forms of chromatography. Ion mobility (IM) separates ions in the gas phase based on their physicochemical properties...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130201/quantifying-gene-expression-in-living-cells-with-ratiometric-bimolecular-beacons
#3
Yantao Yang, Mingming Chen, Christopher J Krueger, Andrew Tsourkas, Antony K Chen
Molecular beacons (MBs), a class of oligonucleotide-based probes, have enabled researchers to study various RNA molecules in their native live-cell contexts. However, it is also increasingly recognized that, when delivered into cells, MBs have the tendency to be sequestered into the nucleus where they may generate false positive signals. In an attempt to overcome this issue, MBs have been synthesized with chemically modified oligonucleotide backbones to confer greater biostability. Alternatively, strategies have been developed to minimize nuclear entry...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129320/an-evaluation-of-cumulative-risks-from-offshore-produced-water-discharges-in-the-bass-strait
#4
T F Parkerton, M Bok, A W Ireland, C M Prosser
Chemical analyses and toxicity testing using six marine species were used to characterize the hazard of produced waters (PW) to marine life from twelve Australian offshore platforms. Hazard data were used in conjunction with platform-specific plume discharge dilution and species sensitivity distribution modeling to estimate cumulative risks by calculating the multiple substance potentially affected fraction of species in the local marine environment. Results provided two independent lines of evidence demonstrating that cumulative risks to marine life from these discharges meet intended 95% species protection goals at the edge of the mixing zone...
November 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126055/estrogen-responsive-gene-networks-in-the-teleost-liver-what-are-the-key-molecular-indicators
#5
April Feswick, Kelly R Munkittrick, Christopher J Martyniuk
An overarching goal of environmental genomics is to leverage sensitive suites of markers that are robust and reliable to assess biological responses in a range of species inhabiting variable environments. The objective of this study was to identify core groups of transcripts and molecular signaling pathways that respond to 17alpha-ethylinestadiol (EE2), a ubiquitous estrogenic contaminant, using transcriptome datasets generated from six independent laboratories. We sought to determine which biomarkers and gene networks were those most robust and reliably detected in multiple laboratories...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119250/microscopy-based-high-throughput-assays-enable-multi-parametric-analysis-to-assess-adverse-effects-of-nanomaterials-in-various-cell-lines
#6
Iris Hansjosten, Juliane Rapp, Luisa Reiner, Ruben Vatter, Susanne Fritsch-Decker, Ravindra Peravali, Taina Palosaari, Elisabeth Joossens, Kirsten Gerloff, Peter Macko, Maurice Whelan, Douglas Gilliland, Isaac Ojea-Jimenez, Marco P Monopoli, Louise Rocks, David Garry, Kenneth Dawson, Peter J F Röttgermann, Alexandra Murschhauser, Joachim O Rädler, Selina V Y Tang, Pete Gooden, Marie-France A Belinga-Desaunay, Abdullah O Khan, Sophie Briffa, Emily Guggenheim, Anastasios Papadiamantis, Iseult Lynch, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) selected from a library of over 120 different MNMs with varied compositions, sizes, and surface coatings were tested by four different laboratories for toxicity by high-throughput/-content (HT/C) techniques. The selected particles comprise 14 MNMs composed of CeO2, Ag, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2 with different coatings and surface characteristics at varying concentrations. The MNMs were tested in different mammalian cell lines at concentrations between 0.5 and 250 µg/mL to link physical-chemical properties to multiple adverse effects...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119192/fluorescent-probes-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-analytes-in-biology
#7
REVIEW
Jacek L Kolanowski, Fei Liu, Elizabeth J New
Many of the key questions facing cellular biology concern the location and concentration of chemical species, from signalling molecules to metabolites to exogenous toxins. Fluorescent sensors (probes) have revolutionised the understanding of biological systems through their exquisite sensitivity to specific analytes. Probe design has focussed on selective sensors for individual analytes, but many of the most pertinent biological questions are related to the interaction of more than one chemical species. While it is possible to simultaneously use multiple sensors for such applications, data interpretation will be confounded by the fact that sensors will have different uptake, localisation and metabolism profiles...
November 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118445/large-area-imaging-of-forensic-evidence-with-ma-xrf
#8
Kirsten Langstraat, Alwin Knijnenberg, Gerda Edelman, Linda van de Merwe, Annelies van Loon, Joris Dik, Arian van Asten
This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112889/challenges-in-the-automated-synthesis-of-18-f-1-fluoroethyl-tryptophan-formation-of-both-o-and-n-alkylated-products
#9
T K Venkatachalam, D H R Stimson, G K Pierens, R Bhalla, D C Reutens
[(18)F]Fluoroethyl tosylate was synthesized using an automated "Synthra" module using ethylene di-tosylate and [(18)F]fluoride/K222/K2CO3 in acetonitrile. [(18)F]Fluoroethyl tosylate was purified by semi-preparative HPLC followed by reformulation using a C18 Sep-Pak cartridge and eluted with DMF. Using this [(18)F]fluoroethyl tosylate, we attempted to alkylate protected tryptophan aiming to obtain the N-[(18)F]fluoroethyl-t-Boc-tryptophan methyl ester. Initial attempts resulted in the formation of the O-alkylated, rather than N-alkylated product...
October 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112453/new-animal-free-concepts-and-test-methods-for-developmental-toxicity-and-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#10
Marcel Leist
The complex toxicological fields of repeat dose organ toxicity (RDT) and developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) still require new concepts and approaches to achieve a fully animal-free safety assessment of chemicals. One novel approach is the generation of relevant human cell types from pluripotent stem cells, and the use of such cells for the establishment of phenotypic test methods. Due to their broad endpoints, such tests capture multiple types of toxicants, i.e. they are a readout for the activation of many adverse outcome pathways (AOPs)...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111991/multiple-chemical-sensitivity-review-of-the-state-of-the-art-in-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-future-perspectives
#11
Sabrina Rossi, Alessio Pitidis
OBJECTIVE: Systematic bibliography analysis of about the last 17 years on multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) was carried out in order to detect new diagnostic and epidemiological evidence. The MCS is a complex syndrome that manifests as a result of exposure to a low level of various common contaminants. The etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are still debated among researchers. METHOD: Querying PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane library, both using some specific MESH terms combined with MESH subheadings and through free search, even by Google...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111492/liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitative-estimation-of-new-imiqualine-leads-with-potent-anticancer-activities-in-rat-and-mouse-plasma-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study-in-mice
#12
Adrien Chouchou, Bénédicte Marion, Christine Enjalbal, Céline Roques, Pierre Cuq, Pierre-Antoine Bonnet, Françoise M M Bressolle-Gomeni, Carine Deleuze-Masquéfa
Imidazoquinoxaline derivatives (imiqualines) are a new series of anticancer compounds. Two lead compounds (EAPB0203 and EAPB0503) with remarkable in vitro and in vivo activity on melanoma and T-cell lymphomas have been previously identified. The modulation of the chemical structure of the most active compound, EAPB0503, has led to the synthesis of two compounds, EAPB02302 and EAPB02303, 7 and 40 times more active than EAPB0503 against A375 human melanoma cancer cell line, respectively. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify EAPB02303 and its potential active metabolite, EAPB02302, in rat and mouse plasma...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110037/a-novel-integrated-in-vitro-carcinogenicity-test-to-identify-genotoxic-and-non-genotoxic-carcinogens-using-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#13
Eleanor C Wilde, Katherine E Chapman, Leanne M Stannard, Anna L Seager, Katja Brüsehafer, Ume-Kulsoom Shah, James A Tonkin, M Rowan Brown, Jatin R Verma, Ann T Doherty, George E Johnson, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
Human exposure to carcinogens occurs via a plethora of environmental sources, with 70-90% of cancers caused by extrinsic factors. Aberrant phenotypes induced by such carcinogenic agents may provide universal biomarkers for cancer causation. Both current in vitro genotoxicity tests and the animal-testing paradigm in human cancer risk assessment fail to accurately represent and predict whether a chemical causes human carcinogenesis. The study aimed to establish whether the integrated analysis of multiple cellular endpoints related to the Hallmarks of Cancer could advance in vitro carcinogenicity assessment...
November 6, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108689/spatial-variation-in-risk-for-physician-diagnosed-environmental-sensitivity
#14
Daniel Rainham, Patrick Brown, Tara Sampalli
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurring and severe symptoms triggered by exposures to low levels of toxicants or anthropogenic pollution. This study investigated the spatial structure of MCS incidence and estimated the contribution of socio-economic deprivation to variations in rates of MCS at the community level in Nova Scotia, Canada. Patient data were used to calculate cumulative incidence rate ratios for treated multiple chemical sensitivities. Poisson regression with a spatially autoregressive random effect was employed to assess spatial variation in MCS...
November 2017: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091793/differential-sensitivities-to-dioxin-like-compounds-pcb-126-and-pecdf-between-tg-cyp1a-gfp-transgenic-medaka-and-zebrafish-larvae
#15
Hongyan Xu, Caixia Li, Pacharaporn Suklai, Qinghua Zeng, Raymond Chong, Zhiyuan Gong
It has been intensively documented that there are species-differences in the sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in mammalian and avian. However, this issue is still unclear in fish. This study aimed at evaluating the differential sensitivities to DLCs in fish larvae. Here, larvae of Tg(cyp1a:gfp) medaka and Tg(cyp1a:gfp) zebrafish were tested with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB 126) and 2,3,4,7,8,-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF). Comparative analyses were performed on induction of GFP fluorescence, expression of endogenous cyp1a mRNAs and EROD activity between the two species after exposure to these chemicals...
October 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091346/linking-in-vitro-estrogenicity-to-adverse-effects-in-the-inland-silverside-menidia-beryllina
#16
Alvine C Mehinto, Kevin J Kroll, B Sumith Jayasinghe, Candice M Lavelle, Darcy Vandervort, Olanike K Adeyemo, Steven M Bay, Keith A Maruya, Nancy D Denslow
High-throughput cell assays that detect and integrate the response of multiple chemicals acting via a common mode of action have the potential to enhance current environmental monitoring practices. Establishing the linkage between in vitro and in vivo responses is key to demonstrate that in vitro cell assays can be predictive of ecologically relevant outcomes. This study investigated the potency of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), nonylphenol (NP), and treated wastewater effluent using the readily available GeneBLAzer® estrogen receptor transactivation assay and two life stages of the inland silverside (Menidia beryllina)...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090577/probing-ligand-exchange-in-the-p450-enzyme-cyp121-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dynamic-equilibrium-of-the-distal-heme-ligand-as-a-function-of-ph-and-temperature
#17
Andrew J Fielding, Kednerlin Dornevil, Li Ma, Ian Davis, Aimin Liu
CYP121 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that catalyzes the formation of a C-C bond between the aromatic groups of its cyclodityrosine substrate (cYY). The crystal structure of CYP121 in complex with cYY reveals that the solvent-derived ligand remains bound to the ferric ion in the enzyme-substrate complex. Whereas in the generally accepted P450 mechanism, binding of the primary substrate in the active-site triggers the release of the solvent-derived ligand, priming the metal center for reduction and subsequent O2 binding...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080845/application-of-in-vitro-skin-penetration-measurements-to-confirm-and-refine-the-quantitative-skin-sensitization-risk-assessment-of-methylisothiazolinone
#18
Helga Rothe, Cindy A Ryan, Leanne Page, Joanne Vinall, Carsten Goebel, Heike Scheffler, Frank Toner, Clive Roper, Petra S Kern
Use of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals present in consumer products requires an understanding of hazard and product exposure. In the absence of data, consumer exposure is based on relevant habits and practices and assumes 100% skin uptake of the applied dose. To confirm and refine the exposure, a novel design for in vitro skin exposure measurements was conducted with the preservative, methylisothiazolinone (MI), in beauty care (BC) and household care (HHC) products using realistic consumer exposure conditions...
November 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076571/type-iii-secretion-pore-formed-by-flagellar-protein-flip
#19
Elizabeth Ward, Thibaud T Renault, Eun A Kim, Marc Erhardt, Kelly T Hughes, David F Blair
During assembly of the bacterial flagellum, protein subunits that form the exterior structures are exported through a specialized secretion apparatus energized by the proton gradient. This category of protein transport, together with the similar process that occurs in the injectisomes of gram-negative pathogens, is termed type-III secretion. The membrane-embedded part of the flagellar export apparatus contains five essential proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. Here, we have undertaken a variety of experiments that together support the proposal that the protein-conducting conduit is formed primarily, and possibly entirely, by FliP...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069985/neural-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-neurological-symptoms-and-histories-of-chemical-mold-exposures
#20
Mohamed Bahie Abou-Donia, Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
A number of studies have linked exposures to industrial and household chemicals and biological toxins to increased risk of autoimmunity in general and elevated levels of autoantibodies to neural antigens specifically. Elevated neural autoantibodies are biomarkers for many diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Our study reports levels of six types of neural autoantibodies in a group of 24 toxicant-exposed patients. The patients were exposed to a variety of toxicants including contaminated drinking water (four patients), building water/mold damage (eight patients), pesticides (four patients), and other assorted toxic chemicals (eight patients)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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