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Multiple Chemical Sensitivities

Qiang Ren, Lin Ding, Shan-Shan Sun, Hui-Yun Wang, Liang Qu
Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been used as a traditional phytomedicine for menstrual disorder, amenorrhea, menstrual cramps, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is not enough information about identification and quantification for the chemical constituents of L. lucidus Turcz. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC - Q-TOF-MS method was developed for characterization and identification of the phytochemical compositions in L. lucidus Turcz in negative ion mode. A total of 37 compounds, including 15 phenolic acids, 12 flavonoids, 3 triterpenoids, and 7 organic acids were tentatively characterized and identified by means of the retention time, accurate mass and characteristic fragment ions...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Atsushi Mochizuki
Modern biology has provided many examples of large networks describing the interactions between multiple species of bio-molecules. It is believed that the dynamics of molecular activities based on such networks are the origin of biological functions. On the other hand, we have a limited understanding for dynamics of molecular activity based on networks. To overcome this problem, we have developed two structural theories, by which the important aspects of the dynamical properties of the system are determined only from information on the network structure, without assuming other quantitative details...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Xianming Kong, Yuting Xi, Paul LeDuff, Erwen Li, Ye Liu, Li-Jing Cheng, Gregory L Rorrer, Hua Tan, Alan X Wang
Novel transducers for detecting an ultra-small volume of an analyte solution play pivotal roles in many applications such as chemical analysis, environmental protection and biomedical diagnosis. Recent advances in optofluidics offer tremendous opportunities for analyzing miniature amounts of samples with high detection sensitivity. In this work, we demonstrate enormous enhancement factors (10(6)-10(7)) of the detection limit for optofluidic analysis from inkjet-printed droplets by evaporation-induced spontaneous flow on photonic crystal biosilica when compared with conventional surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing using the pipette dispensing technology...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Liang Hu, Anle Ge, Xixian Wang, Shanshan Wang, Yue Gao, Xiaojun Feng, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
Studies of chemo-sensing in C. elegans to fluctuating gaseous cues are limited due to the lack of a method of precise gas control. In this paper, we describe a microfluidic-based on-demand gas segmented flow generator for performing fluctuating gaseous stimulations to worms. This highly versatile and programmable micro-device integrated with pneumatic valves for flexible and stable gas flow control and worm immobilization enabled us to examine the temporal features of neuronal response to multiple gas pulses with sub-second precision...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Simon P Neville, Vitali Averbukh, Serguei Patchkovskii, Marco Ruberti, Renjie Yun, Majed Chergui, Albert Stolow, Michael S Schuurman
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of polyatomic molecules, leading to the coupling of structural and electronic dynamics, is a fundamentally important yet challenging problem for both experiment and theory. Ongoing developments in ultrafast extreme vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray sources present new probes of coupled electronic-structural dynamics because of their novel and desirable characteristics. As one example, inner-shell spectroscopy offers localized, atom-specific probes of evolving electronic structure and bonding (via chemical shifts)...
September 19, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Aaron J Rossini, Michael P Hanrahan, Martin Thuo
The solid-state NMR spectra of many NMR active elements are often extremely broad due to the presence of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and/or the quadrupolar interaction (for nuclei with spin I > 1/2). These NMR interactions often give rise to wideline solid-state NMR spectra which can span hundreds of kHz or several MHz. Here we demonstrate that by using fast MAS, proton detection and dipolar hetero-nuclear multiple-quantum (D-HMQC) pulse sequences, it is possible to rapidly acquire 2D spectra which correlate (1)H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected wideline MAS powder patterns of dipolar coupled hetero-nuclei...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amélie Le Bihan, Ruben de Kanter, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Christoph Binkert, Christoph Boss, Reto Brun, Ralf Brunner, Stephan Buchmann, Jeremy Burrows, Koen J Dechering, Michael Delves, Sonja Ewerling, Santiago Ferrer, Christoph Fischli, Francisco Javier Gamo-Benito, Nina F Gnädig, Bibia Heidmann, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Didier Leroy, Maria Santos Martínez, Solange Meyer, Joerg J Moehrle, Caroline L Ng, Rintis Noviyanti, Andrea Ruecker, Laura María Sanz, Robert W Sauerwein, Christian Scheurer, Sarah Schleiferboeck, Robert Sinden, Christopher Snyder, Judith Straimer, Grennady Wirjanata, Jutta Marfurt, Ric N Price, Thomas Weller, Walter Fischli, David A Fidock, Martine Clozel, Sergio Wittlin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance observed in Southeast Asia threatens the continued use of artemisinin-based combination therapy in endemic countries. Additionally, the diversity of chemical mode of action in the global portfolio of marketed antimalarials is extremely limited. Addressing the urgent need for the development of new antimalarials, a chemical class of potent antimalarial compounds with a novel mode of action was recently identified. Herein, the preclinical characterization of one of these compounds, ACT-451840, conducted in partnership with academic and industrial groups is presented...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Tommaso Bardelli, María Gómez-Brandón, Judith Ascher-Jenull, Flavio Fornasier, Paola Arfaioli, Davide Francioli, Markus Egli, Giacomo Sartori, Heribert Insam, Giacomo Pietramellara
Due to their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions sub- and alpine soils are often monitored in the context of climate change, usually, however, neglecting slope exposure. Therefore, we set up a climosequence-approach to study the effect of exposure and, in general, climate, on the microbial biomass and microbial diversity and activity, comprising five pairs of north (N)- and south (S)-facing sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 to 2400m a.s.l. in the Italian Alps (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy)...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Deepak Bhandari, John Russell Erskine Ruhl, Anthony John Murphy, Ernest McGahee, David Michael Chambers, Benjamin C Blount
Urinary diamines are biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure. Diisocyanates are considered as skin and respiratory sensitizers and are the most frequently reported cause of occupational asthma. Herein, we report on the development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of five aromatic diamines, 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), 2,4-toluenediamine (4TDA), 2,6-toluenediamine (6TDA), 1,5-naphthalenediamine (NDA), and p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) in human urine...
October 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Kimberly A Curtis, Danielle Miller, Paul Millard, Saswati Basu, Ferenc Horkay, Preethi L Chandran
Linear PEI is a cationic polymer commonly used for complexing DNA into nanoparticles for cell-transfection and gene-therapy applications. The polymer has closely-spaced amines with weak-base protonation capacity, and a hydrophobic backbone that is kept unaggregated by intra-chain repulsion. As a result, in solution PEI exhibits multiple buffering mechanisms, and polyelectrolyte states that shift between aggregated and free forms. We studied the interplay between the aggregation and protonation behavior of 2...
2016: PloS One
Ali Raza, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Steven R Kopp, Andrew C Kotze
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in resistance to anthelmintics, particularly against macrocyclic lactones. Some anthelmintics, including ivermectin (IVM), have been shown to induce transcription of multiple ABC transporters in nematodes; however, the effects of monepantel (MPL) on transcription of these transporter genes has not been studied. METHODS: Larvae of two MPL-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus were exposed to MPL at two concentrations (2...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Molecular imaging holds considerable promise for elucidating biological processes in normal physiology as well as disease states, by determining the location and relative concentration of specific molecules of interest. Proton-based magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H MRI) is nonionizing and provides good spatial resolution for clinical imaging but lacks sensitivity for imaging low-abundance (i.e., submicromolar) molecular markers of disease or environments with low proton densities. To address these limitations, hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe NMR spectroscopy and MRI have emerged as attractive complementary methodologies...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kaoru Yamashita, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Kentaro Ito, Naohiro Yoshida, Fumiko Mitani, Jin Endo, Motoaki Sano, Keiichi Fukuda, Satoshi Morimoto
OBJECTIVE: Numerous clinical trials demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced heart failure. While RAS is a major machinery required for aldosterone production, multiple minor systems, including catecholamine, could give rise to the aberrant aldosterone production beyond the RAS activation. We investigated the mechanism underlying the RAS-independent aldosterone production in heart failure. DESIGN AND METHOD: Dahl-salt sensitive rats fed high salt diet developed malignant hypertension, resulting in heart failure with inappropriately increased plasma aldosterone level...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
John F Carriger, Todd M Martin, Mace G Barron
The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the dataset of 1098 chemicals with the MoA broad classifications as a target node...
September 13, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Charrid Resgalla
Since the 1960s, little has been done to improve and simulate the use of short-duration chronic bioassays of bivalve embryos, particularly in mussels. However, these test organisms offer great advantages in relation to other groups, due to the ease of obtaining breeders in cultivation systems, in the environment and any time, and due to their high sensitivity to chemicals or contaminants. To contribute some methodological aspects, this study uses techniques to stimulate spawning or improve the obtaining of gametes for use in bioassays with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis...
September 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Sa Cai, Lei Han, Qiang Ao, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum
: : Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins...
September 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Janine Ezendam, Hedwig M Braakhuis, Rob J Vandebriel
The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization...
September 14, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Shigeki Yagyu, Valentina Hoyos, Francesca Del Bufalo, Malcolm K Brenner
Expression of the inducible caspase-9 (iC9) suicide gene is one of the most appealing safety strategies for cell therapy and has been applied for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to control the cell fate of hiPSC. iC9 can induce cell death of over 99% of iC9-transduced hiPSC (iC9-hiPSC) in less than 24 hours after exposure to chemical inducer of dimerization (CID). There is, however, a small number of resistant cells that subsequently outgrows. To ensure greater uniformity of the hiPSC response to iC9 activation, we purified a resistant population by culturing iC9-hiPSC with CID and analyzing the mechanisms by which the cells evade killing...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Megan M Blewett, Jiji Xie, Balyn W Zaro, Keriann M Backus, Amnon Altman, John R Teijaro, Benjamin F Cravatt
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an electrophilic drug that is used to treat autoimmune conditions, including multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. The mechanism of action of DMF is unclear but may involve the covalent modification of proteins or DMF serving as a prodrug that is converted to monomethyl fumarate (MMF). We found that DMF, but not MMF, blocked the activation of primary human and mouse T cells. Using a quantitative, site-specific chemical proteomic platform, we determined the DMF sensitivity of >2400 cysteine residues in human T cells...
2016: Science Signaling
José Juan-Colás, Alison Parkin, Katherine E Dunn, Mark G Scullion, Thomas F Krauss, Steven D Johnson
The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers...
2016: Nature Communications
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