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Multiple Chemical Sensitivities

Junu Bae, Zijian Zhou, Thomas Theis, Warren S Warren, Qiu Wang
Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (HP-MR) is a powerful, sensitive, and noninvasive approach to visualize molecular structure, function, and dynamics in vitro and in vivo. Current applications of HP-MR mostly rely on hyperpolarization of target compounds in dedicated hyperpolarizers because biomolecules can typically not be hyperpolarized directly in vivo. The injected hyperpolarized probes often undergo multiple metabolic pathways in living systems, and it remains challenging to localize and identify specific targets with high chemical selectivity...
March 2018: Science Advances
Zhenhua Xu, Steven J Rothstein
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with antioxidant activities. In plants, multiple factors can trigger the accumulation of anthocyanins, including chemicals and environmental factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common by-products produced under different biotic and abiotic conditions and cause oxidative stress when accumulated at a high level in plant cells. This in turn leads to the production of anthocyanins. However, the mechanisms of ROS-induced anthocyanin accumulation and the role of anthocyanins in the response of plants to different stresses are largely unknown...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
L A Mendes, V L Maria, J J Scott-Fordsmand, M J B Amorim
Effects of pollutants are mostly assessed using standard testing procedures, which cover a fraction of the animals' life cycle. Although, in nature species are exposed during multiple generations of sub-lethal doses of persistent chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the multigenerational (MG) effects of silver in Folsomia candida during 6 generations using the EC50 for reproduction as exposure concentration. We tested 9 different exposure scenarios, going from continuous 6 generations Ag exposure over pulse exposure (i...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew Sonnett, Eyan Yeung, Martin Wühr
Quantitative analysis of proteomes across multiple time points, organelles, and perturbations is essential for understanding both fundamental biology and disease states. The development of isobaric tags (e.g. TMT) have enabled the simultaneous measurement of peptide abundances across several different conditions. These multiplexed approaches are promising in principle because of advantages in throughput and measurement quality. However, in practice existing multiplexing approaches suffer from key limitations...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Amélie Levesque, Thibault Riant, Stéphane Ploteau, Jérôme Rigaud, Jean-Jacques Labat
Background: The evaluation of chronic pelvic and perineal pain (CPP) is often complex. The patient's description of the pain often appears to be disproportionate to the limited findings on physical examination and/or complementary investigations. The concept of central sensitization may allow better understanding and management of patients with CPP. Objective: The aim of this study was to elaborate a clinical evaluation tool designed to simply identify sensitization in pelvic pain...
March 7, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Mark W Niedfeldt
Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone shown to increase muscle size and strength. Chemical substitutions on the testosterone molecule cause increased potency and duration of action. The 17-α-alkylation modification allows steroids to be taken orally, but the slower clearance in the liver makes them more hepatotoxic. The frequency and severity of side effects depends on several factors including the formulation of the drug, route of administration, dosage, duration of use, and individual sensitivity and response...
March 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Oliver Ciclet, Denis Barron, Steve Bajic, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme, Alexandre Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud
The MS hyphenation performance of UniSpray®, a new design of atmospheric pressure ionization source was evaluated in both SFC and RPLC modes. Sensitivity, stability, versatility and matrix effects offered by the UniSpray were assessed in positive and negative ionization modes and systematically compared to an electrospray source (ESI) using 120 natural compounds covering an extended chemical space. In a first instance, a multivariate approach was used to screen and optimize the UniSpray source settings to maximize detection sensitivity...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Lan Ching Sim, Jing Lin Wong, Chen Hong Hak, Jun Yan Tai, Kah Hon Leong, Pichiah Saravanan
Carbon dots (CDs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) composites (CD/g-C3 N4 ) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method using urea and sugarcane juice as starting materials. The chemical composition, morphological structure and optical properties of the composites and CDs were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques as well as transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed new signals for carbonyl and carboxyl groups originating from the CDs in CD/g-C3 N4 composites while X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed distortion of the host matrix after incorporating CDs into g-C3 N4 ...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Brett Brownfield, Tony Lemos, John H Kalivas
Classifying samples into categories is a common problem in analytical chemistry and other fields. Classification is usually based on only one method, but numerous classifiers are available with some being complex such as neural networks and others are simple such as k nearest neighbors. Regardless, most classification schemes require optimization of one or more tuning parameters for best classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. A process not requiring exact selection of tun-ing parameter values would be useful...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Adam P Cismesia, Matthew R Bell, Larry F Tesler, Melanie Alves, Nicolas C Polfer
Vibrational ion spectroscopy techniques coupled with mass spectrometry are applied to standard metabolites as a proof-of-principle demonstration for the structural identification of unknown metabolites. The traditional room temperature infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy technique is shown to differentiate chemical moieties in isobaric and isomeric variants. These results are compared to infrared spectra of cryogenically cooled analyte ions, showing enhanced spectral resolution, and thus also improved differentiation between closely related molecules, such as isomers...
March 2, 2018: Analyst
Nijoy John, Anson V Koehler, Brendan R E Ansell, Louise Baker, Nicholas D Crosbie, Aaron R Jex
Production of taste and odour (T/O) compounds, principally geosmin, by complex cyanobacterial blooms is a major water quality issue globally. Control of these cyanobacteria imposes a significant cost on water producing and dependent industries, and requires routine monitoring and management. Classic monitoring methods, including microscopy and direct chemical analysis, lack sensitivity, are laborious, expensive or cannot reliably identify the source of geosmin production. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based tools targeting the geosmin synthase gene (geoA) provide a novel tool for routine monitoring...
February 19, 2018: Water Research
Limin Zhang, Yang Tian
The in vivo analysis of chemical signals in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using implanted electrochemical biosensors is a vital way to study brain functions and brain activity mapping. This approach offers excellent spatial (10-200 μm) and temporal (approximately second) resolution and the major advantage of long-term stability. By implantation of a microelectrode in a specific brain region, changes in the concentration of a variety of ECF chemical species can be monitored through applying a suitable electrical signal and, typically, recording the resulting Faradaic current...
February 27, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Qingdi Zhu, Lihong Zhang, Krystyn J Van Vliet, Ali Miserez, Niels Holten-Andersen
Polymers that confer changes in optical properties in response to chemical or mechanical cues offer diverse sensing applications, particularly if this stimuli response is accessible in humid or aqueous environments. Here, luminescent hydrogels were fabricated using a facile aqueous process by incorporating lanthanide ions and carbon dots (CD) into a network of polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid). White luminescence was obtained by tuning the balance of blue light-emitting CD to green and red light-emitting lanthanide ions...
February 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanmei Huang, Haiyan Li, Mindong Bai, Xiaojia Huang
Efficient extraction of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is a key step for the accurate and sensitive determination of PFCAs due to their low concentration and the complexity of sample matrices. Herein, according to the chemical characteristics of PFCAs, a new adsorbent based on poly (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl acrylate/(vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride-co-divinylbenzene/ethylenedimethacrylate) monolith was fabricated and utilized as the extraction medium of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME)...
June 29, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Duurenjargal Tseeleesuren, Rajni Kant, Chia-Hung Yen, Hui-Hua Hsiao, Yi-Ming A Chen
Multiple myeloma (MM) still remains an incurable disease, therefore discovery of novel drugs boosts the therapeutics for MM. The natural compound 1,2,3,4,6-Penta- O -galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PGG) has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities against various cancer cells. Here, we aim to evaluate antitumor effects of PGG on MM cell lines. PGG inhibited the growth of three different MM cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PGG treatment caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Martina Tripepi, Federico Capuana, Eliana Gianolio, Flavio Kock, Amerigo Pagoto, Rachele Stefania, Giuseppe Digilio, Silvio Aime
Molecular imaging requires the specific accumulation of contrast agents at the target. To exploit the superb resolution of MRI for applications in molecular imaging, gadolinium chelates, as the MRI contrast agents (CA), have to be conjugated to a specific vector able to recognize the epitope of interest. Several Gd(III)-chelates can be chemically linked to the same binding vector in order to deliver multiple copies of the CA (multimers) in a single targeting event thus increasing the sensitivity of the molecular probe...
February 22, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Tatiana Heid Furley, Julie Brodeur, Helena C Silva de Assis, Pedro Carriquiriborde, Katia R Chagas, Jone Corrales, Marina Denadai, Julio Fuchs, Renata Mascarenhas, Karina Sb Miglioranza, Diana Margarita Miguez Caramés, José Maria Navas, Danaythi Nugegoda, Estela Planes, Ignacio Alejandro Rodriguez-Jorquera, Martha Orozco-Medina, Alistair Ba Boxall, Murray A Rudd, Bryan W Brooks
The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina...
February 22, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Fei Zhang, Minghui Wang, Jianing Xi, Jianghong Yang, Ao Li
An enduring challenge in personalized medicine lies in selecting a suitable drug for each individual patient. Here we concentrate on predicting drug responses based on a cohort of genomic, chemical structure, and target information. Therefore, a recently study such as GDSC has provided an unprecedented opportunity to infer the potential relationships between cell line and drug. While existing approach rely primarily on regression, classification or multiple kernel learning to predict drug responses. Synthetic approach indicates drug target and protein-protein interaction could have the potential to improve the prediction performance of drug response...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zinnat Shahina, Amira M El-Ganiny, Jessica Minion, Malcolm Whiteway, Taranum Sultana, Tanya E S Dahms
Background: Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extract exhibits potent inhibitory activity against Candida albicans but the antifungal mechanisms of this essential oil remain largely unexplored. Results: We analyzed the impact of cinnamon bark oil on C. albicans RSY150, and clinical strains isolated from patients with candidemia and candidiasis. The viability of RSY150 was significantly compromised in a dose dependent manner when exposed to cinnamon bark oil, with extensive cell surface remodelling at sub inhibitory levels (62...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Emeric Bron, Chloé Daudon, Jérôme Pety, François Levrier, Maryvonne Gerin, Pierre Gratier, Jan H Orkisz, Viviana Guzman, Sébastien Bardeau, Javier R Goicoechea, Harvey Liszt, Karin Öberg, Nicolas Peretto, Albrecht Sievers, Pascal Tremblin
Context: Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud...
February 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
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