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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929213/gut-microbiome-in-type-1-diabetes-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Peilin Zheng, Zhixia Li, Zhiguang Zhou
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, which is characterized by the destruction of islet β cells in the pancreas triggered by genetic and environmental factors. In past decades, extensive familial and genome-wide association studies have revealed more than 50 risk loci in the genome. However, genetic susceptibility cannot explain the increased incidence of T1D worldwide, which is very likely attributed by the growing impact of environmental factors, especially gut microbiome. Recently, the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of T1D have been uncovered by the increasing evidence from both human subjects and animal models, strongly indicating that gut microbiome might be a pivotal hub of T1D-triggering factors, especially environmental factors...
June 21, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929201/sonidegib-a-novel-inhibitor-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#2
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Itishri Sahu, Hang Cao, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Hedgehog pathway disrupting drug sonidegib is used in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Side effects of sonidegib include anemia, which could result either from impaired erythropoiesis or from loss of erythrocytes e.g. due to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the cell surface and by cell shrinkage. Eryptosis is stimulated by cell stress, including energy depletion, hyperosmotic shock, oxidative stress and excessive increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i)...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929183/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-novel-mucoadhesive-bilayer-patches-for-local-delivery-of-clobetasol-17-propionate-to-the-oral-mucosa
#3
H E Colley, Z Said, M E Santocildes-Romero, S R Baker, K D'Apice, J Hansen, L Siim Madsen, M H Thornhill, P V Hatton, C Murdoch
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) are chronic inflammatory conditions often characterised by erosive and/or painful oral lesions that have a considerable impact on quality of life. Current treatment often necessitates the use of steroids in the form of mouthwashes, creams or ointments, but these are often ineffective due to inadequate drug contact times with the lesion. Here we evaluate the performance of novel mucoadhesive patches for targeted drug delivery. Electrospun polymeric mucoadhesive patches were produced and characterised for their physical properties and cytotoxicity before evaluation of residence time and acceptability in a human feasibility study...
June 14, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929176/mechanisms-of-antimelanoma-effect-of-oat-%C3%AE-glucan-supported-by-electroporation
#4
Anna Choromanska, Sandra Lubinska, Anna Szewczyk, Jolanta Saczko, Julita Kulbacka
There are still not specified mechanisms how beta-glucan molecules are transported into cells. Supposing, beta-glucan toxicity against tumor cells may be related to the overexpression of the transporter responsible for the transport of glucose molecules in the cells. In this case, glucans - polymers composed of glucose units are much more up-taken by tumor than normal cells. Increased GLUT1 (Glucose Transporter Type 1) expression has been demonstrated earlier in malignant melanomas. GLUT1 expression promotes glucose uptake and cell growth in that cells...
June 6, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929167/a-survey-on-chimeric-ureb-229-561-hpaa-protein-targeting-helicobacter-pylori-computational-and-in-vitro-urease-activity-valuation
#5
Alireza Salimi Chirani, Mona Ghazi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Shahin Najar Peerayeh, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Masoud Dadashi, Bahareh Hajikhani
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as microaerophilic, Gram-negative bacterium colonize the human gastric milieu, where it impetuses chronic disorders. Vaccination is a complementary plan, along with antibiotic therapy, for clearance of H. pylori. Today, Computer based tools are essential for the evaluation, design, and experiment for novel chimeric targets for immunological administration. The purpose of this experiment was immunoinformatic analysis of UreB and HpaA molecules in a fusion arrangement and also, construction and expression of recombinant protein containing chimeric sequences...
May 5, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929147/transformation-products-of-amoxicillin-and-ampicillin-after-photolysis-in-aqueous-matrices-identification-and-kinetics
#6
Juliana Bazzan Arsand, Rodrigo Barcellos Hoff, Louise Jank, Lucas N Meirelles, M Silvia Díaz-Cruz, Tânia Mara Pizzolato, Damià Barceló
Antibiotics are widely used in human medicine and veterinary production. Residues of these compounds reach the water sources through waste or direct application (e.g. aquaculture). The constant input of the parent drugs and their transformation products into the environment leads these pharmaceuticals to be considered as emerging pollutants. For some molecules, the pathway of degradation and formation in products is less known. To assess the impact of these substances in the environment and in the human health, it is necessary to elucidate the transformation products and their kinetic of degradation to evaluate the possible risks...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929138/prothrombotic-mechanisms-in-patients-with-congenital-p-cys89tyr-mutation-in-cd59
#7
Adi Tabib, Issam Hindi, Netanel Karbian, Orly Zelig, Batla Falach, Dror Mevorach
BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is the prognostic factor with the greatest effect on survival in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), who lack dozens of membrane surface proteins. We recently described a primary homozygous Cys89Tyr congenital nonfunctioning CD59 in humans with clinical manifestation in infancy, associated with chronic hemolysis, recurrent strokes, and relapsing peripheral demyelinating neuropathy. Here we investigated hypercoagulability mechanisms characterizing the syndrome...
June 11, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929134/genomic-damage-induced-by-the-widely-used-fungicide-chlorothalonil-in-peripheral-human-lymphocytes
#8
Alfredo Santovito, Claudio Gendusa, Francesca Ferraro, Irene Musso, Maria Costanzo, Stefano Ruberto, Piero Cervella
Chlorothalonil is an important broad spectrum fungicide widely used in agriculture, silviculture, and urban settings. As a result of its massive use, chlorothalonil was found in all environmental matrices, with consequent risks to the health of terrestrial and aquatic organisms, as well as for humans. We analyzed the effects of chlorothalonil on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNi) assays. Lymphocytes were exposed to five concentrations of chlorothalonil: 0.600 µg/mL, 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929133/cytotoxicity-cytokine-release-and-er-stress-autophagy-gene-expression-in-endothelial-cells-and-alveolar-endothelial-co-culture-exposed-to-pristine-and-carboxylated-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#9
Shiwei Chang, Xuqi Zhao, Siyu Li, Tuqiang Liao, Jimin Long, Zhiqiang Yu, Yi Cao
Recently we found that direct exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) might induce toxicological responses through the modulation of ER stress gene expression, but whether this signal could be transferred from other cells to endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. This study investigated the toxicity of pristine and carboxylated MWCNTs to HUVECs and alveolar-endothelial co-culture, the later of which could mimic the possible signaling communications between ECs and MWCNT exposed alveolar cells...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929122/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa-exposed-to-nickel-nanoparticles
#10
Chao Zhou, Ylenia Carotenuto, Valentina Vitiello, Changwen Wu, Jianshe Zhang, Isabella Buttino
The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa is a reference species in standardized ecotoxicology bioassay. Despite this interest, there is a lack of knowledge on molecular responses of A. tonsa to contaminants. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa exposed 4 days to 8.5 and 17 mg/L nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), which have been shown to reduce egg hatching success and larval survival but had no effects on the adults. Aims of our study were to 1) improve the knowledge on the molecular responses of A...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929115/matched-pair-86-y-90-y-labeled-bivalent-rgd-bombesin-antagonist-rgd-glu-do3a-6-ahx-rm2-as-a-potential-theranostic-agent-for-prostate-cancer
#11
Nilantha Bandara, Tamila J Stott Reynolds, Rebecca Schehr, Rajendra P Bandari, Philipp J Diebolder, Stephanie Krieger, Jingli Xu, Yubin Miao, Buck E Rogers, Charles J Smith
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we describe development of a true matched-pair theranostic agent that is able to target the αV β3 integrin and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We herein describe methods to metallate and characterize the new conjugate and to validate its biological efficacy by in vitro and in vivo methods. METHODS: We have previously described the development of [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (where RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) that has been conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA) to afford [RGD-Glu-[DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] peptide...
June 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929114/one-pot-synthesis-and-biodistribution-of-fluorine-18-labeled-serum-albumin-for-vascular-imaging
#12
Falguni Basuli, Xiang Zhang, Mark R Williams, Jurgen Seidel, Michael V Green, Peter L Choyke, Rolf E Swenson, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: Equilibrium single-photon radionuclide imaging methods for assessing cardiac function and the integrity of the vascular system have long been in use for both clinical and research purposes. However, positron-emitting blood pool agents that could provide PET equivalents to these (and other) clinical procedures have not yet been adopted despite technical imaging advantages offered by PET. Our goal was to develop a PET blood pool tracer that not only meets necessary in vivo biological requirements but can be produced with an uncomplicated and rapid synthesis method which would facilitate clinical translation...
May 30, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929107/in-utero-programming-and-early-detection-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-offspring-of-mothers-with-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929099/using-perceptual-cues-for-brake-response-to-a-lead-vehicle-comparing-threshold-and-accumulator-models-of-visual-looming
#14
Qingwan Xue, Gustav Markkula, Xuedong Yan, Natasha Merat
Previous studies have shown the effect of a lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on drivers' brake response times. However, how drivers perceive this information and use it to determine when to apply braking is still not quite clear. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, a driving simulator experiment was performed where each participant experienced nine deceleration scenarios. Previously reported effects of the lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on brake response time were firstly verified in this paper, using a multilevel model...
June 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929086/positive-and-negative-social-support-and-hpa-axis-hyperactivity-evidence-from-glucocorticoids-in-human-hair
#15
Eleonora Iob, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
INTRODUCTION: While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health...
June 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929080/28-noroleanane-derived-spirocyclic-triterpenoids-and-iridoid-glucosides-from-the-roots-of-phlomoides-umbrosa-turcz-kamelin-makhm-with-their-cytotoxic-effects
#16
Duc Dat Le, Duc Hung Nguyen, Bing Tian Zhao, Jeong Ah Kim, Seok Kyu Kim, Byung Sun Min, Jae Sue Choi, Mi Hee Woo
Four undescribed 23,24-O-isopropylidene-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids and an undescribed 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoid, together with five known 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids, were isolated and identified. In addition, three undescribed iridoid glucosides and four known ones were also identified. All the isolates were identified using spectroscopic techniques, and the absolute configurations of 28-noroleanane-derived spirocyclic triterpenoids were determined by CD method for the first time...
June 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929071/evidence-based-logic-chains-demonstrate-multiple-impacts-of-trace-metals-on-ecosystem-services
#17
F Hayes, D J Spurgeon, S Lofts, L Jones
Trace metals can have far-reaching ecosystem impacts. In this study, we develop consistent and evidence-based logic chains to demonstrate the wider effects of trace metal contamination on a suite of ecosystem services. They demonstrate knock-on effects from an initial receptor that is sensitive to metal toxicity, along a cascade of impact, to final ecosystem services via alterations to multiple ecosystem processes. We developed logic chains to highlight two aspects of metal toxicity: for impacts of copper pollution in soil ecosystems, and for impacts of mercury in freshwaters...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929063/prevalence-bioserotyping-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-detected-in-pigs-at-slaughter-in-sardinia
#18
Federica Fois, Francesca Piras, Mia Torpdahl, Roberta Mazza, Daniela Ladu, Simonetta G Consolati, Carlo Spanu, Christian Scarano, Enrico P L De Santis
The aims of the present study were to determine Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in finishing pigs and piglets at slaughter and to characterize the isolates in terms of bioserotype, virulence profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic diversity. During the years 2013-2014, nine pig slaughterhouses placed in Sardinia (Italy) were visited twice, in order to collect animal samples and scalding water. Overall, 609 samples respectively of tonsils (126), colon content (161), mesenteric lymph nodes (161) and carcass surfaces (161) were collected from 126 finishing pigs and 35 piglets...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929048/biomarkers-of-exposure-to-svocs-in-children-and-their-demographic-associations-the-tesie-study
#19
Kate Hoffman, Stephanie C Hammel, Allison L Phillips, Amelia M Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Thomas F Webster, Heather M Stapleton
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are used extensively in consumer and personal care products; electronics; furniture; and building materials and are detected in most indoor environments. As a result, human exposure to mixtures of SVOCs is wide-spread. However, very few studies have measured biomarkers of exposure to multiple SVOC classes, and exposure determinants have not been thoroughly explored, particularly for young children. In this study, we investigated biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs among children (age 3-6 years), who may experience higher exposures and be more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than other age groups...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929047/isolated-hypospadias-the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-pesticides-as-determined-by-meconium-analysis
#20
Elodie Haraux, Pierre Tourneux, Christelle Kouakam, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Bernard Boudailliez, Andre Leke, Celine Klein, Karen Chardon
Although endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including pesticides) are thought to increase the risk of hypospadias, no compounds have been formally identified in this context. Human studies may now be possible via the assessment of meconium as a marker of chronic prenatal exposure. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not prenatal exposure to pesticides (as detected in meconium) constitutes a risk factor for isolated hypospadias. In a case-control study performed between 2011 and 2014 in northern France, male newborns with isolated hypospadias (n = 25) were matched at birth with controls (n = 58)...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
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