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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692079/-characteristics-of-temporal-spatial-differentiation-in-landscape-pattern-vulnerability-in-nansihu-lake-wetland-china
#1
Jia Xin Liang, Xin Ju Li
With remote sensing images from 1985, 2000 Lantsat 5 TM and 2015 Lantsat 8 OLI as data sources, we tried to select the suitable research scale and examine the temporal-spatial diffe-rentiation with such scale in the Nansihu Lake wetland by using landscape pattern vulnerability index constructed by sensitivity index and adaptability index, and combined with space statistics such as semivariogram and spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that 1 km × 1 km equidistant grid was the suitable research scale, which could eliminate the influence of spatial heterogeneity induced by random factors...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691995/phylogeography-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-indonesia
#2
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691980/glucocorticoids-modulate-multidrug-resistance-transporters-in-the-first-trimester-human-placenta
#3
Phetcharawan Lye, Enrrico Bloise, Lubna Nadeem, William Gibb, Stephen J Lye, Stephen G Matthews
The placental multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) protect the foetus from exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids, toxins and xenobiotics. During pregnancy, maternal glucocorticoid levels can be elevated by stress or exogenous administration. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids modulate the expression of ABCB1/P-gp and ABCG2/BCRP in the first trimester human placenta. Our objective was to examine whether dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol modulate first trimester placental expression of multidrug transporters and determine whether cytotrophoblasts or the syncytiotrophoblast are/is responsible for mediating these effects...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691979/the-bdnf-val68met-polymorphism-modulates-how-developmental-ethanol-exposure-impacts-the-hippocampus
#4
Clark W Bird, Brian C Baculis, Jacob J Mayfield, Glenna J Chavez, Tiahna Ontiveros, Dana J Paine, Aaron J Marks, Alicia L Gonzales, Dorit Ron, C Fernando Valenzuela
Prenatal exposure to alcohol causes a wide range of deficits known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many factors determine vulnerability to developmental alcohol exposure including timing and pattern of exposure, nutrition, and genetics. Here, we characterized how a prevalent single nucleotide polymorphism in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (val66met) modulates FASDs severity. This polymorphism disrupts BDNF's intracellular trafficking and activity dependent secretion, and has been linked to increased incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety...
April 24, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691953/circulating-mots-c-levels-are-decreased-in-obese-male-children-and-adolescents-and-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#5
Caiqi Du, Cai Zhang, Wei Wu, Yan Liang, Anru Wang, Shimin Wu, Yue Zhao, Ling Hou, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A novel bioactive peptide, mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c), has recently attracted attention as a potential prevention or therapeutic option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MOTS-c profiles have not yet been reported in human obesity and T2DM. We aimed to determine circulating MOTS-c levels in obesity and explore the association between MOTS-c levels and various metabolic parameters. METHODS: In this case-control study, 40 obese children and adolescents (27 males) and 57 controls (40 males) were recruited in the Hubei Province of China in 2017...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691940/novel-cask-mutations-in-cases-with-syndromic-microcephaly
#6
Francesca Cristofoli, Koen Devriendt, Erica E Davis, Hilde Van Esch, Joris R Vermeesch
Mutations in CASK cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes in humans ranging from mild X-linked intellectual disability to a severe microcephaly (MC) and pontocerebellar hypoplasia syndrome. Nevertheless, predicting pathogenicity and phenotypic consequences of novel CASK mutations through the exclusive consideration of genetic information and population-based data remains a challenge. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified four novel CASK mutations in individuals with syndromic MC. To understand the functional consequences of the different point mutations on the development of MC and cerebellar defects we established a transient loss of function zebrafish model, and demonstrate recapitulation of relevant neuroanatomical phenotypes...
April 24, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691928/circadian-rhythms-refractive-development-and-myopia
#7
Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691912/effect-of-hybridization-with-genome-exclusion-on-extinction-risk
#8
Claudio S Quilodrán, Mathias Currat, Juan I Montoya-Burgos
Human-induced habitat changes may lead to the breakdown of reproductive barriers between distantly related species. This phenomenon may result in fertile first-generation hybrids (F1 ) that exclude the genome of one parental species during gametogenesis, thus disabling introgression. The species extinction risk associated with hybridization with genome exclusion is largely underappreciated because the phenomenon produces only F1 hybrid phenotype, leading to the misconception that hybrids are sterile and potentially of minor conservation concern...
April 24, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691908/expression-of-cutaneous-immunity-markers-during-infant-skin-maturation
#9
Frank Kirchner, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Georgios N Stamatas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant skin undergoes a maturation process during the early years of life. Little is known about the skin's innate immunity. We investigated the dynamics of innate immunity markers collected from the surface of infant skin during the first 36 months of life. METHODS: A total of 117 healthy infants aged 3-36 months participated in the study. We extracted human beta defensin-1 and interleukin 1 alpha and its receptor antagonist using transdermal analysis patches from the skin surface of the posterior lower leg area...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691902/3d-printed-functional-and-biological-materials-on-moving-freeform-surfaces
#10
Zhijie Zhu, Shuang-Zhuang Guo, Tessa Hirdler, Cindy Eide, Xiaoxiao Fan, Jakub Tolar, Michael C McAlpine
Conventional 3D printing technologies typically rely on open-loop, calibrate-then-print operation procedures. An alternative approach is adaptive 3D printing, which is a closed-loop method that combines real-time feedback control and direct ink writing of functional materials in order to fabricate devices on moving freeform surfaces. Here, it is demonstrated that the changes of states in the 3D printing workspace in terms of the geometries and motions of target surfaces can be perceived by an integrated robotic system aided by computer vision...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691896/genome-wide-interaction-with-the-insulin-secretion-locus-mtnr1b-reveals-cmip-as-a-novel-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-in-african-americans
#11
Jacob M Keaton, Chuan Gao, Meijian Guan, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Nicholette D Palmer, James S Pankow, Myriam Fornage, James G Wilson, Adolfo Correa, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der I Chen, Kent D Taylor, Stephen S Rich, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Barry I Freedman, Maggie C Y Ng, Donald W Bowden
Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, most of the genetic risk loci identified to date relates to insulin secretion. We reported that T2D loci influencing insulin sensitivity may be identified through interactions with insulin secretion loci, thereby leading to T2D. Here, we hypothesize that joint testing of variant main effects and interaction effects with an insulin secretion locus increases power to identify genetic interactions leading to T2D...
April 24, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691890/synthesis-and-in-vitro-pdt-evaluation-of-new-porphyrins-containing-meso-epoxymethylaryl-cationic-groups
#12
Jaqueline Carneiro, Alan Gonçalves, Zehua Zhou, Kaitlin E Griffin, Nichole E M Kaufman, Maria da Graça Henriques Vicente
OBJECTIVES: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective cancer treatment that uses photosensitizers, light, and oxygen to destroy malignant cells. Porphyrins, and in particular the cationic derivatives, are the most investigated photosensitizers for PDT. In this context, it is important to study new methodologies to develop efficient cationic photosensitizers for use in PDT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: New porphyrins bearing cationic epoxymethylaryl groups were synthesized and characterized...
April 25, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691881/3-hydroxyflavone-enhances-the-toxicity-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-vitro
#13
Yunfeng Luo, Chaohua Wu, Liangliang Liu, Yu Gong, Shengming Peng, Yixi Xie, Yi Cao
It is recently shown that flavonoids might reduce the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) due to their antioxidative properties. In this study, the influence of 3-hydroxyflavone (H3) on the toxicity of ZnO NPs was investigated. H3 increased hydrodynamic size, polydispersity index and absolute value of the zeta potential of ZnO NPs, which indicated that H3 could influence the colloidal aspects of NPs. Surprisingly, H3 markedly decreased the initial concentration of ZnO NPs required to induce cytotoxicity to Caco-2, HepG2, THP-1 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which suggested that H3 could promote the toxicity of ZnO NPs to both cancerous and normal cells...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691877/carbon-footprint-of-organic-beef-meat-from-farm-to-fork-a-case-study-of-short-supply-chain
#14
A Vitali, G Grossi, G Martino, U Bernabucci, A Nardone, N Lacetera
BACKGROUND: Sustainability of food systems is one of the big challenges of humans kind in the next years. Local food networks, especially the organic ones, are growing worldwide and few information is known about their carbon footprint. This study was aimed to assess greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions associated to organic local beef supply chain with a cradle to grave approach. RESULTS: The study pointed out an overall burden of 24.46 kg CO2 eq./kg of cooked meat...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691859/survey-of-rabies-vaccination-status-of-queensland-veterinarians-and-veterinary-students
#15
D Mendez, L Foyle, R Cobbold, R Speare
BACKGROUND: To determine the rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students and their perception of zoonotic risk from Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent by post in 2011 to veterinary surgeons registered in Queensland, to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University via SurveyMonkey® in 2013 and to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University and University of Queensland via SurveyMonkey® in 2014...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691838/ros-autophagy-pathway-mediates-monocytes-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-adhesion-induced-by-apelin-13
#16
Meiqing Liu, Hening Li, Qun Zhou, Hong Zhao, Deguan Lv, Jiangang Cao, Jinyong Jiang, Mingzhu Tang, Di Wu, Jiaqi Liu, Lele Wu, Haoliang Hu, Lu He, Shifang Huang, Zhe Chen, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of APJ receptor. Both monocytes (MCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) express apelin and APJ, which play important roles in the physiological processes of atherosclerosis. Our previous research indicated that apelin-13 promoted MCs-HUVECs adhesion. Here, we further explore the mechanism responsible for MCs-HUVECs adhesion induced by apelin-13. Apelin-13 promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NOX4 expression in HUVECs. Apelin-13 inducedautophagy, increased proteins beclin1 and LC3-II/I expression and induced autophagy flux in HUVECs, which was blocked by NAC, catalase and DPI...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691818/nanomaterials-nanocomposites-for-osteochondral-tissue
#17
Ohan S Manoukian, Connor Dieck, Taylor Milne, Caroline N Dealy, Swetha Rudraiah, Sangamesh G Kumbar
For many years, the avascular nature of cartilage tissue has posed a clinical challenge for replacement, repair, and reconstruction of damaged cartilage within the human body. Injuries to cartilage and osteochondral tissues can be due to osteoarthritis, sports, aggressive cancers, and repetitive stresses and inflammation on wearing tissue. Due to its limited capacity for regeneration or repair, there is a need for suitable material systems which can recapitulate the function of the native osteochondral tissue physically, mechanically, histologically, and biologically...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691812/excipient-selection-and-aerodynamic-characterization-of-nebulized-lipid-based-nanoemulsion-loaded-with-docetaxel-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#18
Azren Aida Asmawi, Norazlinaliza Salim, Cheng Loong Ngan, Haslina Ahmad, Emilia Abdulmalek, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691802/the-localization-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-process-of-differentiation-of-human-erythroid-cells
#19
Katsuya Araki, Kotomi Sugawara, Eri H Hayakawa, Kumi Ubukawa, Isuzu Kobayashi, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi, Kenichi Sawada, Hideki Mochizuki, Wataru Nunomura
Although the neuronal protein α-synuclein (α-syn) is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), its physiological function remains unknown. It is known that α-syn is also abundantly expressed in erythrocytes. However, its role in erythrocytes is also unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of α-syn in human erythroblasts and erythrocytes. Protein expression of α-syn increased during terminal differentiation of erythroblasts (from day 7 to day 13), whereas its mRNA level peaked at day 11...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691788/tissue-identification-in-a-porcine-model-by-differential-ion-mobility-spectrometry-analysis-of-surgical-smoke
#20
Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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