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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822176/-cerebral-microangiopathy-of-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Yuan Li, Ke-Wu Zeng, Xue-Mei Wang
Diabetes mellitus, a kind of chronic metabolic disease, has become one of major threats to human health with an increasing incidence. As a basic pathology of chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, cerebral microangiopathy is mainly found in patients with Alzheimer's disease and lacunar infarction, and becomes one of the main reasons of death and disability in diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of cerebral microangiopathy is complicated, involving such signal pathways as metabolic abnormalities of polyol, saccharification hyperactivity, oxidative stress, abnormal transport of amyloid-β across blood-brain barrier and protein kinase C activation...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817498/an-interprofessional-approach-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-care
#2
Jerri L Jaffa, Marlene Dufault, Mary Lavin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the death of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex that are responsible for voluntary movement. For unknown reasons, military veterans are approximately twice as likely as the public to be given a diagnosis of ALS. Currently, there is no cure for ALS. The only US Food and Drug Administration-approved disease-modifying medication is riluzole (Rilutek), which may slow ALS progression but only minimally increases survival time...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815891/cystic-kidneys-in-fetal-walker-warburg-syndrome-with-pomt2-mutation-intrafamilial-phenotypic-variability-in-four-siblings-and-review-of-literature
#3
Marwa M Nabhan, Nour ElKhateeb, Daniela A Braun, Sungho Eun, Sahar N Saleem, Heon YungGee, Friedhelm Hildebrandt, Neveen A Soliman
Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to α-dystroglycanopathy with muscle, brain, and eye abnormalities often leading to death in the first weeks of life. It is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern, and has been linked to at least 15 different genes; including protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1), protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2), protein O-mannose beta-1,2-N acetylglucosaminyltransferase (POMGNT1), fukutin (FKTN), isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD), and other genes...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814093/role-of-ischemic-modified-albumin-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-and-brain-death
#4
I Kara, H K Pampal, F Yildirim, E Dilekoz, G Emmez, F P U, M Kocabiyik, C B Demirel
AIM: Increased intracranial pressure following trauma and subsequent possible development of brain death are important factors for morbidity and mortality due to ischemic changes. We aimed to establish the role of ischemic modified albumin (IMA) in the early diagnosis of the process, starting with increased intracranial pressure and ending with brain death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups; control (CG, n = 6), increased intracranial pressure (ICPG, n = 6), and brain death (BDG, n = 6)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799854/proteomic-studies-in-the-discovery-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Peggy Barschke, Patrick Oeckl, Petra Steinacker, Albert Ludolph, Markus Otto
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative motor neuron disease, which usually leads to death within a few years. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms and there is a need for ALS-specific biomarkers to make an early and precise diagnosis, for development of disease-modifying drugs and to gain new insights into pathophysiology. Areas covered: In the present review, we summarize studies using mass spectrometric (MS) approaches to identify protein alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783589/infection-exposure-detection-and-causes-of-death-in-perinatal-mortalities-in-polish-dairy-herds
#7
Paulina Jawor, Dawid Król, John F Mee, Zenon Sołtysiak, Stanisław Dzimira, Magdalena Larska, Tadeusz Stefaniak
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of infections in perinatal mortality (PM) cases from Polish dairy farms and the relevance of the presence of infection to the cause of death. This prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 121 PM and 21 control calves with a gestation of ≥260 days. Six control calves were euthanized and examined using the same protocol as for PM calves. Material was collected over a 20-month period between November 2013 and June 2015. The PM and control calves were collected from 29 to 5 herds, respectively...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777134/retrospective-analysis-of-transcranial-doppler-patterns-in-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-patients-feasibility-of-cerebral-circulatory-arrest-diagnosis
#8
Marinella Marinoni, Giovanni Cianchi, Sara Trapani, Maria L Migliaccio, Manuela Bonizzoli, Letizia Gucci, Antonella Cramaro, Andrea Gallerini, Fabio Picciafuochi, Serafina Valente, Adriano Peris
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is able to detect cerebral hemodynamic changes in real-time. Impairment of cerebral blood flow during veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment is referred to in the literature. Several cerebrovascular complications can affect VA ECMO patients, eventually leading to brain death (BD). Transcranial Doppler is a worldwide accepted technique for cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA) diagnosis for BD confirmation, and in Italy, it is mandatory in certain clinical conditions...
August 1, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776218/molecular-pathology-of-cerebral-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-inos-and-nrf2-in-forensic-autopsy-cases-with-special-regard-to-deaths-due-to-environmental-hazards-and-intoxication
#9
Si-Hao Du, Xiao-Hui Tan, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Ye Xue, Hui-Jun Wang, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Deaths involved with environmental hazards and intoxication might present with minimal or nonspecific morphological features, which are insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The present study investigated the postmortem brain mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in forensic cases. Relative mRNA quantification using Taqman real-time PCR assay demonstrated higher expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, and lower expression of Nrf2 in methamphetamine intoxication and hyperthermia cases, higher expression of iNOS in phenobarbital intoxication cases, and higher expression of Nrf2 in phenobarbital intoxication and hypothermia cases...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775050/risk-assessment-prognosis-and-guideline-implementation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Athénaïs Boucly, Jason Weatherald, Laurent Savale, Xavier Jaïs, Vincent Cottin, Grégoire Prevot, François Picard, Pascal de Groote, Mitja Jevnikar, Emmanuel Bergot, Ari Chaouat, Céline Chabanne, Arnaud Bourdin, Florence Parent, David Montani, Gérald Simonneau, Marc Humbert, Olivier Sitbon
Current European guidelines recommend periodic risk assessment for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The aim of our study was to determine the association between the number of low-risk criteria achieved within 1 year of diagnosis and long-term prognosis.Incident patients with idiopathic, heritable and drug-induced PAH between 2006 and 2016 were analysed. The number of low-risk criteria present at diagnosis and at first re-evaluation were assessed: World Health Organization (WHO)/New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I or II, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) >440 m, right atrial pressure <8 mmHg and cardiac index ≥2...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771209/point-of-care-testing-in-acute-stroke-management-an-unmet-need-ripe-for-technological-harvest
#11
REVIEW
Dorin Harpaz, Evgeni Eltzov, Raymond C S Seet, Robert S Marks, Alfred I Y Tok
Stroke, the second highest leading cause of death, is caused by an abrupt interruption of blood to the brain. Supply of blood needs to be promptly restored to salvage brain tissues from irreversible neuronal death. Existing assessment of stroke patients is based largely on detailed clinical evaluation that is complemented by neuroimaging methods. However, emerging data point to the potential use of blood-derived biomarkers in aiding clinical decision-making especially in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke, triaging patients for acute reperfusion therapies, and in informing stroke mechanisms and prognosis...
August 3, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768552/a-mild-form-of-adenylosuccinate-lyase-deficiency-in-absence-of-typical-brain-mri-features-diagnosed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#12
Marina Macchiaiolo, Sabina Barresi, Francesco Cecconi, Ginevra Zanni, Marcello Niceta, Emanuele Bellacchio, Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela Maria Amorini, Enrico Silvio Bertini, Salvatore Rizza, Benedetta Contardi, Marco Tartaglia, Andrea Bartuli
BACKGROUND: Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a defect of purine metabolism affecting purinosome assembly and reducing metabolite fluxes through purine de novo synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling pathways. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The most severe form is characterized by neonatal encephalopathy, absence of spontaneous movement, respiratory failure, intractable seizures, and early death within the first weeks of life...
August 2, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768311/temporal-relation-between-myocardial-fibrosis-and-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-association-with-baseline-disease-severity-and-subsequent-outcome
#13
Erik B Schelbert, Yaron Fridman, Timothy C Wong, Hussein Abu Daya, Kayla M Piehler, Ajay Kadakkal, Christopher A Miller, Martin Ugander, Maren Maanja, Peter Kellman, Dipan J Shah, Kaleab Z Abebe, Marc A Simon, Giovanni Quarta, Michele Senni, Javed Butler, Javier Diez, Margaret M Redfield, Mihai Gheorghiade
Importance: Among myriad changes occurring during the evolution of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), cardiomyocyte-extracellular matrix interactions from excess collagen may affect microvascular, mechanical, and electrical function. Objective: To investigate whether myocardial fibrosis (MF) is similarly prevalent both in those with HFpEF and those at risk for HFpEF, similarly associating with disease severity and outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational cohort study from June 1, 2010, to September 17, 2015, with follow-up until December 14, 2015, at a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) center serving an integrated health system...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764750/risk-of-head-and-traumatic-brain-injuries-associated-with-antidepressant-use-among-community-dwelling-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-nationwide-matched-cohort-study
#14
Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Reijo Sund, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant use has been associated with an increased risk of falling, but no studies have been conducted on whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of head injuries which often result from falling among older persons. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of head and brain injuries associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A matched cohort study was conducted by comparing new antidepressant users (n = 10,910) with two matched nonusers (n = 21,820) in the MEDALZ study cohort...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762580/mnal-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles-as-a-dual-functional-platform-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-sirna-delivery
#15
Huali Zuo, Weiyu Chen, Bei Li, Kewei Xu, Helen Cooper, Zi Gu, Zhi Ping Xu
Multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer theranosis have been widely explored for effective cancer detection and therapy. In this research, dually functionalised manganese-based layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (Mn-LDHs) have been examined as an effective anticancer drug/gene delivery system and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality for brain cancer theranostics. Such Mn-LDHs have been shown to accommodate dsDNA/siRNAs and efficiently deliver to Neuro-2a cells (N2a). Mn-LDHs have also shown high biocompatibility with low cytotoxicity...
August 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756088/protein-s100b-in-umbilical-cord-blood-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-asphyxiated-newborns
#16
Mehreen Zaigham, Fredrik Lundberg, Per Olofsson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition resulting from a sustained lack of oxygen during birth. The interest in identifying a relevant biomarker of HIE has thrown into limelight the role of protein S100B as a clinical diagnostic marker of hypoxic brain damage in neonates. AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic value of protein S100B, measured in umbilical cord blood immediately after birth, as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIE Sarnat stages II-III as well as a marker for long-term mortality and morbidity...
September 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747447/long-term-aids-related-pcnsl-outcomes-with-hd-mtx-and-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Antoine Moulignier, Cédric Lamirel, Hervé Picard, Marie-Gisèle Lebrette, Corinne Amiel, Mohammed Hamidi, Marc Polivka, Jacqueline Mikol, Isabelle Cochereau, Gilles Pialoux
OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients with AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma (AR-PCNSL) in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era systematically treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed (intention-to-treat analysis) 51 consecutive patients with AR-PCNSL (median age 39 years) who were diagnosed from 1996 to 2014 and treated with a median of 6 (range 1-15) infusions of HD-MTX (3 g/m(2)) combined with cART...
July 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743344/-experimental-animal-study-of-cerebral-oxygen-metabolism-changes-during-the-process-of-brain-death
#18
Huaying Qi, Chenguang Wan, Xuequan Feng, Mu Li, Li Chen, Yongqiang Wang, Yuan Shi, Lei Liu, Zhongyang Shen
OBJECTIVE: To reproduce a stable animal model of brain death in pigs, observe the change regularity of cerebral oxygen metabolism during the process of brain death, and to evaluate the significance and value of cerebral oxygen metabolism parameters for the diagnosis of brain death. METHODS: Twelve landrace pigs were used to create the brain death models using modified method of increasing epidural intracranial pressure (ICP). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ICP were monitored continuously during the process...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739114/ethical-and-medical-management-of-a-pregnant-woman-with-brain-stem-death-resulting-in-delivery-of-a-healthy-child-and-organ-donation
#19
A Gopčević, B Rode, M Vučić, A Horvat, M Širanović, Ž Gavranović, V Košec, A Košec
Maternal brain death during pregnancy remains an exceedingly complex situation that requires not only a well-considered medical management plan, but also careful decision-making in a legally and ethically delicate situation. Management of brain dead pregnant patients needs to adhere to special strategies that support the mother in a way that she can deliver a viable and healthy child. Brain death in pregnant women is very rare, with only a few published cases. We present a case of a pregnant woman with previously diagnosed multiple brain cavernomas that led to intracranial hemorrhage and brain stem death during the 21st week of pregnancy...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735983/factors-influencing-the-willingness-of-allied-health-students-to-donate-organs-or-tissues
#20
S H Elsafi, M M Al-Adwani, K M Al-Jubran, M M Abu Hassan, E M Al Zahrani
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of patients waiting for organ transplantation. METHODS: A questionnaire on knowledge and attitude toward organ donation was completed by 434 allied health students. RESULTS: Overall knowledge about the various aspects of organ donation was adequate and was higher among women and clinical students. Although the majority were willing to be living donors for their families, very few students supported deceased organ donation, and even fewer of them had thought about an organ donation card...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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