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Diagnosis of brain death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471249/post-mortem-biochemistry-of-nse-and-s100b-a-supplemental-tool-for-detecting-a-lethal-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469695/cutaneous-balamuthia-mandrillaris-infection-as-a-precursor-to-balamuthia-amoebic-encephalitis-bae-in-a-healthy-84-year-old-californian
#2
Larisa M Lehmer, Gabriel E Ulibarri, Bruce D Ragsdale, James Kunkle
Soil and freshwater-dwelling amoebae may opportunistically infect the skin and evoke a granulomatous dermatitis that camouflages their underlying morphology. Amoebic infestations are incredibly rare in the U.S., predominantly occurring in the young, elderly, and immunocompromised. Sadly, because diagnosis is difficult and unsuspected, most cases are diagnosed at autopsy. The following case is of a healthy 84-year-old man with a non-healing nodulo-ulcerative cutaneous lesion on his left forearm that appeared following a gardening injury...
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468099/effect-of-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-and-programmed-cell-death-1-receptor-antagonists-on-metastatic-melanoma
#3
Nathan Nordmann, Molly Hubbard, Tyler Nordmann, Paul W Sperduto, H Brent Clark, Matthew A Hunt
Learning objectives To evaluate radiation-induced changes in patients with brain metastasis secondary to malignant melanoma who received treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor antagonists. Introduction  Stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapeutics are used together for treatment of metastatic melanoma and have been linked to delayed radiation-induced vasculitic leukoencephalopathy (DRIVL). There have been reports of more intense interactions with new immunotherapeutics targeting PD-1 receptors, but their interactions have not been well described and may result in an accelerated response to GKRS...
December 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467947/metformin-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-like-process-and-stem-like-properties-in-gbm-via-akt-mtor-zeb1-pathway
#4
Yang Song, Yong Chen, Yunqian Li, Xiaoyan Lyu, Jiayue Cui, Ye Cheng, Liyan Zhao, Gang Zhao
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive brain tumor in adults. In spite of advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still relatively poor. The invasive property of GBM is the major cause of death in patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like process (EMT-like process) is considered to play an important role in the invasive property. Metformin has been reported as a regulator of EMT-like process. In this study, we confirmed that metformin inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT-like process and EMT-associated migration and invasion in LN18 and U87 GBM cells...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456899/facial-weakness-diplopia-and-fever-in-a-31-year-old-an-atypical-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#5
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429858/-neuropathology-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-proposal-of-a-protocol-for-neuropathological-examination
#6
Clémence Delteil, David Meyronet, Andre Maues de Paula, Anne Jouvet, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
According to the French High Authority for Health, sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) is defined as "a sudden death that occurs in an infant, whereas nothing in its known history could have predicted it". This is an exclusion diagnosis. There are great interregional disparities despite the professional recommendations established in February 2007. For the examination of the brain, instructions are not adapted to current and research practice. The role of the pathologist, like anyone involved in SUDI, is to eliminate an abuse head trauma and to determine the cause of death...
February 8, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427116/stem-cell-based-therapies-for-polyglutamine-diseases
#7
Liliana S Mendonça, Isabel Onofre, Catarina Oliveira Miranda, Rita Perfeito, Clévio Nóbrega, Luís Pereira de Almeida
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a family of neurodegenerative disorders with very heterogeneous clinical presentations, although with common features such as progressive neuronal death. Thus, at the time of diagnosis patients might present an extensive and irreversible neuronal death demanding cell replacement or support provided by cell-based therapies. For this purpose stem cells, which include diverse populations ranging from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), to fetal stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have remarkable potential to promote extensive brain regeneration and recovery in neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422016/malignancy-during-pregnancy-in-japan-an-exceptional-opportunity-for-early-diagnosis
#8
Masayuki Sekine, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Tsutomu Tabata, Tamotsu Sudo, Ryuichiro Nishimura, Koji Matsuo, Brendan H Grubbs, Takayuki Enomoto, Tomoaki Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Malignancy during pregnancy has become a significant cause of maternal death in developed countries, likely due to both an older pregnant population, and increases of cervical cancer in younger women. Our aim is to investigate the clinical aspects of malignancy during pregnancy in Japan and to use this information to identify opportunities for earlier detection and treatment. METHODS: We provided a questionnaire to 1508 secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Japan...
February 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420861/do-subjects-with-minimal-motor-features-have-prodromal-pd
#9
Yaping Chu, Aron S Buchman, C W Olanow, Jeffrey H Kordower
BACKGROUND: Understanding the pathological changes underlying mild motor features of the eldery and defining a patient population with prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) are of great clinical importance. It remains unclear, however, how to accurately and specifically diagnose prodromal PD. We examined whether older adults with minimal parkinsonian motor features have nigrostriatal degeneration and α-synuclein pathology consistent with prodromal PD. METHODS: Brain sections were obtained from older adults with a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=21) and without a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=27) who underwent motor examination proximate to death...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414911/with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-the-role-of-intraoperative-fluorescent-dyes-in-the-surgical-management-of-high-grade-gliomas
#10
REVIEW
Rosario Maugeri, Alessandro Villa, Mariangela Pino, Alessia Imperato, Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva, Gabriele Costantino, Francesca Graziano, Carlo Gulì, Francesco Meli, Natale Francaviglia, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most frequent primary malignant brain tumors in adults, which lead to death within two years of diagnosis. Maximal safe resection of malignant gliomas as the first step of multimodal therapy is an accepted goal in malignant glioma surgery. Gross total resection has an important role in improving overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), but identification of tumor borders is particularly difficult in HGGS. For this reason, imaging adjuncts, such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or fluorescein sodium (FS) have been proposed as superior strategies for better defining the limits of surgical resection for HGG...
February 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406887/serum-levels-of-s100b-from-jugular-bulb-as-a-biomarker-of-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-severe-acute-brain-injury
#11
María A Ballesteros, María I Rubio-Lopez, María San Martín, Ana Padilla, Marcos López-Hoyos, Javier Llorca, Eduardo Miñambres
AIMS/BACKGROUND: To evaluate the correlation between protein S100B concentrations measured in the jugular bulb as well as at peripheral level and the prognostic usefulness of this marker. METHODS: A prospective study of all patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute brain damage was carried out. Peripheral and jugular bulb blood samples were collected upon admission and every 24h for three days. The endpoints were brain death diagnosis and the Glasgow Outcome Scale score after 6months...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405355/cortisol-evaluation-during-the-acute-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-study
#12
Meriem Bensalah, Malcolm Donaldson, Yamina Aribi, Malek Iabassen, Lyes Cherfi, Mustapha Nebbal, Meriem Medjaher, ElMehdi Haffaf, Benaissa Abdennebi, Mustapha Guenane, Adel Djermane, Zahra Kemali, Samia OuldKablia
BACKGROUND: Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI) AIM: to assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 a.m. serum cortisol measurement during the acute post injury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402984/clinical-pathological-study-on-%C3%AE-app-il-1%C3%AE-gfap-nfl-spectrin%C3%A2-ii-8ohdg-tunel-mir-21-mir-16-mir-92-expressions-to-verify-dai-diagnosis-grade-and-prognosis
#13
Enrica Pinchi, Alessandro Frati, Luigi Cipolloni, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Vittorio Gatto, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Pesce, Alessandro Santurro, Flavia Fraschetti, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important death and disability cause, involving substantial costs, also in economic terms, when considering the young age of the involved subject. Aim of this paper is to report a series of patients treated at our institutions, to verify neurological results at six months or survival; in fatal cases we searched for βAPP, GFAP, IL-1β, NFL, Spectrin II, TUNEL and miR-21, miR-16, and miR-92 expressions in brain samples, to verify DAI diagnosis and grade as strong predictor of survival and inflammatory response...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398800/role-of-baalc-gene-in-prognosis-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-egyptian-children
#14
Adel A Hagag, Walid A Elshehaby, Nahd M Hablas, Mohamed M Abdelmageed, Amal Ezzat Abd El-Lateef
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by excess bone marrow lymphoblast cell production. Brain and Acute Leukemia Cytoplasmic gene (BAALC gene) is a recently identified gene on chromosome 8q22.3. The aim of this work was to study the role of BAALC gene in prognosis of ALL in Egyptian children. This study was conducted on 60 children with ALL who were admitted in Oncology Unit in the period from January 2012 to March 2015 including 36 males and 24 females with mean age of 8.74 ± 2.66 years. For all patients the following were done: Full history taking, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including: complete blood count, LDH, bone marrow aspiration, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, FISH technique for detection of t(12;21) and t(9;22) and assessment of BAALC gene expression by PCR in bone marrow aspirate mononuclear cells at diagnosis before chemotherapy...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398674/canine-case-of-swallowing-syncope-that-improved-after-pacemaker-implantation
#15
Ryuji Fukushima, Toshiki Araie, Naoaki Itou, Takae Kawaguchi, Shusaku Yamada, Aritada Yoshimura, Seijirow Goya, Kazumi Shimada, Tsuyoshi Uchide, Miori Kishimoto, Noboru Machida
A 14-year-old intact male West Highland White Terrier weighing 6.9 kg was admitted to the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Animal Medical Center with the complaint of syncope after showing signs of nausea during feeding. Sinus arrest induced by deglutition was confirmed using a Holter electrocardiography test. However, the clinical symptoms significantly improved after implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Seven months after implantation, the dog died from acute pancreatitis, a cause unrelated to the syncope...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397313/ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-bahir-dar-ethiopia-a-retrospective-hospital-based-study
#16
Samson Getachew Erkabu, Yinager Agedie, Dereje Desta Mihretu, Akiberet Semere, Yihun Mulugeta Alemu
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of stroke in sub-Saharan countries is poorly characterized because of lack of population-based studies and national vital statistics systems with complete death registration. OBJECTIVE: To describe risk factors, clinical presentations, the pattern of brain insult, and outcomes of stroke patients admitted to a hospital in Ethiopia. METHOD: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted on 508 patients, 303 of whom had computed tomography proven stroke, who were admitted to medical wards of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar Ethiopia, from February 2014 to August 2016...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390184/progress-and-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-of-dementia-a-critical-review
#17
Maria Paraskevaidi, Pierre L Martin-Hirsch, Francis Luke Martin
Longer life expectancies have led to an increased number of neurodegenerative disease cases globally. Accurate diagnosis of this devastating disorder is of crucial importance but is still feasible only by a brain biopsy after death. An enormous amount of attention and research has been in place over the years towards the better understanding of the mechanisms, as well as the early diagnosis, of neurodegeneration. However, numerous studies have been contradictory from time to time, while new diagnostic methods are constantly developed in a tireless effort to tackle the disease...
February 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386275/risk-for-injuries-and-accidents-in-epilepsy-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Benno Mahler, Sofia Carlsson, Tomas Andersson, Torbjörn Tomson
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk for injuries/accidents in people with newly diagnosed epileptic seizures in relation to comorbidities. METHODS: Between September 1, 2001, and August 31, 2008, individuals in northern Stockholm with incident unprovoked seizures (epilepsy; n = 2,130) were included in a registry. For every epilepsy patient, 8 individuals matched for sex and inclusion year (n = 16,992) were randomly selected as references from the population of the catchment area...
January 31, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380664/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-as-a-rare-phenotype-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#19
Joanna Bielewicz, Anna Szczepańska-Szerej, Magdalena Ogórek, Piotr Dropko, Katarzyna Wojtal, Konrad Rejdak
We reported the case of a patient with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKs) as an early clinical manifestation of sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (sCJD). The 66-year-old female complained of dizziness and imbalance which mostly occurred while walking. A neurological examination revealed a triad of symptoms characteristic for WKs such as gaze paresis, ataxia of limbs and trunk as well as memory disturbances with confabulations. The disturbances increased during the course of the disease, which led to the death of the patient four months after the appearance of the signs...
January 30, 2018: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374607/incidence-comorbidities-and-mortality-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#20
Okko T Pyykkö, Ossi Nerg, Hanna-Mari Niskasaari, Timo Niskasaari, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Tuomas Rauramaa, Maria Kojoukhova, Irina Alafuzoff, Hilkka Soininen, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECT: To investigate incidence, comorbidities, mortality, and causes of death in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). METHODS: A cohort of 536 patients with possible NPH from a defined population with a median follow-up time of 5.1 years (range 0.04-19.9) was included in the study. Patients were evaluated by brain imaging and intraventricular pressure monitoring with a brain biopsy immunostained against amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau. Hospital records were reviewed for vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
January 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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