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Applying wisdom

Jiang Xie, Junfu Xu, Celine Nie, Qing Nie
Every performance, in an officially sanctioned meet, by a registered USA swimmer is recorded into an online database with times dating back to 1980. For the first time, statistical analysis and machine learning methods are systematically applied to 4,022,631 swim records. In this study, we investigate performance features for all strokes as a function of age and gender. The variances in performance of males and females for different ages and strokes were studied, and the correlations of performances for different ages were estimated using the Pearson correlation...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Wolf E Hautz, Gert Krummrey, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Stefanie C Hautz
CONTEXT: Conventional wisdom has it that everyone on earth is on average only six steps away from knowing any other person through 'a friend of a friend'. On a local level, however, many people experience that most of their acquaintances know each other. It is thus hard to imagine how such a highly clustered group could be so well connected to the rest of the world. In this paper, we investigate how co-authorship connects scholars in medical education and whether the six degrees of separation hypothesis also applies to the network of authors in the field...
December 2016: Medical Education
Susan A Matney, Kay Avant, Nancy Staggers
As nurses, we seek to better understand how to gain nursing ‘wisdom’ and apply this wisdom in our daily practice. Yet the concept and experience of ‘wisdom in nursing practice’ has not been well defined. This article addresses wisdom-in-action for nursing practice. We briefly describe nursing theory, review the wisdom literature as presented in various disciplines, and identify characteristics of wisdom by analyzing four models of wisdom from other disciplines. We also present the ten antecedents of wisdom and the ten characteristics of wisdom identified in our analysis of the wisdom literature, discuss and summarize these antecedents, and conclude that understanding these ten antecedents and the ten characteristics of wisdom-in-action can both help nurses demonstrate wisdom as they provide nursing care and teach new nurses the process of becoming wise in nursing practice...
October 30, 2015: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Ethan C Hill, Kristen C Cochrane, Amelia A Miramonti, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson
The purposes of the present study were to apply a unique method for the identification of the time course of changes in neuromuscular responses and to infer the motor unit activation strategies used to maintain force during a fatiguing, intermittent isometric workbout. Eleven men performed 50, 6 s intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, each separated by 2 s of rest at 60% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (root mean square; RMS) and frequency (mean power frequency; MPF) were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) every 5 of the 50 repetitions and normalized as a percent of the initial repetition...
October 18, 2016: Physiological Measurement
Vincent Ng, Mengyang Cao, Herbert W Marsh, Louis Tay, Martin E P Seligman
The factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) has not been well established as a result of methodological challenges primarily attributable to a global positivity factor, item cross-loading across character strengths, and questions concerning the unidimensionality of the scales assessing character strengths. We sought to overcome these methodological challenges by applying exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) at the item level using a bifactor analytic approach to a large sample of 447,573 participants who completed the VIA-IS with all 240 character strengths items and a reduced set of 107 unidimensional character strength items...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Hsin-Yung Chen, Hsiang Yang, Ling-Fu Meng, Pei-Ying Sarah Chan, Chia-Yen Yang, Hsin-Ming Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Deep pressure input is used to normalize physiological arousal due to stress. Wisdom tooth surgery is an invasive dental procedure with high stress levels, and an alleviation strategy is rarely applied during extraction. In this study, we investigated the effects of deep pressure input on autonomic responses to wisdom tooth extraction in healthy adults. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, crossover design was used for dental patients who were allocated to experimental and control groups that received treatment with or without deep pressure input, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Kangmook Lim, Chad Ropp, Sabyasachi Barik, John Fourkas, Benjamin Shapiro, Edo Waks
Single-emitter microscopy has emerged as a promising method of imaging nanostructures with nanoscale resolution. This technique uses the centroid position of an emitter's far-field radiation pattern to infer its position to a precision that is far below the diffraction limit. However, nanostructures composed of high-dielectric materials such as noble metals can distort the far-field radiation pattern. Previous work has shown that these distortions can significantly degrade the imaging of the local density of states in metallic nanowires using polarization-resolved imaging...
September 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Punit Shah, Adam J L Harris, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Ulrike Hahn
Received academic wisdom holds that human judgment is characterized by unrealistic optimism, the tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events and overestimate the likelihood of positive events. With recent questions being raised over the degree to which the majority of this research genuinely demonstrates optimism, attention to possible mechanisms generating such a bias becomes ever more important. New studies have now claimed that unrealistic optimism emerges as a result of biased belief updating with distinctive neural correlates in the brain...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
May Vatne, Dagfinn Nåden
BACKGROUND: Suffering in a suicidal crisis includes feelings such as despair, loneliness, anxiety, fear, shame, guilt and hopelessness. This study highlights the experiences of patients in the aftermath of suicide attempts. The research question was, what do suicidal patients see as meaningful help in care and treatment situations? METHODOLOGY: The methodology is inspired by Gadamer's hermeneutics, where the parts are understood in light of the whole, and the whole is understood in light of the parts...
August 12, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Jacqueline A Pfaff, Birgit Boelck, Wilhelm Bloch, Georg-Hubertus Nentwig
INTRODUCTION: Enhancement of bone regeneration is crucial to dental implantology. Growth factors play a significant role during osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances bone healing; however, no studies have yet been performed in oral implantology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients who underwent bilateral mandibular wisdom tooth removal were included. ESWT was applied to 1 side of the jaw. Blood samples were collected from the peripheral vein (PB), mandibular bone marrow without and with ESWT (BM-/+SW)...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
William Kew, John B O Mitchell
The application of Machine Learning to cheminformatics is a large and active field of research, but there exist few papers which discuss whether ensembles of different Machine Learning methods can improve upon the performance of their component methodologies. Here we investigated a variety of methods, including kernel-based, tree, linear, neural networks, and both greedy and linear ensemble methods. These were all tested against a standardised methodology for regression with data relevant to the pharmaceutical development process...
September 2015: Molecular Informatics
Elizabeth P Canović, Alicia J Zollinger, Sze Nok Tam, Michael L Smith, Dimitrije Stamenović
Mammalian cells of various types exhibit the remarkable ability to adapt to externally applied mechanical stresses and strains. Because of this adaptation, cells can maintain their endogenous mechanical tension at a preferred (homeostatic) level, which is essential for normal physiological functions of cells and tissues and provides protection against various diseases, including atherosclerosis and cancer. Conventional wisdom is that the cell possesses the ability to maintain tensional homeostasis on its own...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Frank Schwarz, Andrea Schmucker, Jürgen Becker
OBJECTIVES: Recent animal studies have indicated, that tooth roots reveal a structural and biological potential to serve as alternative autografts for localized ridge augmentation. This proof-of-concept initial report aimed at investigating, whether this new surgical concept may be applied to humans. MATERIAL & METHODS: In one patient, who was in need for horizontal ridge augmentation, the roots of a retained upper wisdom tooth were separated and rigidly fixed at the defect site...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Patricia L A Leighton, W Ted Allison
Prion disease research has contributed much toward understanding other neurodegenerative diseases, including recent demonstrations that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases are prion-like. Prion-like diseases involve the spread of degeneration between individuals and/or among cells or tissues via template directed misfolding, wherein misfolded protein conformers propagate disease by causing normal proteins to misfold. Here we use the premise that AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and other similar diseases are prion-like and ask: Can we apply knowledge gained from studies of these prion-like diseases to resolve debates about classical prion diseases? We focus on controversies about what role(s) protein loss-of-function might have in prion diseases because this has therapeutic implications, including for AD...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Pamela A Juma, Shukri F Mohamed, Jennifer Wisdom, Catherine Kyobutungi, Samuel Oti
BACKGROUND: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, and there have been calls for adopting a multi-sectoral approach in developing policies and programs to address this burden. Evidence exists largely from high-income countries on the success (and lack thereof) of multi-sectoral approach in improving population level health outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is limited research on the application and success of multi-sectoral approach in the formulation and implementation of policies aimed at prevention of non-communicable diseases...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Eldon Y Li, Chen-Yuan Tung, Shu-Hsun Chang
BACKGROUND: The quest for an effective system capable of monitoring and predicting the trends of epidemic diseases is a critical issue for communities worldwide. With the prevalence of Internet access, more and more researchers today are using data from both search engines and social media to improve the prediction accuracy. In particular, a prediction market system (PMS) exploits the wisdom of crowds on the Internet to effectively accomplish relatively high accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the architecture of a PMS and demonstrates the matching mechanism of logarithmic market scoring rules...
August 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Mitsuhiro Itakura, Hideo Kaburaki, Masatake Yamaguchi, Tomohito Tsuru
Compared to cubic metals, whose primary slip mode includes twelve equivalent systems, the lower crystalline symmetry of hexagonal close-packed metals results in a reduced number of equivalent primary slips and anisotropy in plasticity, leading to brittleness at the ambient temperature. At higher temperatures, the ductility of hexagonal close-packed metals improves owing to the activation of secondary ⟨c+a⟩ pyramidal slip systems. Thus, understanding the fundamental properties of corresponding dislocations is essential for the improvement of ductility at the ambient temperature...
June 3, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Helen N Catanese, Kelly A Brayton, Assefaw H Gebremedhin
BACKGROUND: Short-sequence repeats (SSRs) occur in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA, inter- and intragenically, and may be exact or inexact copies. When heterogeneous SSRs are present in a given locus, we can take advantage of the pattern of different repeats to genotype strains based on the SSRs. Cataloguing and tracking these repeats can be difficult as diverse groups of researchers are involved in the identification of the repeats. Additionally, the task is error-prone when done manually...
2016: BMC Genomics
Martin Predavec, Daniel Lunney, Ben Hope, Eleanor Stalenberg, Ian Shannon, Mathew S Crowther, Indrie Miller
Scientists have traditionally collected data on whether a population is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same, but such studies are often limited by geographic scale and time frame. This means that for many species, understanding of trends comes from only part of their ranges at particular periods. Working with citizen scientists has the potential to overcome these limits. Citizen science has the added benefit of exposing citizens to the scientific process and engaging them in management outcomes. We examined a different way of using citizen scientists (instead of data collection)...
June 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Merav Rabinovich
The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
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