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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718193/metacommunity-theory-meets-restoration-isolation-may-mediate-how-ecological-communities-respond-to-stream-restoration
#1
Christopher M Swan, Bryan L Brown
An often-cited benefit of river restoration is an increase in biodiversity or shift in composition to more desirable taxa. Yet, hard manipulations of habitat structure often fail to elicit a significant response in terms of biodiversity patterns. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the dispersal of organisms may have as large an influence on biodiversity patterns as environmental conditions. This influence of dispersal may be particularly influential in river networks which are linear branching, or dendritic, and thus constrain most dispersal to the river corridor...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606870/a-deep-learning-approach-for-predicting-the-quality-of-online-health-expert-question-answering-services
#2
Ze Hu, Zhan Zhang, Haiqin Yang, Qing Chen, Decheng Zuo
Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd...
July 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569542/-racial-bias-in-mock-juror-decision-making-a-meta-analytic-review-of-defendant-treatment-correction-to-mitchell-et-al-2005
#3
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner (Law and Human Behavior, 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included...
June 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525303/low-level-laser-therapy-after-wisdom-teeth-surgery-evaluation-of-immunologic-markers-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-and-lysozyme-levels-and-thermographic-examination-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Tatjana Dostalova, Veronika Kroulikova, Stepan Podzimek, Helena Jelinková
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this investigation is to analyze the effect of therapeutic low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to have a possibility to check pain and inflammation connected with surgical removal of impacted lower third molars in general anesthesia or even phobia [not accompanied by pain or fear of dental treatment, using immunologic markers-secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lysozyme]. The healing process was also monitored by infrared thermography. BACKGROUND DATA: LLLT can accelerate the proliferation phase of healing and decrease the inflammatory reaction, but the effect is not really clear...
May 16, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490500/the-wisdom-of-crowds-for-visual-search
#5
Mordechai Z Juni, Miguel P Eckstein
Decision-making accuracy typically increases through collective integration of people's judgments into group decisions, a phenomenon known as the wisdom of crowds. For simple perceptual laboratory tasks, classic signal detection theory specifies the upper limit for collective integration benefits obtained by weighted averaging of people's confidences, and simple majority voting can often approximate that limit. Life-critical perceptual decisions often involve searching large image data (e.g., medical, security, and aerial imagery), but the expected benefits and merits of using different pooling algorithms are unknown for such tasks...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452643/the-effects-of-the-more-wisdom-resources-on-spousal-caregivers-life-satisfaction-an-application-of-the-resilience-model
#6
Seungyoun Kim, Bob G Knight
OBJECTIVES: Models of resilience suggest that psychosocial resources and their interactions facilitate resilience while experiencing life challenges of caregiving. The MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, Reflective attitude, and Emotion regulation) have been suggested as possible personal resources of resilience that predict positive health outcomes of caregivers. Applying a model of resilience, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of the three of the MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, and Emotion regulation) on caregiving spouses' life satisfaction and perceived physical health...
July 7, 2016: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444384/e-science-technologies-in-a-workflow-for-personalized-medicine-using-cancer-screening-as-a-case-study
#7
Ola Spjuth, Andreas Karlsson, Mark Clements, Keith Humphreys, Emma Ivansson, Jim Dowling, Martin Eklund, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Kamila Czene, Henrik Grönberg, Pär Sparén, Fredrik Wiklund, Abbas Cheddad, Þorgerður Pálsdóttir, Mattias Rantalainen, Linda Abrahamsson, Erwin Laure, Jan-Eric Litton, Juni Palmgren
Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings. Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341637/the-tax-exclusion-for-employer-sponsored-insurance-is-not-regressive-but-what-is-it
#8
Joseph White
Conventional wisdom says that the tax exclusion for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) is "regressive and therefore unfair." Yet, by the standard definition of regressive tax policy, the conventional view is almost certainly false. It confuses the absolute size of the tax exclusion with its proportional effect on income. The error results from paying attention only to the marginal tax rate applied to ESI benefits as a portion of income and ignoring the fact that benefits are normally a much larger share of income for people with lower wages...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332881/an-individualized-approach-to-the-evaluation-and-management-of-primary-aldosteronism
#9
Anand Vaidya, Carl D Malchoff, Richard J Auchus
OBJECTIVE: With the increased emphasis on personalized and individualized medicine, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Adrenal Scientific Committee has developed a series of articles to update members on personalized medicine as it applies to adrenal diseases. METHODS: We synthesized literature reviews, guidelines from professional societies, and personal experience. RESULTS: Since Conn described primary aldosteronism (PA) over 60 years ago, debate has raged about the prevalence of PA in the hypertensive population, the wisdom of broadly screening for PA, and prudent approaches to evaluate and manage these patients...
June 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328870/the-effect-of-early-life-experience-environment-and-genetic-factors-on-spontaneous-home-cage-aggression-related-wounding-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Brianna N Gaskill, Aurora M Stottler, Joseph P Garner, Christina W Winnicker, Guy B Mulder, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
Aggression is a major welfare issue in mice, particularly when mice unfamiliar to each other are first placed in cages, as happens on receipt from a vendor, and following cage cleaning. Injuries from aggression are the second leading cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice, following ulcerative dermatitis. Commonly employed strategies for reducing aggression-related injury are largely anecdotal, and may even be counterproductive. Here we report a series of experiments testing potential explanations and interventions for post-shipping aggression-related injuries in C57BL/6 mice...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328209/multidk-a-multiple-descriptor-multiple-kernel-approach-for-molecular-discovery-and-its-application-to-organic-flow-battery-electrolytes
#11
Sungjin Kim, Adrián Jinich, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
We propose a multiple descriptor multiple kernel (MultiDK) method for efficient molecular discovery using machine learning. We show that the MultiDK method improves both the speed and accuracy of molecular property prediction. We apply the method to the discovery of electrolyte molecules for aqueous redox flow batteries. Using multiple-type-as opposed to single-type-descriptors, we obtain more relevant features for machine learning. Following the principle of "wisdom of the crowds", the combination of multiple-type descriptors significantly boosts prediction performance...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253883/systematic-development-and-implementation-of-interventions-to-optimise-health-literacy-and-access-ophelia
#12
Alison Beauchamp, Roy W Batterham, Sarity Dodson, Brad Astbury, Gerald R Elsworth, Crystal McPhee, Jeanine Jacobson, Rachelle Buchbinder, Richard H Osborne
BACKGROUND: The need for healthcare strengthening to enhance equity is critical, requiring systematic approaches that focus on those experiencing lesser access and outcomes. This project developed and tested the Ophelia (OPtimising HEalth LIteracy and Access) approach for co-design of interventions to improve health literacy and equity of access. Eight principles guided this development: Outcomes focused; Equity driven, Needs diagnosis, Co-design, Driven by local wisdom, Sustainable, Responsive and Systematically applied...
March 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245078/identification-of-huoshan-shihu-fengdou-comparative-authentication-of-the-daodi-herb-dendrobium-huoshanense-and-its-related-species-by-macroscopic-and-microscopic-features
#13
Yujiao Zhao, Bangxing Han, Huasheng Peng, Xiao Wang, Shanshan Chu, Jun Dai, Daiyin Peng
"Huoshan shihu," derived from Dendrobium huoshanense, is a well-known, valuable, and rare Daodi herb. Because of its higher price and scarce resources, its related species D. officinale and D. moniliforme are usually presented as "Huoshan shihu" for sale. Fengdou, the processed form of D. huoshanense, its identification is particularly important. To effectively identify Fengdou of D. huoshanense and protect the Daodi herb, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the stems of three Dendrobium species were examined...
February 28, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167340/knowledge-and-power-in-policy-making-for-child-survival-in-niger
#14
Sarah L Dalglish, Daniela C Rodríguez, Abdoutan Harouna, Pamela J Surkan
Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality...
January 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144974/thinking-about-the-patient-s-wishes-practical-wisdom-of-discharge-planning-nurses-in-assisting-surrogate-decision-making
#15
Yoko Kageyama, Midori Asano
BACKGROUND: The accelerating trend towards shorter hospital stays in Japan has made modes of decision-making essential for effective patient transition from the hospital to recuperation in the regional community, and the ageing of the population has brought a rise in surrogate decision-making by the families of patients lacking decision-making ('self-decision') capacity. AIM: To verbalise and elucidate the practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses by focusing on the perceptions and judgements, they apply in practice and describing their methodology in concrete terms...
January 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128245/a-solution-to-the-single-question-crowd-wisdom-problem
#16
Dražen Prelec, H Sebastian Seung, John McCoy
Once considered provocative, the notion that the wisdom of the crowd is superior to any individual has become itself a piece of crowd wisdom, leading to speculation that online voting may soon put credentialed experts out of business. Recent applications include political and economic forecasting, evaluating nuclear safety, public policy, the quality of chemical probes, and possible responses to a restless volcano. Algorithms for extracting wisdom from the crowd are typically based on a democratic voting procedure...
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116438/-comparison-of-minimally-invasive-extraction-and-traditional-method-in-the-extraction-of-impacted-mandibular-third-molar
#17
Fang Xu, Hui-Xia Zhang
PURPOSE: To compare minimally invasive extraction and traditional method in the extraction of impacted mandibular third molar. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients with impacted mandibular third molar were equally divided into two groups. Patients in the experimental group were treated with minimally invasive extraction, using implant machine and luxator, while patients in the control group were treated with traditional methods including use of orthodox chisel...
October 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090681/excess-of-exercise-increases-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#18
REVIEW
A Müssigbrodt, A Weber, J Mandrola, Y van Belle, S Richter, M Döring, A Arya, P Sommer, A Bollmann, G Hindricks
An interesting and still not well-understood example for old medical wisdom "Sola dosis facit venenum" is the increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in athletes. Numerous studies have shown a fourfold to eightfold increased risk of AF in athletes compared to the normal population. Analysis of the existing data suggests a dose-dependent effect of exercise. Moderate exercise seems to have a protective effect and decreases the risk of AF, whereas excessive exercise seems to increase the risk of AF. The described cases illustrate clinical manifestations within the spectrum of AF in elderly athletes, that is, exercise-induced AF, vagal AF, chronic AF, and atrial flutter...
September 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057049/combined-use-of-the-consolidated-framework-for-implementation-research-cfir-and-the-theoretical-domains-framework-tdf-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Sarah A Birken, Byron J Powell, Justin Presseau, M Alexis Kirk, Fabiana Lorencatto, Natalie J Gould, Christopher M Shea, Bryan J Weiner, Jill J Francis, Yan Yu, Emily Haines, Laura J Damschroder
BACKGROUND: Over 60 implementation frameworks exist. Using multiple frameworks may help researchers to address multiple study purposes, levels, and degrees of theoretical heritage and operationalizability; however, using multiple frameworks may result in unnecessary complexity and redundancy if doing so does not address study needs. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) are both well-operationalized, multi-level implementation determinant frameworks derived from theory...
January 5, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056403/being-smart-about-writing-smart-objectives
#20
May Britt Bjerke, Ralph Renger
This article challenges the conventional wisdom in mainstream evaluation regarding the process for developing specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives. The article notes several advantages of mainstreaming the SMART method including program capacity building and being able to independently monitor progress toward process and outcome objectives. It is argued the one size fits all approach for writing SMART objectives is misleading. The context in which the evaluation is conducted is a key deciding factor in how and when the SMART criteria should be applied...
December 23, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
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