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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527379/diagnosing-water-security-in-the-rural-north-with-an-environmental-security-framework
#1
Henry J F Penn, Philip A Loring, William E Schnabel
This study explores the nature of water security challenges in rural Alaska, using a framework for environmental security that entails four interrelated concepts: availability, access, utility, and stability of water resources. Many researchers and professionals agree that water insecurity is a problem in rural Alaska, although the scale and nature of the problem is contested. Some academics have argued that the problem is systemic, and rooted in an approach to water security by the state that prioritizes economic concerns over public health concerns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#2
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527375/surfactant-enhanced-remediation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Shanti Lamichhane, K C Bal Krishna, Ranjan Sarukkalige
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds that are widely present in the environment. The bioremediation of PAHs is an economical and environmentally friendly remediation technique, but it is limited because PAHs have low water solubility and fewer bioavailable properties. The solubility and bioavailability of PAHs can be increased by using surfactants to reduce surface tension and interfacial tension; this method is called surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#4
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527066/community-pharmacies-as-epidemiological-sentinels-of-headache-first-experience-in-italy
#5
Paola Brusa, Marco Parente, Gianni Allais, Sara Rolando, Giuseppe Costa, Roberto Gnavi, Teresa Spadea, Mario Giaccone, Andrea Mandelli, Massimo Mana, Francesca Baratta, Chiara Benedetto, Gennaro Bussone
Migraine is a disabling neurovascular syndrome which affects 12-15% of the global population and it represents the third cause in years lived with disability in both males and females aged 15-49 years. Among migraineurs, the symptomatic drug abuse may be a risk factor in the development of medication overuse headache (MOH). Detecting cases of MOH is not straightforward; community pharmacists may, therefore, be in a strategic position to identify individuals who self-medicate, particularly with respect to prevent the development of MOH...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527015/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-the-genomic-region-associated-with-shell-color-in-yesso-scallop-patinopecten-yessoensis
#6
Liang Zhao, Yangping Li, Yajuan Li, Jiachen Yu, Huan Liao, Shuyue Wang, Jia Lv, Jun Liang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
The shell color polymorphism widely exists in economic shellfish, which not only results in a better visual perception but also shows great value as an economic trait for breeding. Small numbers of reddish-orange shell Yesso scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, were found in cultured populations compared to the brown majority. In this study, a genome-wide association study was conducted to understand the genetic basis of shell color. Sixty-six 2b-RAD libraries with equal numbers of reddish-orange and brown shell individuals were constructed and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform...
May 19, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526953/mutual-interference-between-adult-females-of-galendromus-flumenis-acari-phytoseiidae-feeding-on-eggs-of-banks-grass-mite-decreases-predation-efficiency-and-increases-emigration-rate
#7
Fatemeh Ganjisaffar, Gösta Nachman, Thomas M Perring
The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) causes significant damage to dates in California (USA), if not controlled. Studies are underway to develop biological control strategies against this pest in dates using the predatory mite Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). In California date gardens, this predator is found in low numbers that are insufficient for the economic suppression of Banks grass mites, and our research aims to understand why it fails to keep up with prey densities...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526911/dynamics-of-post-translationally-modified-histones-during-barley-pollen-embryogenesis-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-epi-drug-trichostatin-a
#8
Pooja Pandey, Diaa S Daghma, Andreas Houben, Jochen Kumlehn, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten
Improving pollen embryogenesis. Despite the agro-economic importance of pollen embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. We describe the dynamics of chromatin modifications (histones H3K4me2, H3K9ac, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3) and chromatin marks (RNA polymerase II CDC phospho-Ser5, and CENH3) during barley pollen embryogenesis. Immunolabeling results show that, in reaction to stress, immature pollen rapidly starts reorganizing several important chromatin modifications indicative of a change in cell fate...
May 19, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526899/electricity-generation-from-real-industrial-wastewater-using-a-single-chamber-air-cathode-microbial-fuel-cell-with-an-activated-carbon-anode
#9
Hend Omar Mohamed, M Obaid, Enas Taha Sayed, Yang Liu, Jinpyo Lee, Mira Park, Nasser A M Barakat, Hak Yong Kim
This study introduces activated carbon (AC) as an effective anode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using real industrial wastewater without treatment or addition of external microorganism mediators. Inexpensive activated carbon is introduced as a proper electrode alternative to carbon cloth and carbon paper materials, which are considered too expensive for the large-scale application of MFCs. AC has a porous interconnected structure with a high bio-available surface area. The large surface area, in addition to the high macro porosity, facilitates the high performance by reducing electron transfer resistance...
May 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526844/identification-of-extracellular-glycerophosphodiesterases-in-pseudomonas-and-their-role-in-soil-organic-phosphorus-remineralisation
#10
Ian D E A Lidbury, Andrew R J Murphy, Tandra D Fraser, Gary D Bending, Alexandra M E Jones, Jonathan D Moore, Andrew Goodall, Mark Tibbett, John P Hammond, David J Scanlan, Elizabeth M H Wellington
In soils, phosphorus (P) exists in numerous organic and inorganic forms. However, plants can only acquire inorganic orthophosphate (Pi), meaning global crop production is frequently limited by P availability. To overcome this problem, rock phosphate fertilisers are heavily applied, often with negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. The organic P fraction of soil contains phospholipids that are rapidly degraded resulting in the release of bioavailable Pi. However, the mechanisms behind this process remain unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#11
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526778/nudges-in-a-post-truth-world
#12
Neil Levy
Nudges-policy proposals informed by work in behavioural economics and psychology that are designed to lead to better decision-making or better behaviour-are controversial. Critics allege that they bypass our deliberative capacities, thereby undermining autonomy and responsible agency. In this paper, I identify a kind of nudge I call a nudge to reason, which make us more responsive to genuine evidence. I argue that at least some nudges to reason do not bypass our deliberative capacities. Instead, use of these nudges should be seen as appeals to mechanisms partially constitutive of these capacities, and therefore as benign (so far as autonomy and responsible agency are concerned)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526721/health-care-resource-utilization-and-associated-costs-among-metastatic-cutaneous-melanoma-patients-treated-with-ipilimumab-intuition-study
#13
Grant A McArthur, Peter Mohr, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Ana Arance, Ana Banos Hernaez, Peter Kaskel, Michael Weichenthal, Reshma Shinde, Kendall Stevinson
BACKGROUND: There are limited real-world data on health care resource utilization (HCRU) among advanced melanoma patients. The objective of this study was to describe HCRU and health care costs associated with the management of advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab. METHODS: This retrospective multinational, observational study included advanced melanoma patients from Australia, Germany, Italy, and Spain who had received at least 1 dose of ipilimumab. Data extracted from medical charts included inpatient admissions, outpatient visits, surgical procedures, laboratory investigations, radiation therapy, imaging studies, and concomitant medications...
May 19, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526581/a-novel-mouse-model-of-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-induced-by-immunization-of-special-peptide-fragment-with-aluminum-hydroxide-adjuvant
#14
Farhan Ullah Khan, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Waqas Nawaz, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Mengqi Yang, Gang Wang, Xiaoqian Liao, Lei Han, Xiaohui Zhou
OBJECTIVES: CP/CPPS is a commonly observed distress in male patients. Because of its little-known etiology, no effective therapy has been developed which has promising outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid model which can mimic the etiology of CP/CPPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly and averagely divided into 5 groups of 10 mice each. The control group was injected with 0.9% NaCl solution. Aluminum hydroxide and T2 groups were injected with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and T2 peptide...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526481/randomised-control-trial-of-the-impact-of-a-brief-tele-support-intervention-on-initial-attendance-at-physiotherapy-group-sessions-for-pelvic-floor-problems
#15
Lisa A Osborne, C Mair Whittall, Ruth Emanuel, Simon Emery, Phil Reed
OBJECTIVE: To assesses the efficacy of a brief telephone call to patients on a waiting list for physiotherapy treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction on initial attendance. DESIGN: A three-armed randomized control study. SETTING: An outpatient physiotherapy clinic at a hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 130 consecutively referred women patients (mean age of 51.47, range = 26-84) with a variety of pelvic floor dysfunction problems...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526428/extensively-drug-resistant-bacteria-which-ethical-issues
#16
P Vassal, P Berthelot, J P Chaussinand, S Jay, J P de Filippis, C Auboyer, F Renoux, D Bedoin
OBJECTIVE: The increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has now become a public health concern. How can we preserve the well-being of patients presenting with infections caused by extensively drug-resistant bacteria (EDRBs) and that of their contacts without inducing any loss of chance of survival, all the while living together and controlling the spread of these EDRBs? METHOD: Terre d'éthique, a French territorial ethics committee, was asked to reflect on this topic by the infection control unit of a French University Hospital as it raises many ethical issues...
May 16, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526379/the-polish-intestinal-failure-centres-consensus-on-the-use-of-teduglutide-for-the-treatment-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#17
Stanisław Klek, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Konrad Matysiak, Katarzyna Karwowska, Krystyna Urbanowicz
OBJECTIVE: Teduglutide is an active, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 analog with proven clinical efficacy regarding intestinal adaptation in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). There are two factors that preclude its reimbursement, and thereby, its availability: its cost (reaching ∼$300,000/y)-which significantly exceeds the cost of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in most countries-and the lack of clear guidelines. The aim of this study was to create evidence-based working criteria for the use of teduglutide that could be used in clinical settings...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526272/enhancement-of-waste-activated-sludge-was-anaerobic-digestion-by-means-of-pre-and-intermediate-treatments-technical-and-economic-analysis-at-a-full-scale-wwtp
#18
Giuseppe Campo, Alberto Cerutti, Mariachiara Zanetti, Gerardo Scibilia, Eugenio Lorenzi, Barbara Ruffino
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526254/associations-between-midlife-insomnia-symptoms-and-earlier-retirement
#19
Lauren Hale, Lee Singer, Jodi H Barnet, Paul E Peppard, Erika W Hagen
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are prevalent and associated with impaired health and well-being. However, scant research has investigated whether midlife insomnia symptoms are also associated with earlier retirement, thereby contributing to additional economic consequences. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based sample of 1635 Wisconsin State employees (51.6% women) that were collected from 1988 until 2014. Study participants were asked about insomnia symptoms (difficulty getting to sleep, difficulty getting back to sleep, repeated nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings) in midlife, with prospective follow-up questions about the specific reasons for retirement between 2010 and 2014...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526250/sleep-problems-in-the-first-year-of-elementary-school-the-role-of-sleep-hygiene-gender-and-socioeconomic-status
#20
Laura K Uebergang, Sarah J Arnup, Harriet Hiscock, Esther Care, Jon Quach
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the relationship between sleep hygiene practices and parent-reported child sleep problems in students in the first year of elementary school, (2) whether the relationship differed by (a) gender and (b) SES and (3) in a multivariate explanatory model. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a population-based sample. SETTING: Forty-five elementary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Families of children aged 4-6 years in the first year of elementary school in Melbourne, Australia...
June 2017: Sleep Health
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