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Dattatray G Deshmukh, Mukund N Bangal, Mukunda R Patekar, Vijay J Medhane, Vijayavitthal Thippannachar Mathad
The present work describes investigation of mechanistic pathway for trimethyl borate mediated amidation of (R)-mandelic acid (3) with 4-nitophenylethylamine (2) to provide (R)-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-phenylacetamide (4) during mirabegron synthesis. Plausible reaction mechanism is proposed by isolating and elucidating the active α-hydroxy ester intermediate 16 from the reaction mass. Trimethyl borate mediated approach proved to be selective in providing 4 without disturbing α-hydroxyl group and stereochemistry of the chiral center, and is also a greener, more economic and production friendly over the reported methods...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Wanda Cristina Sawicki, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Dayana Souza Fram, Angélica Gonçalves Silva Belasco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing university students' alcohol consumption patterns, Brief Intervention and Quality of Life (QoL). METHOD: This is a prospective and longitudinal study containing sociodemographic, economic information concerning alcoholic beverages, BI and QoL evaluation among 281 nursing university students. Since surveys have been applied, seminars have been given and consumption patterns have been discussed, an educational material was delivered after university students' revaluation and BI reinforcement...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Philip A Powell, Olivia Wills, Gemma Reynolds, Kaisa Puustinen-Hopper, Jennifer Roberts
In this paper we explored the effects of exposure to images of the suffering and vulnerability of others on altruistic, trust-based, and reciprocated incentivized economic decisions, accounting for differences in participants' dispositional empathy and reported in-group trust for their recipient(s). This was done using a pictorial priming task, framed as a memory test, and a triadic economic game design. Using the largest experimental sample to date to explore this issue, our integrated analysis of two online experiments (total N = 519), found statistically consistent evidence that exposure to images of suffering and vulnerability (vs...
2018: PloS One
Román Rodríguez-Aguilar
The maternal mortality situation is analyzed in México as an indicator that reflects the social development level of the country and was one of the millennial development objectives. The effect of a maternal death in the related social group has multiplier effects, since it involves family dislocation, economic impact and disruption of the orphans' normal social development. Two perspectives that causes of maternal mortality were analyzed, on one hand, their relationship with social determinants and on the other, factors directly related to the health system...
2018: PloS One
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Djamel Rahmani, Maria L Loureiro
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) could be a good short term option to help achieve global targets regarding road transport greenhouse gas emissions. Several common and country-specific public policies based on price or tax rebates are established in order to encourage the adoption of HEVs. The present research empirically assesses market preferences for HEVs in Spain, looking at the role of subsidies. An interactive internet-based survey was conducted in a representative sample (N = 1,200) of Spanish drivers...
2018: PloS One
Tomáš Glomb, Adam Mertel, Zdeněk Pospíšil, Zdeněk Stachoň, Aleš Chalupa
Early in the Ptolemaic era, Egyptian cults, particularly those of Isis and Sarapis, spread successfully to ports across the ancient Aegean Sea. Leading researchers in the field claim that the spread of these cults was influenced by multiple factors, ones that were mainly economic or political in character. However, the question of which factors had more weight or impact than others in the process of the early spread of Egyptian cults has not yet been answered in academic discussion. This could be related to the fact that the issue of the spread of religious innovations in the ancient Mediterranean has been addressed mainly by established historiographical methods such as the collection and critical analysis of archaeological and literary sources...
2018: PloS One
Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Patrick U Osadebe
The study was carried out to assess the difficulty index of each item of an Economics Achievement test with the Rasch model. The infit and outfit as well as the reliability of the test were determined. Three research questions were drawn to guide the study. A sample of 200 was randomly selected using simple random sampling of balloting and proportionate stratified random sampling. The instrument of the study was an Economics Achievement Test with 100 items. The test has face and content validities. It has a reliability coefficient of 0...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Hong Dong, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, novel antiviral therapeutics combating PRRSV infection is essential to be considered. In the present study, the antiviral effect in vitro of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) against PRRSV was investigated. METHODS: Cell viability assay was performed to examine the impact of 25HC on the cell viability...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahdah, Vincenzo Fierro, Maria C Artesani, Rocco Valluzzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of food allergy did inspire theories on the reasons for the recent surge of the disease. We offer here a reasoned review on the relationships between the trajectories of human development and the trend of the food allergy epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: The exponential trend of the frequency of food allergy paralleled the explosive acceleration of the human development over the last few decades. Dietary factors have been indicated as responsible for these trends and targeted for potential preventive strategies...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nikhil Jain, Frank M Phillips, Tristan Weaver, Safdar N Khan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, economic analysis. OBJECTIVE: To study patient profile associated with preoperative chronic opioid therapy (COT), and study COT as a risk factor for 90-day complications, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission after primary one- to two-level posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) for degenerative spine disease. We also evaluated associated costs, risk factors, and adverse events related to long-term postoperative opioid use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic opioid use is associated with poor outcomes and dependence after spine surgery...
March 20, 2018: Spine
Jin Huang, Wan Tang, Shengquan Zhu, Meini Du
Butyric acid (C3 H7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid via large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production via genetic modification are discussed...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
March 21, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Saeed Barzegari, Ehsan Abedini, Seyedeh Sakineh Salimi
PURPOSE: Visual impairment is responsible for medical, mental, and socio-economic problems. Several studies have investigated the prevalence of blindness and low vision in different parts of Iran. This study aims to estimate the pooled results of these studies to estimate the total prevalence of this problem in Iran. METHODS: National and international databases were searched using specific keywords. The selected primary studies were quality assessed using STROBE checklist...
March 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Claire Joachim, Laurène Mazeau
Modern law is composed dominantly of new fields of complex legislations such as biotechnologies laws, environmental laws or intellectual property. But a particular legal area stigmatizes more than the others this increasing complexity: the water protection laws.Due to its origins deeply established in the European culture, but also due to ethical, political, economical and social issues, water protection laws appear to be the typical representation of links between risk and complexity. The European water protection law is deeply complex on two scales...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Xavier Bioy, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag
The bioethics laws since their first adoption in 1994 until the latest proposals, have been widely commented and analyzed, regarding the provisions related to the legal qualification and the legal status of the embryo and of the embryonic stem cells. The legal issues raised by these hesitations imply instability for both researchers and health professionals about what they can and cannot do when it comes to the embryo and its cells. Thus, while the protection of the embryo was the subject of a consensus until the end of the 2000s, it now appears as the object of a political will, from researchers and state agencies, to support this research...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
A D Barth
Efficient and economical herd management depends a great deal on maintaining a short, well-defined calving season. This requires highly fertile females and bulls. Low pregnancy rates are very noticeable, however; potentially greater economic loss may be due to delayed conception. Many studies showed that approximately one of every five bulls had inadequate semen quality, physical soundness, or both, but when evaluation of serving capacity is included about one in four bulls is unsatisfactory. Due mainly to the time and expense that the market will bear, usually only physical soundness and semen quality are evaluated...
March 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sergio A Strejilevich, Florencia Vallejos, Julian Bustin
In low- and middle-income countries, there is an increase in the percentage of aging population similar to or greater than that of high-income countries (World Population Ageing 1950-2050, UN, 2001). The emerging health and economical challenges due to these demographic changes will have to be addressed by their health systems. In this context, an adequate training of available human resources in geriatric psychiatry/psychogeriatrics (GP/PG) should be an essential step to meet those challenges.
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
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