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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155653/enhancing-laboratory-response-network-capacity-in-south-korea
#1
J Todd Parker, Ann-Christian Juren, Luis Lowe, Scott Santibañez, Gi-Eun Rhie, Toby L Merlin
Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories help protect populations from biological and chemical public health threats. We examined the role of LRN biological laboratories in enhancing capacity to detect and respond to public health infectious disease emergencies in South Korea. The model for responding to infectious disease emergencies leverages standardized laboratory testing procedures, a repository of standardized testing reagents, laboratory testing cooperation among hospital sentinel laboratories and reference laboratories, and maintenance of a trained workforce through traditional and on-demand training...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155224/medical-encounter-mental-health-diagnoses-non-fatal-injury-and-polypharmacy-indicators-of-risk-for-accident-death-in-the-us-army-enlisted-soldiers-2004-2009
#2
Lisa Lewandowski-Romps, Heather M Schroeder, Patricia A Berglund, Lisa J Colpe, Kenneth Cox, Keith Hauret, Jeffrey D Hay, Bruce Jones, Roderick J A Little, Colter Mitchell, Michael Schoenbaum, Paul Schulz, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa
Accidents are a leading cause of deaths in U.S. active duty personnel. Understanding accident deaths during wartime could facilitate future operational planning and inform risk prevention efforts. This study expands prior research, identifying health risk factors associated with U.S. Army accident deaths during the Afghanistan and Iraq war. Military records for 2004-2009 enlisted, active duty, Regular Army soldiers were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to identify mental health, injury, and polypharmacy (multiple narcotic and/or psychotropic medications) predictors of accident deaths for current, previously, and never deployed groups...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154809/facilitated-acquisition-of-the-classically-conditioned-eyeblink-response-in-active-duty-military-expressing-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#3
Justin D Handy, Pelin Avcu, Nora Ko, Alejandro Ortiz, Michael J Doria, Richard J Servatius
OBJECTIVE: Learning diathesis models underscore the role of hyper-conditioning in the development of PTSD following trauma exposure. Eyeblink classical conditioning is one method of examining associative learning biases independent of fear and threat produced by trauma. Facilitated learning is apparent in individuals self-expressing PTSD symptoms, as well as behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Here, we examine eyeblink conditioning in active duty military personnel and relate learning with PTSD symptomology...
November 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154308/functional-limitations-and-associated-psychological-factors-in-military-personnel-with-chronic-nonspecific-neck-pain-with-higher-levels-of-kinesiophobia
#4
Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ricardo Notario-Pérez, Tamara Del Corral, Bernardo Ramos-Díaz, Mario Acuyo-Osorio, Roy La Touche
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is one of the largest health problems in the military sector. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in the strength and endurance of the cervical muscles between military personnel with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP) with higher level of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-K) and individuals with lower levels of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-NK). METHODS: We used kinesiophobia as a classification method: (1) CNSNP-K and (2) CNSNP-NK. The variables measured were endurance and strength of cervical muscles; range of motion (ROM), disability, pain intensity and psychological factors...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151367/surveillance-of-the-armed-forces-as-a-sentinel-system-for-detecting-adverse-effects-of-dietary-supplements-in-the-general-population
#5
Harris R Lieberman, Krista G Austin, Emily K Farina
OBJECTIVE: Half the US population takes dietary supplements, but surveillance systems available to regulatory and public health authorities to determine whether specific dietary supplements present a risk are inadequate and numerous severe injuries and deaths have occurred from their consumption. Uniformed military personnel regularly use dietary supplements and are more likely to use potentially dangerous supplements than civilians. Recently, the supplement 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) was marketed for physical performance-enhancement and weight loss...
November 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151040/meningoencephalitis-in-a-royal-marine-after-skinning-reindeer-in-norway
#6
Christopher A Pollard, D S Burns, B Ho, A McD Johnston
Meningoencephalitis presenting in service personnel overseas may present a diagnostic challenge due to the broad range of potential differential diagnosis as well as the requirement for rapid assessment and treatment. A 25-year-old Royal Marine was evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham, UK, with a history of rash consistent with erythema chronicum migrans, a seizure, and lymphocytic pleocytosis after skinning reindeer in Norway. Neuroborreliosis was suspected and empirical antibiotics were administered...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140560/negative-posttrauma-cognitions-mediate-the-association-between-morally-injurious-events-and-trauma-related-psychopathology-in-treatment-seeking-veterans
#7
Philip Held, Brian J Klassen, Denise S Zou, Blake S Schroedter, Niranjan S Karnik, Mark H Pollack, Alyson K Zalta
Exposure to potentially morally injurious events has been shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in military personnel. Few studies have examined factors that help to explain how potentially morally injurious events may contribute to the development of trauma-related psychopathology. Negative posttrauma cognitions are thought to play a role in the etiology of PTSD and depression following trauma; however, it is unclear whether more global beliefs about the self, others, and world play a role in the development of PTSD and depression due to morally injurious events...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139325/the-applicability-of-resilience-training-to-the-mitigation-of-trauma-related-mental-illness-in-military-personnel-formula-see-text
#8
Summer R Thompson, Sarah Dobbins
BACKGROUND: Ongoing participation by the United States in military operations around the world places military personnel at an increased potential for exposure to trauma, which may directly result in an increased risk for mental health issues. It is important to develop and test new approaches to prevent and mitigate the effects of trauma in military personnel. One such area of research is focused on psychological resilience to prevent the sequelae of trauma. OBJECTIVES: This article examines empirical research of resilience training in military personnel and discusses the potential applicability of such training in this population...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#9
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132062/risk-of-early-onset-prostate-cancer-associated-with-occupation-in-the-nordic-countries
#10
Kathryn Hughes Barry, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Michael C R Alavanja, Gabriella Andreotti, Aaron Blair, Johnni Hansen, Kristina Kjærheim, Stella Koutros, Elsebeth Lynge, Pär Sparèn, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elisabete Weiderpass, Sonja I Berndt, Eero Pukkala
BACKGROUND: Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study. METHODS: We used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30-49 and those aged 50 or older...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129798/the-efficacy-of-hi-6-dms-in-a-sustained-infusion-against-percutaneous-vx-poisoning-in-the-guinea-pig
#11
C Whitmore, A R Cook, T Mann, M E Price, E Emery, N Roughley, D Flint, S Stubbs, S J Armstrong, H Rice, J E H Tattersall
Post-exposure nerve agent treatment usually includes administration of an oxime, which acts to restore function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). For immediate treatment of military personnel, this is usually administered with an autoinjector device, or devices containing the oxime such as pralidoxime, atropine and diazepam. In addition to the autoinjector, it is likely that personnel exposed to nerve agents, particularly by the percutaneous route, will require further treatment at medical facilities...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128649/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-efficacy-and-biological-mechanisms-of-web-prolonged-exposure-and-present-centered-therapy-for-ptsd-among-active-duty-military-personnel-and-veterans
#12
Carmen P McLean, Sheila A M Rauch, Edna B Foa, Rebecca K Sripada, Hallie S Tannahill, Jim Mintz, Jeffrey Yarvis, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Katherine A Dondanville, Brittany N Hall-Clark, Brooke A Fina, Terence M Keane, Alan L Peterson
Improved accessibility of effective and efficient evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for military personnel suffering with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an urgent need to meet the growing demand for timely care. In addition, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of behavioral therapy can inform the delivery of care to meet accessibility demands. Effective EBTs for PTSD are available, but logistical and stigma-related barriers to accessing behavioral healthcare can deter military personnel from receiving these treatments...
November 8, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126934/neuropsychological-functioning-in-military-pesticide-applicators-from-the-gulf-war-effects-on-information-processing-speed-attention-and-visual-memory
#13
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120193/feel-the-way-with-a-vibrotactile-compass-does-a-navigational-aid-aid-navigation
#14
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
Knowing where north is provides a navigator with invaluable information for learning and recalling a space, particularly in places with limited navigational cues, like complex indoor environments. Although north is effectively used by orienteers, pilots, and military personnel, very little is known about whether nonexpert populations can or will use north to create an accurate representation of an indoor space. In the current study, we taught people 2 nonoverlapping routes through a complex indoor environment, with which they were not familiar-a university hospital with few windows and several turns...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104608/modelling-risk-to-us-military-populations-from-stopping-blanket-mandatory-polio-vaccination
#15
Colleen Burgess, Andrew Burgess, Kellie McMullen
Objectives: Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103913/mitigating-the-risk-of-musculoskeletal-injury-a-systematic-review-of-the-most-effective-injury-prevention-strategies-for-military-personnel
#16
Sophie L Wardle, Julie P Greeves
OBJECTIVES: To update the current injury prevention strategy evidence base for making recommendations to prevent physical training-related musculoskeletal injury. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review to update the evidence base on injury prevention strategies for military personnel. METHODS: Literature was systematically searched and extracted from five databases, and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Sixty one articles meeting the inclusion criteria and published during the period 2008-2015 were selected for systematic review...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095544/predictive-validity-and-correlates-of-self-assessed-resilience-among-u-s-army-soldiers
#17
Laura Campbell-Sills, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano, Xiaoying Sun, Charles T Taylor, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Self-assessment of resilience could prove valuable to military and other organizations whose personnel confront foreseen stressors. We evaluated the validity of self-assessed resilience among U.S. Army soldiers, including whether predeployment perceived resilience predicted postdeployment emotional disorder. METHODS: Resilience was assessed via self-administered questionnaire among new soldiers reporting for basic training (N = 35,807) and experienced soldiers preparing to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 8,558)...
November 2, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093825/an-outbreak-of-leptospirosis-among-united-states-military-personnel-in-guam
#18
Alyson J Brinker, David L Blazes
Background: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Case presentation: We describe and discuss the clinical course of a leptospirosis outbreak in a running club called the hash house harriers on Guam. Conclusions: Leptospirosis is a potentialy life threatening disease, and has had a reemergence given the popularity of travel adventure sports, teams, and clubs around the world. This case presentation highlights the robust prescence of leptospirosis on Guam...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084125/mortality-of-the-personnel-of-an-interforce-military-shooting-range-in-sardinia-italy-1990-2010
#19
Giannina Satta, Michela Ursi, Elisabetta Garofalo, Elisabetta Masala, Claudia Pili, Ileana D'Andrea, Annarita Tocco, Giuseppe Avataneo, Maria Valeria Flore, Marcello Campagna, Pierluigi Cocco
BACKGROUND: As several media reports suggested an increase in cancer mortality in the surrounding area, we investigated the mortality experience of the military personnel of the Interforce shooting range of Salto di Quirra (PISQ) in Sardinia, Italy. METHODS: Based on the PISQ registers, we reconstructed the cohort of 6,828 military personnel who had been employed at PISQ for at least six months on January 1, 1990 or entered subsequently up to June 30, 2005. We searched for life status or date, place, and cause of death of each cohort member up to December 31, 2010...
October 27, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083100/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-during-travel-to-endemic-areas
#20
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Nicola Maayan, Rachel Saunders, Cheryl Pace, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is one of four antimalarial agents commonly recommended for preventing malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic areas. Despite its high efficacy, there is controversy about its psychological side effects. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the efficacy and safety of mefloquine used as prophylaxis for malaria in travellers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase (OVID); TOXLINE (https://toxnet...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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