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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911808/exploration-of-joint-redundancy-but-not-task-space-variability-facilitates-supervised-motor-learning
#1
Puneet Singh, Sumitash Jana, Ashitava Ghosal, Aditya Murthy
The number of joints and muscles in a human arm is more than what is required for reaching to a desired point in 3D space. Although previous studies have emphasized how such redundancy and the associated flexibility may play an important role in path planning, control of noise, and optimization of motion, whether and how redundancy might promote motor learning has not been investigated. In this work, we quantify redundancy space and investigate its significance and effect on motor learning. We propose that a larger redundancy space leads to faster learning across subjects...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910461/a-novel-microgripper-hybrid-driven-by-a-piezoelectric-stack-actuator-and-piezoelectric-cantilever-actuators
#2
Weilin Chen, Xianmin Zhang, Sergej Fatikow
For the piezo-driven microgripper, one issue is to enlarge the grasping stroke and realize parallel grasping movement in the compact design. Piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) and piezoelectric cantilever actuator (PCA) are two kinds of typical piezoelectric actuators. In this study, a novel microgripper hybrid driven by a PSA and two PCAs is proposed, which can be a better solution for the issue, compared with the previous microgripper using PSA-driven multi-stages displacement amplification mechanism (DAM) or using longer and narrower PCAs...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895550/closed-loop-task-difficulty-adaptation-during-virtual-reality-reach-to-grasp-training-assisted-with-an-exoskeleton-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#3
Florian Grimm, Georgios Naros, Alireza Gharabaghi
Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing "assistance-as-needed" during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894540/effect-of-supplemental-vibrational-force-on-orthodontically-induced-inflammatory-root-resorption-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Andrew T DiBiase, Neil R Woodhouse, Spyridon N Papageorgiou, Nicola Johnson, Carmel Slipper, James Grant, Maryam Alsaleh, Martyn T Cobourne
INTRODUCTION: A multicenter parallel 3-arm randomized clinical trial was carried out in 1 university and 2 district hospitals in the United Kingdom to investigate the effect of supplemental vibrational force on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) during the alignment phase of fixed appliance therapy. METHODS: Eighty-one subjects less than 20 years old with mandibular incisor irregularity undergoing extraction-based fixed-appliance treatment were randomly allocated to supplementary (20 minutes a day) use of an intraoral vibrational device (AcceleDent; OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) (n = 29), an identical nonfunctional (sham) device (n = 25), or fixed appliances only (n = 27)...
December 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891243/a-comprehensive-musculoskeletal-and-peripheral-nervous-system-assessment-of-war-related-bilateral-upper-extremity-amputees
#5
Mostafa Allami, Batool Mousavi, Mehdi Masoumi, Ehsan Modirian, Hadi Shojaei, Fatemeh Mirsalimi, Maryam Hosseini, Pirouz Pirouzi
BACKGROUND: Upper limb amputations are one of the unpleasant war injuries that armed forces are exposed to frequently. The present study aimed to assess the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems in Iraq-Iran war veterans with bilateral upper extremity amputation. METHODS: The study consisted of taking a history and clinical examinations including demographic data, presence and location of pain, level of amputation, passive and active ranges of movement of the joints across the upper and lower extremities and spine, manual palpation, neurological examination, blood circulation pulses and issues related to a prosthetic limb...
2016: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891109/pulling-rank-military-rank-affects-hormone-levels-and-fairness-in-an-allocation-experiment
#6
Benjamin Siart, Lena S Pflüger, Bernard Wallner
Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890664/do-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-reduce-the-incidence-of-acute-diarrhea-during-military-deployments-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#7
Tiphanie Succo, Franck De Laval, Sébastien Sicard, Didier Belleoud, Catherine Marimoutou, Aurélie Mayet, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Rémy Michel
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions. METHOD: A prospective randomized trial was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among French military troops deployed in Africa to compare a group of soldiers receiving usual hand hygiene recommendations (control group), to a group of soldiers who received ABHR in addition to usual hand hygiene recommendations (intervention group)...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890153/the-arm-force-field-method-to-predict-manual-arm-strength-based-on-only-hand-location-and-force-direction
#8
Nicholas J La Delfa, Jim R Potvin
This paper describes the development of a novel method (termed the 'Arm Force Field' or 'AFF') to predict manual arm strength (MAS) for a wide range of body orientations, hand locations and any force direction. This method used an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the effects of hand location and force direction on MAS, and included a method to estimate the contribution of the arm's weight to the predicted strength. The AFF method predicted the MAS values very well (r(2) = 0.97, RMSD = 5.2 N, n = 456) and maintained good generalizability with external test data (r(2) = 0...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886989/u-s-department-of-defense-multiple-parameter-biodosimetry-network
#9
William F Blakely, Alexander Romanyukha, Selena M Hayes, Ricardo A Reyes, H Michael Stewart, Matthew H Hoefer, Anthony Williams, Thad Sharp, L Andrew Huff
The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) service members are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to radiation accidents, terrorist attacks and national defense activities. The use of biodosimetry is a standard of care for the triage and treatment of radiation injuries. Resources and procedures need to be established to implement a multiple-parameter biodosimetry system coupled with expert medial guidance to provide an integrated radiation diagnostic system to meet USDOD requirements. Current USDOD biodosimetry capabilities were identified and recommendations to fill the identified gaps are provided...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886325/the-intrinsic-strength-of-the-halogen-bond-electrostatic-and-covalent-contributions-described-by-coupled-cluster-theory
#10
Vytor Oliveira, Elfi Kraka, Dieter Cremer
36 halogen-bonded complexes YXARm (X: F, Cl, Br; Y: donor group; ARm acceptor group) have been investigated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Binding energies, geometries, NBO charges, charge transfer, dipole moments, electrostatic potential, electron and energy density distributions, difference density distributions, vibrational frequencies, local stretching and bending force constants, and relative bond strength orders n have been calculated and used to order the halogen bonds according to their intrinsic strength...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883222/alcohol-misuse-and-co-occurring-mental-disorders-among-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#11
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Joel Gelernter, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano
BACKGROUND: Problem drinking that predates enlistment into military service may contribute to the overall burden of alcohol misuse in the Armed Forces; however, evidence bearing on this issue is limited. This study examines prevalence and correlates of alcohol misuse among new U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from soldiers reporting for basic combat training. The survey retrospectively assessed lifetime alcohol consumption and substance abuse/dependence, enabling estimation of the prevalence of lifetime binge drinking and heavy drinking in a sample of 30,583 soldiers and of probable alcohol use disorder (AUD) among 26,754 soldiers with no/minimal lifetime use of other drugs...
November 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882910/does-nintendo-wii-balance-board-improve-standing-balance-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#12
Valeska Gatica-Rojas, Guillermo Méndez-Rebolledo, Eduardo Guzman-Muñoz, Alex Soto-Poblete, Ricardo Cartes-Velásquez, Edith Elgueta-Cancino, Eduardo Cofré Lizama
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of systemic exercise programs to improve the standing balance with the Nintendo Wii system is very limited and its post- treatment effectiveness is unknown in cerebral palsy (CP) patients. AIM: Primary aim was to compare the effect of Nintendo Wii balance board (Wii- therapy) and standard physiotherapy (SPT), on the performance of standing balance in children and adolescents with CP. Secondary aim was to determine the post-treatment effectiveness of Wii-therapy and SPT...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882612/the-relationship-between-geometry-of-the-extensor-mechanism-of-the-knee-and-risk-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#13
Josh C Carter, Daniel R Sturnick, Pamela M Vacek, Michael J DeSarno, Erin C Argentieri, James R Slauterbeck, Robert J Johnson, Bruce D Beynnon
The complex inter-segmental forces that are developed across an extended knee by body weight and contraction of the quadriceps muscle group transmits an anteriorly-directed force on the tibia that strain the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). We hypothesized that a relationship exists between geometry of the knees extensor mechanism and the risk of sustaining a non-contact ACL injury. Geometry of the extensor mechanism was characterized using MRI scans of the knees of 88 subjects that suffered their first non-contact ACL injury and 88 matched control subjects with normal knees that were on the same team...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881751/artificial-selection-on-male-genitalia-length-alters-female-brain-size
#14
Séverine D Buechel, Isobel Booksmythe, Alexander Kotrschal, Michael D Jennions, Niclas Kolm
Male harassment is a classic example of how sexual conflict over mating leads to sex-specific behavioural adaptations. Females often suffer significant costs from males attempting forced copulations, and the sexes can be in an arms race over male coercion. Yet, despite recent recognition that divergent sex-specific interests in reproduction can affect brain evolution, sexual conflict has not been addressed in this context. Here, we investigate whether artificial selection on a correlate of male success at coercion, genital length, affects brain anatomy in males and females...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880040/acetaminophen-overdoses-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2006-2015
#15
Leslie L Clark, Stephen B Taubman
Acetaminophen, a drug commonly used to relieve pain and fever, is generally safe and effective when used as directed. However, acetaminophen overdose can cause serious adverse events, including liver damage and death. From 2006 through 2015, a total of 2,588 cases of acetaminophen overdose were identified in active component military members. Rates of acetaminophen overdose declined during this 10-year surveillance period, from 2.2 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2006 to 1.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs in 2015...
November 2016: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880038/excessive-vomiting-in-pregnancy-active-component-service-women-u-s-armed-forces-2005-2014
#16
Valerie F Williams, Leslie L Clark, Gi-Taik Oh
Up to 80% of women experience some form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. However, in some women, nausea and vomiting can be excessive and require inpatient and/or outpatient treatment. Data were obtained on 149,071 live births from 116,510 service women from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014. A total of 19,175 of the service women with live births had pregnancies complicated by excessive vomiting in pregnancy (EVP) and accounted for 20,511 EVP cases (overall rate of 13.8%). Mild and severe hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) combined accounted for almost two-thirds of the total EVP cases...
November 2016: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875650/military-genitourinary-trauma-policies-implications-and-ethics
#17
Wendy K Dean, Arthur L Caplan, Brendan Parent
The men and women who serve in the armed forces, in the words of Major General Joseph Caravalho, "sign a blank check, co-signed by their families, payable to the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marines, up to and including their lives." It is human nature to consider such a pact in polarized terms; the pact concludes in either a celebratory homecoming or funereal mourning. But in reality, surviving catastrophic injury may incur the greatest debt. The small but real possibility of losing the ability to bear biological children due to genitourinary combat injury has been a topic of discussion in hushed tones, behind closed doors...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873296/emergency-preparedness-of-veterans-and-nonveterans
#18
Joseph F Iii Geiger
This study examined statistical differences in levels of disaster preparedness between former members of the US Armed Forces (veterans) and civilians (nonveterans). It was hypothesized that veterans would exhibit a higher degree of disaster preparedness as compared to their nonveteran counterparts as a consequence of their training and life experience. Furthermore, if this were proven to be valid, the finding would identify this cohort as an ideal target audience for emergency and disaster preparedness education efforts...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#19
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872275/serving-those-that-serve-a-practitioner-commentary-on-health-promotion-in-the-military
#20
Anna Torrens Armstrong
Since 1986, health promotion has had a place within the U.S. Department of Defense. Emphasizing the leading health indicators of Healthy People, the role of health promotion has continued to support the U.S. Armed Forces in perhaps one of the most challenging decades of wartime operations. Serving a sizable population with both typical and mission-related health issues, health promotion plays a critical role in maintaining and improving health. The purpose of this article is to highlight military health promotion by offering insight into the day-to-day life of a "boots on the ground" military health educator, reviewing the challenges and opportunities of working with a unique population...
November 21, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
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