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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446482/oncogenesis-as-a-selective-force-adaptive-evolution-in-the-face-of-a-transmissible-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Tracey Russell, Thomas Madsen, Frédéric Thomas, Nynke Raven, Rodrigo Hamede, Beata Ujvari
Similar to parasites, malignant cells exploit the host for energy, resources and protection, thereby impairing host health and fitness. Although cancer is widespread in the animal kingdom, its impact on life history traits and strategies have rarely been documented. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a transmissible cancer, afflicting Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), provides an ideal model system to monitor the impact of cancer on host life-history, and to elucidate the evolutionary arms-race between malignant cells and their hosts...
February 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445165/53bp1-can-limit-sister-chromatid-rupture-and-rearrangements-driven-by-a-distinct-ultrafine-dna-bridging-breakage-process
#2
Ankana Tiwari, Owen Addis Jones, Kok-Lung Chan
Chromosome missegregation acts as one of the driving forces for chromosome instability and cancer development. Here, we find that in human cancer cells, HeLa and U2OS, depletion of 53BP1 (p53-binding protein 1) exacerbates chromosome non-disjunction resulting from a new type of sister-chromatid intertwinement, which is distinct from FANCD2-associated ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs) induced by replication stress. Importantly, the sister DNA intertwinements trigger gross chromosomal rearrangements through a distinct process, named sister-chromatid rupture and bridging...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434273/giant-and-tunable-optical-torque-for-micro-motors-by-increased-force-arm-and-resonantly-enhanced-force
#3
Yong Geng, Jiubin Tan, Yongyin Cao, Yixuan Zhao, Zhengjun Liu, Weiqiang Ding
Micro-motors driven by light field have attracted much attentions for their potential applications. In order to drive the rotation of a micro-motor, structured optical beams with orbital angular momentum, spin angular momentum, anisotropic medium, and/or inhomogeneous intensity distribution should be used. Even though, it is still challenge to increase the optical torques (OT) in a flexible and controllable way in case of moderate incident power. In this paper, a new scheme achieving giant optical torque is proposed by increasing both the force arm and the force amplitude with the assistance of a ring resonator...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428505/optimising-training-adaptations-and-performance-in-military-environment
#4
REVIEW
Heikki Kyröläinen, Kai Pihlainen, Jani P Vaara, Tommi Ojanen, Matti Santtila
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide decreases in physical fitness and increases in body fat among youth have set challenges for armed forces to recruit physically capable soldiers. Therefore, knowledge of optimizing physical adaptation and performance through physical training is vital. In addition, maintaining or improving physical performance among professional soldiers in various military environments is crucial for overall military readiness. The present review focuses on the effects of military training on physical performance by searching for optimal methods to do it...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425857/a-disposable-immunosensor-using-ito-based-electrode-modified-by-a-star-shaped-polymer-for-analysis-of-tumor-suppressor-protein-p53-in-human-serum
#5
Muhammet Aydın, Elif Burcu Aydın, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk
Label-free immunosensor based on tetra armed star-shaped poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (Star PGMA ) modified disposable ITO electrode was developed for detection of p53 protein, an important colorectal cancer biomarker. This disposable biosensor was fabricated by spin-coating technique using star-shaped Star PGMA with epoxy side groups. After formation of a stable film with epoxy ends, anti-p53 antibodies were bound to these groups covalently. Stepwise modification of the electrode was followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies...
February 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425835/the-influence-of-internal-and-external-tibial-rotation-offsets-on-knee-joint-and-ligament-biomechanics-during-simulated-athletic-tasks
#6
Nathaniel A Bates, Rebecca J Nesbitt, Jason T Shearn, Gregory D Myer, Timothy E Hewett
BACKGROUND: Following anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction transverse plane tibiofemoral rotation becomes underconstrained and overconstrained, respectively. Conflicting reports exist on how rotations influence loading at the knee. This investigation aimed to determine the mechanical effects of internal and external tibial rotation offsets on knee kinematics and ligament strains during in vitro simulations of in vivo recorded kinematics. METHOD: A 6-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator arm was used to articulate 11 cadaveric tibiofemoral joint specimens through simulations of four athletic tasks produced from in vivo recorded kinematics...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424930/inhaled-mannitol-for-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422251/systematic-review-of-current-prognostication-systems-for-primary-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Chun Yuet Khoo, Xun Chai, Richard Quek, Melissa C C Teo, Brian K P Goh
BACKGROUND: The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy has revolutionized the management of GIST and emphasized the need for accurate prognostication systems. Numerous prognostication systems have been proposed for GIST but at present it remains unknown which system is superior. The present systematic review aims to summarize current prognostication systems for primary treatment-naive GIST. METHODS: A literature review of the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to identify all published articles in English, from the 1st January 2002 to 28th Feb 2017, reporting on clinical prognostication systems of GIST...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420761/chinese-military-evaluation-of-a-portable-near-infrared-detector-of-traumatic-intracranial-hematomas
#9
Chun-Yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-Sen Shen, Hai-Jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-Wen Wang, Feng-Lei Zhu, Ru-Xiang Xu
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420159/identifying-the-mechanical-and-neural-properties-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscles
#10
Bhillie D Luciani, David M Desmet, Amani A Alkayyali, Joshua M Leonardis, David Benjamin Lipps
Neck muscles are preferentially activated in specific force directions, but the constraints that the central nervous system considers when programming these preferred directions of muscle activity are unknown. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the material properties of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles exhibit preferred directions similar to their preferred direction of muscle activity during an isometric task. Twenty-four healthy participants matched isometric forces in 16 axial directions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419724/clinical-outcomes-after-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty-with-and-without-subscapularis-repair-the-importance-of-considering-glenosphere-lateralization
#11
Brian C Werner, Alexandra C Wong, Gregory T Mahony, Edward V Craig, David M Dines, Russell F Warren, Lawrence V Gulotta
INTRODUCTION: Recent biomechanical data suggests that repairing the subscapularis during reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) can increase the force required by the posterior rotator cuff and deltoid to elevate the arm. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent primary RSA and had baseline and minimum 2-year postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder scores, stratified them according to subscapularis management, then subgrouped them according to lateralization of the glenosphere component...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413785/an-evaluation-of-measurement-systems-estimating-gait-speed-during-a-loaded-military-march-over-graded-terrain
#12
Bertil J Veenstra, Thomas Wyss, Lilian Roos, Simon K Delves, Mark Buller, Nadja Beeler
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of three measurement systems estimating gait speed during a loaded military march over graded terrain. Systems developed by the Swiss and Netherlands Armed Forces and a commercial wrist-based device were evaluated in comparison to a Global Positioning System. The first part of the paper focuses on the development of the Dutch system, where speed is estimated from a chest worn accelerometer and body measurements. For this validation study 36 subjects were walking or running 13 laps of 200 m at different speeds...
January 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411900/in-vivo-comparison-of-medialized-dome-and-anatomic-patellofemoral-geometries-using-subject-specific-computational-modeling
#13
Azhar A Ali, Erin M Mannen, Paul J Rullkoetter, Kevin B Shelburne
Successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with patella resurfacing is partly determined by the restoration of patellofemoral (PF) function and recovery of the quadriceps mechanism. The current study compared two patellar TKA geometries (medialized dome and anatomic) to determine their impact on PF mechanics and quadriceps function. In-vivo, subject-specific patellar mechanics were evaluated using a sequential experimental and modeling approach. First, stereo radiography, marker-based motion capture, and force plate data were collected for TKA patients (10 dome, 10 anatomic) performing a knee extension and lunge...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410839/achilles-tendon-moment-arm-in-humans-is-not-affected-by-inversion-eversion-of-the-foot-a-short-report
#14
Susann Wolfram, Christopher I Morse, Keith L Winwood, Emma Hodson-Tole, Islay M McEwan
The triceps surae primarily acts as plantarflexor of the ankle joint. However, the group also causes inversion and eversion at the subtalar joint. Despite this, the Achilles tendon moment arm is generally measured without considering the potential influence of inversion/eversion of the foot during plantarflexion. This study investigated the effect of foot inversion and eversion on the plantarflexion Achilles tendon moment arm. Achilles tendon moment arms were determined using the centre-of-rotation method in magnetic resonance images of the left ankle of 11 participants...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409787/structural-functional-and-symptomatic-differences-between-women-with-rectocele-versus-cystocele-and-normal-support
#15
Mitchell B Berger, Giselle E Kolenic, Dee E Fenner, Daniel M Morgan, John O L DeLancey
BACKGROUND: Prolapse of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls has been generally associated with apical descent and levator ani muscle defects. However, the relative contributions of these factors to the pathophysiology of descent in the different vaginal compartments is not well understood. Furthermore, symptoms uniquely associated with prolapse in these compartments have not been well-characterized. OBJECTIVES: Compare associations between: 1) apical support, 2) levator ani muscles, and 3) pelvic floor symptoms in women with posterior-predominant prolapse, anterior-predominant prolapse, and normal support...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409622/biomechanical-evaluation-of-exoskeleton-use-on-loading-of-the-lumbar-spine
#16
Eric B Weston, Mina Alizadeh, Gregory G Knapik, Xueke Wang, William S Marras
The objective of this study was to investigate biomechanical loading to the low back as a result of wearing an exoskeletal intervention designed to assist in occupational work. Twelve subjects simulated the use of two powered hand tools with and without the use of a Steadicam vest with an articulation tool support arm in a laboratory environment. Dependent measures of peak and mean muscle forces in ten trunk muscles and peak and mean spinal loads were examined utilizing a dynamic electromyography-assisted spine model...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408007/neuropharmacological-characterization-of-frutalin-in-mice-evidence-of-an-antidepressant-like-effect-mediated-by-the-nmda-receptor-no-cgmp-pathway
#17
João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, José de Maria Albuquerque de Melo Júnior, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal Damasceno, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues Santos, Antônio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Adriana Rolim Campos, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira
In this study we evaluated the effect of frutalin (FTL) on mouse behavior. Mice (n = 6/group) were treated (i.p.) with FTL (0.25; 0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or vehicle and submitted to several tests (hole-board/HBT, elevated plus maze/PMT, open field/OFT, tail suspension/TST, or forced swimming/FST). Yohimbine, ketamine, l-NAME, aminoguanidine, 7-NI, methylene blue, l-arginine or dl-serine was administered 30 min before FTL (0.5 mg/kg). To evaluate the subchronic effect, animals were injected with FTL or vehicle for 7 days and submitted to the FST...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401328/implications-of-new-cholesterol-treatment-guidelines-on-statin-utilization-intensity-and-costs-in-active-duty-service-members
#18
Michael S Cahill, Rebecca M Seifried, Julia H Cheringal, Nicholas R Fiacco, Patrick S Moon, Michael K Cheezum, Todd C Villines
Background: The recommendations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood cholesterol guidelines expanded the indications and level of intensity of statin therapy for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the treatment and cost implications of theseguidelines within a cohort of active duty service members. Methods: Using the military electronic medical record system, the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application, we randomly selected 1,000 active duty persons aged 40 yr or older and reviewed their lipid profiles and medical records to identify risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400132/how-does-buoyancy-affect-performance-during-a-200m-maximum-front-crawl-swim
#19
Stelios G Psycharakis, Toshimasa Yanai
We investigated the rotational effect of buoyant force around the body's transverse axis, termed buoyant torque, during a 200m front crawl maximal swim. Eleven male swimmers of national or international level participated. One stroke cycle (SC) for each 50m was recorded with two above and four below water cameras. The following variables were analysed: swimming velocity; absolute and normalised buoyant force; minimum, average and maximum buoyant torque; SC and arm recovery times. The average value of buoyant torque was higher in the first 50m (14...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397897/tele-mentored-damage-control-and-emergency-trauma-surgery-a-feasibility-study-using-live-tissue-models
#20
Philip Dawe, Andrew Kirkpatrick, Max Talbot, Andrew Beckett, Naisan Garraway, Heather Wong, Syed Morad Hameed
BACKGROUND: Damage-control and emergency surgical procedures in trauma have the potential to save lives. They may occasionally not be performed due to clinician inexperience or lack of comfort and knowledge. METHODS: Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) non-surgeon Medical Officers (MOs) participated in a live tissue training exercise. They received tele-mentoring assistance using a secure video-conferencing application on a smartphone/tablet platform. Feasibility of tele-mentored surgery was studied by measuring their effectiveness at completing a set series of tasks in this pilot study...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
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