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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231809/structure-based-membrane-dome-mechanism-for-piezo-mechanosensitivity
#1
Yusong R Guo, Roderick MacKinnon
Mechanosensitive ion channels convert external mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals for critical processes including touch sensation, balance, and cardiovascular regulation. The best understood mechanosensitive channel, MscL, opens a wide pore, which accounts for mechanosensitive gating due to in-plane area expansion. Eukaryotic Piezo channels have a narrow pore and therefore must capture mechanical forces to control gating in another way. We present a cryo-EM structure of mouse Piezo1 in a closed conformation at 3...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230094/application-of-finite-element-phase-field-and-calphad-based-methods-to-additive-manufacturing-of-ni-based-superalloys
#2
Trevor Keller, Greta Lindwall, Supriyo Ghosh, Li Ma, Brandon M Lane, Fan Zhang, Ursula R Kattner, Eric A Lass, Jarred C Heigel, Yaakov Idell, Maureen E Williams, Andrew J Allen, Jonathan E Guyer, Lyle E Levine
Numerical simulations are used in this work to investigate aspects of microstructure and microseg-regation during rapid solidification of a Ni-based superalloy in a laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process. Thermal modeling by finite element analysis simulates the laser melt pool, with surface temperatures in agreement with in situ thermographic measurements on Inconel 625. Geometric and thermal features of the simulated melt pools are extracted and used in subsequent mesoscale simulations. Solidification in the melt pool is simulated on two length scales...
October 15, 2017: Acta Materialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227235/drinking-motives-and-alcohol-use-the-serve-study-of-u-s-current-and-former-service-members
#3
Cynthia D Mohr, Cameron T McCabe, Sarah N Haverly, Leslie B Hammer, Kathleen F Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Hazardous drinking in the armed forces is a significant problem. Alcohol use motivations, known risk factors for problem drinking, have been underexplored in this population. Our study extends knowledge about drinking motives among current and former U.S. service members and provides recommendations on their utility in identifying alcohol-related problems by examining the factor structure of multidimensional drinking motives and their association to alcohol use. METHOD: Post-9/11 separated service members and current reservists were recruited from 35 Oregon employers to participate in a workplace study of supervisor support...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217357/tempol-prevents-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-induced-memory-impairment
#5
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababa'h, Omar N Yaqoub
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD...
December 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212917/rhythmic-arm-cycling-training-improves-walking-and-neurophysiological-integrity-in-chronic-stroke-the-arms-can-give-legs-a-helping-hand-in-rehabilitation
#6
Chelsea Kaupp, Gregory Ep Pearcey, Taryn Klarner, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Hilary Cullen, E Paul Zehr
Training locomotor pattern generating networks (CPGs) through arm and leg cycling improves walking in chronic stroke. These outcomes are presumed to result from enhanced interlimb connectivity and CPG function. The extent to which rhythmic arm training activates interlimb CPG networks for locomotion remains unclear and was assessed by studying chronic stroke participants before and after 5-weeks of arm cycling training. Strength was assessed bilaterally via maximal voluntary isometric contractions in the legs and hands...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211857/pulmonary-vein-isolation-with-vs-without-continued-antiarrhythmic-drug-treatment-in-subjects-with-recurrent-atrial-fibrillation-powder-af-results-from-a-multicentre-randomized-trial
#7
Mattias Duytschaever, Anthony Demolder, Thomas Phlips, Andrea Sarkozy, Milad El Haddad, Philippe Taghji, Sebastien Knecht, Rene Tavernier, Yves Vandekerckhove, Tom De Potter
Aims: Catheter ablation is indicated in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) resistant to antiarrhythmic drug therapy (ADT). We investigated whether continued use of previously ineffective ADT beyond the post-ablation blanking period reduces recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia within the 1st year after ablation. Methods and results: This was a multicentre, randomized controlled study in patients undergoing contact force-guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for paroxysmal AF in whom previously ineffective ADT was continued during a blanking period of 3 months...
December 2, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211492/incidence-and-burden-of-gynecologic-disorders-active-component-service-women-u-s-armed-forces-2012-2016
#8
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Stephen B Taubman
This report describes the incidence, burden, and co-occurrence of four common gynecologic disorders among active component service women during 2012-2016. Overall incidence rates were highest for menorrhagia (100.9 per 10,000 person-years [p-yrs]), followed by uterine fibroids (63.2 per 10,000 p-yrs), endometriosis (30.8 per 10,000 p-yrs), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, 25.3 per 10,000 p-yrs). Annual incidence rates and medical encounters for menorrhagia decreased by roughly 50% from 2012 through 2015, and then increased slightly in 2016...
November 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211491/complications-and-care-related-to-pregnancy-labor-and-delivery-among-active-component-service-women-u-s-armed-forces-2012-2016
#9
Shauna Stahlman, Catherine T Witkop, Leslie L Clark, Stephen B Taubman
Diagnoses of "complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium" include both morbid complications and indications for routine care of pregnant women. During 2012-2016, a total of 55,601 U.S. service members with live births (n=63,879) had 657,060 medical encounters with primary diagnoses of "pregnancy complications." The most frequent diagnoses were "other" specified conditions complicating pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium. Numbers of medical encounters with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of any pregnancy-related complication or indication for care decreased marginally each year between 2012 (n=178,703) and 2016 (n=146,282)...
November 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211490/contraception-among-active-component-service-women-u-s-armed-forces-2012-2016
#10
Shauna Stahlman, Catherine T Witkop, Leslie L Clark, Stephen B Taubman
This report summarizes the annual prevalence of permanent sterilization, as well as use of long- and short-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs and SARCs, respectively), contraceptive counseling services, and use of emergency contraception from 2012 through 2016 among active component U.S. service women. Overall, 262,907 (76.2%) women of childbearing potential used either a LARC or a SARC at some time during the surveillance period. From 2012 through 2016, permanent sterilization decreased from 4.2% to 3...
November 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211489/pregnancies-and-live-births-active-component-service-women-u-s-armed-forces-2012-2016
#11
Shauna Stahlman, Catherine T Witkop, Leslie L Clark, Stephen B Taubman
This report summarizes data on the demographic and military characteristics of women and women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) in the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2012-2016. Data on pregnancy-related care and birth rates are also presented. In 2016, WOCBP comprised the vast majority of active component service women. The largest proportions of WOCBP were in the categories of women who were 20-24 years old, non-Hispanic white, junior enlisted rank, and in a communications/intelligence occupation...
November 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205217/analysis-of-upper-limb-muscle-strength-in-the-early-phase-of-brain-stroke
#12
Michał Starosta, Joanna Kostka, Justyna Redlicka, Elżbieta Miller
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the muscles with the lowest strength in non-affected (non-A) and affected upper limb (A), to assess differences between men and women and to correlate these values with age in patients after stroke. METHODS: Sixty patients (40 male, 20 female), hospitalized in Neurorehabilitation Ward, 1-2 weeks after stroke, were included in the study. Their age ranged from 50 to 80 years with a mean (sd) of 65.5 (18.7) years. Muscle force values from upper limb muscles were measured using the MicroFet 2 hand-held dynamometer...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200662/gearing-effects-of-the-patella-knee-extensor-muscle-sesamoid-of-the-helmeted-guineafowl-during-terrestrial-locomotion
#13
V R Allen, R E Kambic, S M Gatesy, J R Hutchinson
Human patellae (kneecaps) are thought to act as gears, altering the mechanical advantage of knee extensor muscles during running. Similar sesamoids have evolved in the knee extensor tendon independently in birds, but it is unknown if these also affect the mechanical advantage of knee extensors. Here, we examine the mechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the helmeted guineafowl Numida meleagris using a method based on muscle and tendon moment arms taken about the patella's rotation centre around the distal femur...
November 2017: Journal of Zoology: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200312/levels-of-circulating-cortisol-and-cytokines-in-members-of-the-canadian-armed-forces-associations-with-age-sex-and-anthropometry
#14
Hans Christian Tingelstad, Lionel G Filion, Julie Martin, Michael Spivock, Vera Tang, François Haman
OBJECTIVE: To assess blood levels of cortisol and cytokines (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) in members of the regular Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), and examine the associations between sex, age and adiposity and circulating levels of cortisol as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: As part of a larger ranging project, 331 blood samples were collected from a representative population of the total CAF, which included officers and non-commissioned women and men from the Air Force, Navy and Army...
December 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199778/influence-of-ethnicity-on-vertical-jump-performances-in-male-physical-education-students-a-pilot-study
#15
Elvis Attiogbe, Henry Vandewalle, Tarak Driss
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to: i) test the possibility of ethnic differences in squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and countermovement jump with arms swing (CMJA); ii) test the possibility of ethnic differences in the effects of countermovement and arms swing; iii) verify whether the relationships between the different vertical jumps VJ (SJ, CMJ, CMJA) and maximal power (Pmax), determined from a force-velocity test (F-V), were dependent on the ethnicity as previously found for CMJA...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199691/new-insights-into-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-positive-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#16
A P Dubey, N Pathi, S Viswanath, A Rathore, A Pathak, R Sud
BACKGROUND: A novel fusion gene of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been identified in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Patients with the ALK-EML4 fusion gene demonstrate unique clinicopathological and physiological characteristics. Here we present an analysis of clinicopathological profile of patients of metastatic adenocarcinoma harboring the ALK-EML4 fusion gene and their response to targeted therapy in the form of crizotinib...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198476/unilateral-hand-training-on-functional-performance-in-patients-with-upper-extremity-trauma
#17
Tara Troianello, Kathleen Yancosek, Peter C Rhee
STUDY DESIGN: Case series. INTRODUCTION: Upper extremity (UE) trauma and subsequent immobilization affects functional performance. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Determine the usefulness and feasibility of unilateral hand training (UHT) on improving functional performance in patients with UE trauma. METHODS: Nine participants received UHT within 10 days of immobilization. Functional performance, dexterity, grip, and pinch strength were measured at initial and 4-week visits...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191633/sensitivity-of-intervertebral-joint-forces-to-center-of-rotation-location-and-trends-along-its-migration-path
#18
Marco Senteler, Ameet Aiyangar, Bernhard Weisse, Mazda Farshad, Jess G Snedeker
Translational vertebral motion during functional tasks manifests itself in dynamic loci for center of rotation (COR). A shift of COR affects moment arms of muscles and ligaments; consequently, muscle and joint forces are altered. Based on posture- and level-specific trends of COR migration revealed by in vivo dynamic radiography during functional activities, it was postulated that the instantaneous COR location for a particular joint is optimized in order to minimize the joint reaction forces. A musculoskeletal multi-body model was employed to investigate the hypotheses that (1) a posterior COR in upright standing and (2) an anterior COR in forward flexed posture leads to optimized lumbar joint loads...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190727/influence-of-the-type-of-training-task-on-intermanual-transfer-effects-in-upper-limb-prosthesis-training-a-randomized-pre-posttest-study
#19
Sietske Romkema, Raoul M Bongers, Corry K van der Sluis
Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used tasks were based on different aspects of prosthetic handling: reaching, grasping, grip-force production and functional tasks. A single-blinded clinical trial, with a pre-posttest design was executed. Seventy-one able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to four training and two control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189604/2017-military-supplement-to-shock-journal-perftorantm-vidaphortm-introduction-to-western-medicine
#20
Gary W Latson
Perftoran, which has been re-branded as Vidaphorfor marketing in North America, is an emulsion of perfluorocarbons in a surfactant and electrolyte mixture. It was developed in Russia as an oxygen-carrying intravenous plasma additive for hemorrhagic anemia and ischemic conditions from various etiologies. It was approved for clinical use in Russia in 1996 and used by the Russian Armed Forces and in civilian medical care. It was also approved in Mexico from 2005 to 2010. It has been reportedly administered to over 35,000 patients with significant evidence of benefit and relatively mild and manageable adverse effects...
November 20, 2017: Shock
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