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Armed forces

Mariana Machado Pereira, Helen de Morais, Eldevan Dos Santos Silva, Claudia Rita Corso, Eliana Rezende Adami, Rose Maria Carlos, Alexandra Acco, Janaina Menezes Zanoveli
The physiopathology of anxiety or depression related to diabetes is still poorly understood. The treatment with antidepressant drugs is a huge challenge due to theirs adherence low rate and many adverse effects. Thus, the seeking for a better treatment for these associated diseases is of utmost importance. Given that the oxidative stress in different tissues occurs in diabetes and anxiety or depression as well, the antioxidant gallic acid becomes an interesting compound to be investigated. Thus, the effects of long-term treatment with gallic acid (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg; gavage) were evaluated in diabetic (DBT) animals submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM), the light-dark transition (LDT) tests and modified forced swim test (mFST)...
June 23, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Alys H Hunter, T Ayres, N Moreland, A Cox
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) encompass a large group of synthesised compounds specifically designed to mimic traditional recreational drugs. Current UK Armed Forces compulsory drug testing does not screen for these substances, making them tempting to the small proportion of UK Armed Forces personnel who indulge in recreational drug use. The acute and chronic sequelae of NPS misuse are widely variable and associated with high morbidity. In this paper, we discuss NPS pharmacology and clinical presentation...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Michele Vacca, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in brain functions. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive functions and emotional behaviour in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to bi-allelic ablation of the GHRH gene (GHRH knockout, GHRHKO). METHODS: Learning, memory and emotional behaviour were evaluated using a series of validated tests (Morris water maze, eight-arm radial maze, open field, elevated plus maze test, forced swim tests) in 2, 5, and 12 months old male mice either homozygous (-/-) or heterozygous (+/-) for the GHRHKO allele...
June 22, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Kenzo Narita, Motomu Nakashima, Hideki Takagi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of leg kick on the resistance force in front-crawl swimming. The active drag in front-crawl swimming with and without leg motion was evaluated using measured values of residual thrust (MRT method) and compared with the passive drag of the streamlined position (SP) for the same swimmers. Seven male competitive swimmers participated in this study, and the testing was conducted in a swimming flume. Each swimmer performed front-crawl under two conditions: using arms and legs (whole stroke: WS) and using arms only (arms-only stroke: AS)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
J Don Richardson, Lisa King, Kate St Cyr, Philippe Shnaider, Maya L Roth, Felicia Ketcheson, Ken Balderson, Jon D Elhai
BACKGROUND: Research on the relationship between insomnia and nightmares, and suicidal ideation (SI) has produced variable findings, especially with regard to military samples. This study investigates whether depression mediated the relationship between: 1) sleep disturbances and SI, and 2) trauma-related nightmares and SI, in a sample of treatment-seeking Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel and veterans (N = 663). METHOD: Regression analyses were used to investigate associations between sleep disturbances or trauma-related nightmares and SI while controlling for depressive symptom severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, anxiety symptom severity, and alcohol use severity...
June 19, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Coit T Hendley, Lee A Fielding, Elizabeth R Jones, Anthony J Ryan, Steven P Armes, Lara A Estroff
Recently, it has become clear that a range of nanoparticles can be occluded within single crystals to form nanocomposites. Calcite is a much-studied model, but even in this case we have yet to fully understand the details of the nanoscale interactions at the organic-inorganic interface that lead to occlusion. Here, a series of diblock copolymer nanoparticles with well-defined surface chemistries were visualized interacting with a growing calcite surface using in situ atomic force microscopy. These nanoparticles comprise a poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) core-forming block and a non-ionic poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (Ph-PGMA), a carboxylic acid-tipped poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (HOOC-PGMA), or an anionic poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) stabilizer block...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Karen Walseth Hara, Petter Borchgrevink
Background All nations are posed with the challenge of deciding how to allocate limited health care resources. A Patients' Rights Law from 1999 gives patients in Norway with a serious health condition, for which there is efficacious and cost-effective treatment, a legal right to receive health care from the National Health Care system. Methods Recently national guidelines have been produced for implementing these legal rights within 32 fields of specialist health care. One of these fields deals with serious chronic pain conditions...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
P Farrand, A Jeffs, T Bloomfield, N Greenberg, E Watkins, E Mullan
Background: Despite developments in mental health services for armed forces veterans and family members, barriers to access associated with poor levels of acceptability regarding service provision remain. Adapting a Step 2 mental health service based on low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions to represent a familiar context and meet the needs of the armed forces veteran community may serve to enhance acceptability and reduce help-seeking barriers. Aims: To examine acceptability of a Step 2 low-intensity CBT mental health service adapted for armed forces veterans and family members provided by a UK Armed Forces charity...
June 15, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Vishal Metri, Ameur Louhichi, Jiajun Yan, Guilhem P Baeza, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Dimitris Vlassopoulos, Wim J Briels
The equilibrium mechanical properties of a cross-linked gel of telechelic star polymers are studied by rheology and Brownian dynamics simulations. The Brownian dynamics model consists of cores to which Rouse arms are attached. Forces between the cores are obtained from a potential of mean force model developed by Likos and co-workers. Both experimentally and in the simulations, networks were created by attaching sticker groups to the ends of the arms of the polymers, which were next allowed to form bonds among them in a one to one fashion...
April 24, 2018: Macromolecules
Robert G Lockie, Samuel J Callaghan, Matthew R Moreno, Fabrice G Risso, Tricia M Liu, Alyssa A Stage, Samantha A Birmingham-Babauta, John J Stokes, Dominic V Giuliano, Adrina Lazar, DeShaun L Davis, Ashley J Orjalo
The close-grip bench press (CGBP) is a variation of the traditional bench press (TBP) that uses a narrower grip (~95% of biacromial distance (BAD)) and has potential application for athletes performing explosive arm actions from positions where the hands are held close to the torso. Limited research has investigated CGBP mechanics compared to the TBP. Twenty-seven resistance-trained individuals completed a one-repetition maximum TBP and CGBP. The TBP was performed with the preferred grip; the CGBP with a grip width of 95% BAD...
June 24, 2017: Sports
Joseph J Knapik, Krista G Austin, Emily K Farina, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement (DS) use is prevalent among the US Armed Forces personnel, but representative cross-service comparisons and characteristics of personnel using DSs are limited. OBJECTIVE: Examine DS use and characteristics associated with use in a representative sample of US Armed Forces personnel (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) using data from the 2011 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sample of service members (SMs) was contacted and asked to complete a questionnaire assessing personal characteristics and DS use...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Jessica Mandrioli, Roberto D'Amico, Elisabetta Zucchi, Annalisa Gessani, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Claudia Caponnetto, Adriano Chiò, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Christian Lunetta, Letizia Mazzini, Kalliopi Marinou, Gianni Sorarù, Sara de Biasi, Domenico Lo Tartaro, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded aggregated proteins and neuroinflammation significantly contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, hence representing therapeutic targets to modify disease expression. Rapamycin inhibits mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and enhances autophagy with demonstrated beneficial effects in neurodegeneration in cell line and animal models, improving phenotype in SQSTM1 zebrafish, in Drosophila model of ALS-TDP, and in the TDP43 mouse model, in which it reduced neuronal loss and TDP43 inclusions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jack De Havas, Sho Ito, Patrick Haggard, Hiroaki Gomi
The Kohnstamm phenomenon is a prolonged involuntary aftercontraction following a sustained voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The control principles of the Kohnstamm have been investigated using mechanical perturbations, but previous studies could not dissociate sensorimotor responses to perturbation from effects of gravity. We induced a horizontal, gravity-independent Kohnstamm movement around the shoulder joint, and applied resistive or assistive torques of 0.5 Nm after 20° angular displacement. A No perturbation control condition was included...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Daniela Gompelmann, Pallav L Shah, Arschang Valipour, Felix J F Herth
Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) represents one of the endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) techniques that aims at hyperinflation reduction in patients with advanced emphysema to improve respiratory mechanics. By targeted segmental vapor ablation, an inflammatory response leads to tissue and volume reduction of the most diseased emphysematous segments. So far, BTVA has been demonstrated in several single-arm trials and 1 multinational randomized controlled trial to improve lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema irrespective of the collateral ventilation...
June 12, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Qian Ding, Carolynn Patten
BACKGROUND: Grip strength is frequently measured as a global indicator of motor function. In clinical populations, such as hemiparesis post-stroke, grip strength is associated with upper-extremity motor impairment, function, and ability to execute activities of daily living. However, biomechanical configuration of the distal arm and hand may influence the magnitude and stability of maximal voluntary grip force and varies across studies. The influence of distal arm/hand biomechanical configuration on grip force remains unclear...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Amy Dressen, Alexander R Abbas, Christopher Cabanski, Janina Reeder, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Margaret Neighbors, Tushar R Bhangale, Matthew J Brauer, Julie Hunkapiller, Jens Reeder, Kiran Mukhyala, Karen Cuenco, Jennifer Tom, Amy Cowgill, Jan Vogel, William F Forrest, Harold R Collard, Paul J Wolters, Jonathan A Kropski, Lisa H Lancaster, Timothy S Blackwell, Joseph R Arron, Brian L Yaspan
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) risk has a strong genetic component. Studies have implicated variations at several loci, including TERT, surfactant genes, and a single nucleotide polymorphism at chr11p15 (rs35705950) in the intergenic region between TOLLIP and MUC5B. Patients with IPF who have risk alleles at rs35705950 have longer survival from the time of IPF diagnosis than do patients homozygous for the non-risk allele, whereas patients with shorter telomeres have shorter survival times...
June 8, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Barbara Lawrenz, Jianmin Long, Dominic Stoop, Irine Missou, Human Fatemi
Elevated progesterone levels on the day of trigger negatively impact the outcome of assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatment and forced ovarian stimulation might be a cause of progesterone elevation during ovarian stimulation. To analyze the impact of forced and prolonged stimulation on the progesterone elevation, this data analysis from the Ensure study compared hormonal stimulation with corifollitropin alpha (CFA)-only with CFA plus recombinant (rec) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) after day 8 (CFA-plus group) of ovarian stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Majed O Aljuaid, Osama R El-Ghamry
Introduction: The use of radiographic data for determination of age, according to the epiphyseal union stage, is a widely accepted method and considered scientifically approved. The aim of the present work is to estimate the age of epiphyseal union of hand and knee joints bones among Saudi population in Taif City. Subjects and Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Armed Forces Hospitals (4 hospitals) in Taif City. The five-stage method was used for the union assessment...
2018: Radiology Research and Practice
Fabian Gilbert, Rafael G Jakubietz, Rainer H Meffert, Michael G Jakubietz
Background: Reverse oblique distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) configuration is assumed to show inferior postoperative results in ulnar-shortening osteotomy due to osteoarthritis, as the joint force pressure in the DRUJ may be increased. An evaluation and comparison of the postoperative functional results with regard to clinical and radiographic signs of arthritis among different DRUJ configurations was carried out retrospectively. Methods: Sixty-two patients after ulnar shortening osteotomy were included...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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