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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230905/characteristics-of-bone-injuries-resulting-from-knife-wounds-incised-with-different-forces
#1
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228312/a-study-of-coronary-artery-variants-and-anomalies-observed-at-a-tertiary-care-armed-forces-hospital-using-64-slice-mdct
#2
Akhilesh Rao, Yayati Pimpalwar, Neha Yadu, R K Yadav
BACKGROUND: Isolated coronary artery anomalies are usually clinically silent and mostly detected incidentally during angiography or autopsy. However, few of them may be implicated in cases of sudden cardiac death even in the absence of additional heart abnormalities. Prior knowledge of such variants and anomalies is necessary for planning various interventional procedures. Multiple detector computed tomography coronary angiography has proved a very useful non-invasive modality in this field given its superiority over conventional coronary angiography in providing detailed coronary artery anatomy...
January 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227883/development-and-validation-of-thums-version-5-with-1d-muscle-models-for-active-and-passive-automotive-safety-research
#3
Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Masami Iwamoto, Yuko Nakahira
Accurately predicting the occupant kinematics is critical to better understand the injury mechanisms during an automotive crash event. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the human body integrated with an active muscle model called Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 5, which has the body size of the 50th percentile American adult male (AM50). This model is characterized by being able to generate a force owing to muscle tone and to predict the occupant response during an automotive crash event...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227836/exerciser-for-rehabilitation-of-the-arm-era-development-and-unique-features-of-a-3d-end-effector-robot
#4
Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Marie-Helene Milot, Mathieu Hamel, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Maxime Dupuis, Dominic Letourneau, Simon Briere, Francois Michaud, Philippe-Olivier Provost, Dominic Letourneau, Maxime Dupuis, Marie-Helene Milot, Francois Michaud, Mathieu Hamel, Julien Bernier-Ouellet, Simon Briere
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Consequently, many stroke survivors exhibit difficulties undergoing voluntary movement in their affected upper limb, compromising their functional performance and level of independence. To minimize the negative impact of stroke disabilities, exercises are recognized as a key element in post-stroke rehabilitation. In order to provide the practice of exercises in a uniform and controlled manner as well as increasing the efficiency of therapists' interventions, robotic training has been found, and continues to prove itself, as an innovative intervention for post-stroke rehabilitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227532/assessing-the-role-of-preknowledge-in-force-compensation-during-a-tracking-task
#5
Dimitrios Menychtas, Tyler Sullins, Benjamin Rigsby, Stephanie Carey, Kyle B Reed, Dimitrios Menychtas, Tyler Sullins, Benjamin Rigsby, Stephanie Carey, Kyle B Reed, Dimitrios Menychtas, Benjamin Rigsby, Kyle B Reed, Stephanie Carey, Tyler Sullins
Considerable research has been done looking at the asymmetries between the dominant and nondominant arms. However, one area that has received less attention is how information about a perturbation affects these upper limb asymmetries. Our study sought to determine whether foreknowledge of a perturbation can affect the compensation from each arm. In addition, we examined the differences in compensation for perturbations parallel with the line of action and perpendicular to it. Results showed that the nondominant arm was largely unaffected by the visual condition...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226998/extraction-of-the-brachialis-muscle-activity-using-hd-semg-technique-and-canonical-correlation-analysis
#6
M Al Harrach, B Afsharipour, S Boudaoud, V Carriou, F Marin, R Merletti, M Al Harrach, B Afsharipour, S Boudaoud, V Carriou, F Marin, R Merletti, V Carriou, B Afsharipour, M Al Harrach, F Marin, S Boudaoud
The Brachialis (BR) is placed under the Biceps Brachii (BB) deep in the upper arm. Therefore, the detection of the corresponding surface Electromyogram (sEMG) is a complex task. The BR is an important elbow flexor, but it is usually not considered in the sEMG based force estimation process. The aim of this study was to attempt to separate the two sEMG activities of the BR and the BB by using a High Density sEMG (HD-sEMG) grid placed at the upper arm and Canonical Component Analysis (CCA) technique. For this purpose, we recorded sEMG signals from seven subjects with two 8 × 4 electrode grids placed over BB and BR...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226950/prediction-of-posture-dependent-tremor-by-the-calculation-of-the-endpoint-compliance
#7
Takuya Murata, Kouhei Sakurada, Toshio Tsuji, Yuichi Kurita, Takuya Murata, Kouhei Sakurada, Toshio Tsuji, Yuichi Kurita, Kouhei Sakurada, Takuya Murata, Toshio Tsuji, Yuichi Kurita
This paper proposes to use the analysis of human mechanical impedance to predict spatial behavior of tremor. Traditional studies have revealed that the variability in force is proportional to the mean level of force generated, which is described as signal dependent noise. The variability in force sometimes generates unintentional and uncontrollable rhythmic muscle movements, called tremor. Tremor appears most commonly on arms and hands due to not only a symptom of a neurological disorder, but also when we tighten our muscles...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226939/model-based-assistance-as-needed-for-robotic-movement-therapy-after-stroke
#8
Hossein Taheri, David J Reinkensmeyer, Eric T Wolbrecht, Hossein Taheri, David J Reinkensmeyer, Eric T Wolbrecht, Eric T Wolbrecht, David J Reinkensmeyer, Hosoein Taheri
This paper extends an adaptive control approach for robotic movement therapy that learns deficiencies in a patient's neuromuscular output and assists accordingly. In this method, adaptation is based on trajectory tracking error and a model of unimpaired motor control forces. The controller presented here adaptively learns and fills the gaps in the patient's ability to generate inertial forces, instead of just static forces, as has been proposed before. To test this method, a two dimensional model of an impaired human arm was used to simulate reaching movements in the horizontal plane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226906/a-new-crank-arm-based-load-cell-with-built-in-conditioning-circuit-and-strain-gages-to-measure-the-components-of-the-force-applied-by-a-cyclist
#9
Andre V Pigatto, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot, Andre V Pigatto, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot, Andre V Pigatto
This report describes the development of a force platform based on instrumented load cells with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages to measure and acquire the components of the force that is applied to the bike crank arm during pedaling in real conditions, and save them on a SD Card. To accomplish that, a complete new crank arm 3D solid model was developed in the SolidWorks, with dimensions equivalent to a commercial crank set and compatible with a conventional road bike, but with a compartment to support all the electronics necessary to measure 3 components of the force applied to the pedal during pedaling...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226568/design-of-a-spring-assisted-exoskeleton-module-for-wrist-and-hand-rehabilitation
#10
Joel C Perry, Shawn Trimble, Luiz Gustavo Castilho Machado, Jeremiah S Schroeder, Aitor Belloso, Cristina Rodriguez-de-Pablo, Thierry Keller, Joel C Perry, Shawn Trimble, Luiz Gustavo Castilho Machado, Jeremiah S Schroeder, Aitor Belloso, Cristina Rodriguez-de-Pablo, Thierry Keller, Cristina Rodriguez-De-Pablo, Joel C Perry, Jeremiah S Schroeder, Aitor Belloso, Luiz Gustavo Castilho Machado, Thierry Keller, Shawn Trimble
This paper reports on the development of a low-profile exoskeleton module to enable training of the fingers and thumb in grasp and release tasks. The design has been made as an add-on module for use with the ArmAssist arm rehabilitation system (Tecnalia, Spain). Variable-position springs and adjustable link lengths provide adaptability to fit a variety of users. Additive manufacturing has been utilized for the majority of components allowing easy modifications. A few structural components were machined from aluminum or steel to produce a functional prototype with sufficient strength for direct evaluation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226426/physiological-mechanisms-for-stabilizing-the-limb-when-acting-against-physical-constraints
#11
P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops. According to the "automatic gain scaling" principle, the spinal reflex gain, as measured via the H-reflex, scales with muscle activation. A previous experiment from our labs suggested, however, that reflex gains might instead be scaled to the force exerted by the limb, perhaps as a means to counteract destabilizing external forces...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222759/development-and-assessment-of-a-hand-assist-device-gripit
#12
Byungchul Kim, Hyunki In, Dae-Young Lee, Kyu-Jin Cho
BACKGROUND: Although various hand assist devices have been commercialized for people with paralysis, they are somewhat limited in terms of tool fixation and device attachment method. Hand exoskeleton robots allow users to grasp a wider range of tools but are heavy, complicated, and bulky owing to the presence of numerous actuators and controllers. The GRIPIT hand assist device overcomes the limitations of both conventional devices and exoskeleton robots by providing improved tool fixation and device attachment in a lightweight and compact device...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222554/a-single-group-pretest-posttest-clinical-trial-for-the-effects-of-dry-needling-on-wrist-flexors-spasticity-after-stroke
#13
Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari
BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a common complication after stroke. Dry needling (DN) is suggested as a novel method for treatment of muscle spasticity. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of DN on wrist flexors spasticity poststroke. METHODS: A single group, pretest-posttest clinical trial was used. Twenty nine patients with stroke (16 male; mean age 54.3 years) were tested at baseline (T0), immediately after DN (T1), and one hour after DN (T2). DN was applied for flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and flexor carpi ulnaris on the affected arm for single session, one minute per muscle...
February 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219842/differences-in-the-activation-and-co-activation-ratios-of-the-four-subdivisions-of-trapezius-between-genders-following-a-computer-typing-task
#14
Kimberly A Szucs, Megan Molnar
The aim of this study was to provide a description of gender differences of the activation patterns of the four subdivisions of the trapezius (clavicular, upper, middle, lower) following a 60min computer work task. Surface EMG was collected from these subdivisions from 21 healthy subjects during bilateral arm elevation pre-/post- task. Subjects completed a standardized 60min computer work task at a standard, ergonomic workstation. Normalized activation and activation ratios of each trapezius subdivision were compared between genders and condition with repeated measures ANOVAs...
February 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#15
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217790/nanotribological-properties-of-nanostructured-poly-cysteine-methacrylate-brushes
#16
Omed Al-Jaf, Abdullah Alswieleh, Steven P Armes, Graham J Leggett
The nanomechanical properties of zwitterionic poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes grown from planar surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerisation have been characterised by friction force microscopy (FFM). FFM provides quantitative insights into polymer structure-property relationships and in particular illuminates the dependence of brush swelling on chain packing in nanostructured materials. In ethanol, which is a poor solvent for PCysMA, a linear friction-load relationship is observed, indicating that energy dissipation occurs primarily through ploughing...
February 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213690/anticipatory-postural-adjustments-associated-with-reaching-movements-are-programmed-according-to-the-availability-of-visual-information
#17
Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini, Francesco Bolzoni, Paolo Cavallari
During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212709/erythrocyte-deformability-and-aggregation-responses-to-intermittent-and-continuous-artificial-gravity-exposure
#18
Grau Marijke, Abeln Vera, Vogt Tobias, Bloch Wilhelm, Schneider Stefan
Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2Gz for 30min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2Gz and rest...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195538/a-question-of-ethics-not-nationalism-author-s-response
#19
Siddarth David
The aim of the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" was neither to disparage the armed forces, nor recommend counterinsurgency strategies, nor support any particular community or group. It sought to raise discussions around the question pointed out by the responder himself, namely, "the ethical point of view" on the use of pellet guns in controlling violent mobs. The author also feels that the question is not so much about "favouring" the protestors or the security forces, but whether an instrument that causes significant fatalities and morbidities among bystanders should continue to be used as a method of crowd control...
January 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193497/i-act-therefore-i-err-eeg-correlates-of-success-and-failure-in-a-virtual-throwing-game
#20
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
What are the neural responses to success and failure in a throwing task? To answer this question, we compared Event Related Potentials (ERPs) correlated with success and failure during a highly-ecological-virtual game. Participants played a tennis-like game in an immersive 3D virtual world, against a computer player, by controlling a virtual tennis racket with a force feedback robotic arm. Results showed that success, i.e. hitting the target, and failure, by missing the target, evoked ERP's that differ by peak, latencies, scalp signal distributions, sLORETA source estimation, and time-frequency patterns...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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