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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036498/british-widows-of-the-south-african-war-and-the-origins-of-war-widows-pensions
#1
Eliza Riedi
The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support...
September 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031158/a-potential-contribution-to-human-identification-using-peri-mortem-trauma-an-example-from-peru
#2
Jose P Baraybar
This is an exploratory study into the need for additional lines of forensic evidence in humanitarian cases using applied research. One hundred and twenty four, still unidentified terrorism inmates, were killed after surrendering to the Peruvian Army once it took control of the San Pedro-Lurigancho prison in Lima, Peru in 1986. Two questions are put forward: first, to what extent mechanism of injury (gunshot, blunt, sharp force) and bodily distribution of those injuries allow us to classify individuals into discrete sub-groups of people? The second question is to what respect can such a classification become an additional line of evidence assisting in generating hypotheses of identity regarding those individuals? The analysis of the 109 recovered bodies and their associated evidence show a sub group of four individuals differentiated from the rest based on the combination of injuries (gunshot and blunt force trauma), opposing trajectories and weapons...
September 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030237/contact-force-sensing-for-ablation-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#3
Sergio Conti, Rukshen Weerasooriya, Paul Novak, Jean Champagne, Hong Euy Lim, Laurent Macle, Yaariv Khaykin, Alfredo Pantano, Atul Verma
BACKGROUND: Impact of contact force sensing (CFS) on ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The TOUCH AF randomized trial compared CFS guided ablation to a CFS blinded strategy. METHODS: Patients (n=128) undergoing first-time ablation for persistent AF were randomized to a CFS guided vs CFS blinded strategy. In the CFS guided procedure, operators visualized real-time force data; in the blinded procedure, force data was hidden...
October 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025605/comparison-between-carbon-peek-volar-locking-plates-and-titanium-volar-locking-plates-in-the-treatment-of-distal-radius-fractures
#4
Dario Perugia, Matteo Guzzini, Daniele Mazza, Carlo Iorio, Carolina Civitenga, Andrea Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: Unstable intra articular fractures of distal radius are frequently being managed with open reduction and internal fixation. Volar locking plate based on polyetheretherketon (PEEK) polymer has developed lately as an alternative to conventional metallic devices. The advantage of this kind of plates include the lack of metal allergies, radiolucency, low artefacts on MRI or imaging scans and the high resistance associated to loading forces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results using a new Carbon-PEEK volar locking plate compared with titanium volar locking plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022039/paediatric-supracondylar-humeral-fractures-a-technique-for-safe-medial-pin-passage-with-zero-incidence-of-iatrogenic-ulnar-nerve-injury
#5
Chin Yee Woo, Han Loong Ho, Mohammad Bin Zainuddin Ashik, Kevin Boon Leong Lim
INTRODUCTION: The cross Kirschner wire (k-wire) configuration in closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of paediatric supracondylar humeral fracture afford superior stability. However, medial pin placement presents a risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. This study describes, in step-by-step detail, another safe method of percutaneous medial pin insertion. METHODS: The technique involved placing the patient's arm in external rotation, with elbow flexed no more than 45° after closed reduction...
October 12, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021906/a-pilot-biomechanical-assessment-of-curling-deliveries-is-toe-sliding-more-likely-to-cause-knee-injury-than-flatfoot-sliding
#6
Iona Robertson, Graham P Arnold, Weijie Wang, Tim S Drew, Sadiq Nasir, Calum MacDonald, Rami J Abboud
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether toe sliding is more likely to cause knee injuries than flatfoot sliding in curling. METHODS: Twelve curlers participated in the study, each delivering 12 stones. Six stones per volunteer were delivered using a flatfoot slide and six were delivered using a toe slide. The Pedar-X in-shoe pressure system recorded the plantar pressure during each of the slides, while a sagittal plane digital video recorded the body position of the curler...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020561/saving-life-limb-and-eyesight-assessing-the-medical-rules-of-eligibility-during-armed-conflict
#7
Michael L Gross
Medical rules of eligibility permit severely injured Iraqi and Afghan nationals to receive care in Coalition medical facilities only if bed space is available and their injuries result directly from Coalition fire. The first rule favors Coalition soldiers over host-nation nationals and contradicts the principle of impartial, needs-based medical care. To justify preferential care for compatriots, wartime medicine invokes associative obligations of care that favor friends, family, and comrades-in-arms. Associative obligations have little place in peacetime medical care but significantly affect wartime medicine...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018339/gravitational-and-dynamic-components-of-muscle-torque-underlie-tonic-and-phasic-muscle-activity-during-goal-directed-reaching
#8
Erienne V Olesh, Bradley S Pollard, Valeriya Gritsenko
Human reaching movements require complex muscle activations to produce the forces necessary to move the limb in a controlled manner. How gravity and the complex kinetic properties of the limb contribute to the generation of the muscle activation pattern by the central nervous system (CNS) is a long-standing and controversial question in neuroscience. To tackle this issue, muscle activity is often subdivided into static and phasic components. The former corresponds to posture maintenance and transitions between postures...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016608/military-service-deployments-and-exposures-in-relation-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-survival
#9
John D Beard, Lawrence S Engel, David B Richardson, Marilie D Gammon, Coleen Baird, David M Umbach, Kelli D Allen, Catherine L Stanwyck, Jean Keller, Dale P Sandler, Silke Schmidt, Freya Kamel
BACKGROUND: Military veterans may have higher rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality than non-veterans. Few studies, with sparse exposure information and mixed results, have studied relationships between military-related factors and ALS survival. We evaluated associations between military-related factors and ALS survival among U.S. military veteran cases. METHODS: We followed 616 medical record-confirmed cases from enrollment (2005-2010) in the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis study until death or July 25, 2013, whichever came first...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989915/management-of-substance-use-disorder-in-military-services-a-comprehensive-approach
#10
Mohammad Reza Sharbafchi, Mostafa Heydari
BACKGROUND: Historically, substance misuse has been a serious problem faced by worldwide military personnel. Some research showed that military personnel have higher rates of unhealthy substance use than their age peers in the general population. These problems have serious consequences and may lead to significant military difficulties in the field of readiness, discipline, and mental or physical health. In this review, we gathered various methods for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use disorders and suggested a comprehensive plan for Iran Armed Forces to improve existing services...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986086/functional-physical-training-improves-women-s-military-occupational-performance
#11
Bradley C Nindl, Shawn R Eagle, Peter N Frykman, Christopher Palmer, Eric Lammi, Katy Reynolds, Katelyn Allison, Everett Harman
The U.S. Armed Forces have recently approved full integration of women into combat roles. Physical fitness demands for executing Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) are substantial; thus lifting and load carriage capability improvements are desirable. OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specially-designed physical conditioning program could lessen the gap between the performance of male and female Soldiers in lifting and load carriage and thereby enable women to meet the requirements of most, if not all, Army MOSs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985964/the-hemoglobin-derived-peptide-lvv-hemorphin-7-evokes-behavioral-effects-mediated-by-oxytocin-receptors
#12
Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Larissa Córdova Turones, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Karina Pereira Gomes, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Pablinny Galdino, Christielly Rodrigues-Silva, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Elson Alves Costa, Paulo Cesar Ghedini, Danielle Ianzer, Carlos Henrique Xavier
LVV-hemorphin-7 (LVV-h7) is bioactive peptide resulting from degradation of hemoglobin β-globin chain. LVV-h7 is a specific agonist of angiotensin IV receptor. This receptor belongs to the class of insulin-regulated aminopeptidases (IRAP), which displays oxytocinase activity. Herein, our aims were to assess whether: i) LVV-h7 modifies centrally organized behavior and cardiovascular responses to stress and ii) mechanisms underlying LVV-h7 effects involve activation of oxytocin (OT) receptors, probably as result of reduction of IRAP proteolytic activity upon OT...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985238/the-pain-threshold-of-high-threshold-mechanosensitive-receptors-subsequent-to-maximal-eccentric-exercise-is-a-potential-marker-in-the-prediction-of-doms-associated-impairment
#13
Johannes Fleckenstein, Perikles Simon, Matthias König, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) refers to dull pain and discomfort in people after participating in exercise, sport or recreational physical activities. The aim of this study was to detect underlying mechanical thresholds in an experimental model of DOMS. METHODS: Randomised study to detect mechanical pain thresholds in a randomised order following experimentally induced DOMS of the non-dominant arm in healthy participants. Main outcome was the detection of the pressure pain threshold (PPT), secondary thresholds included mechanical detection (MDT) and pain thresholds (MPT), pain intensity, pain perceptions and the maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984839/complete-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-of-a-burial-from-a-romano-christian-cemetery-in-the-dakhleh-oasis-egypt-preliminary-indications
#14
J Eldon Molto, Odile Loreille, Elizabeth K Mallott, Ripan S Malhi, Spence Fast, Jennifer Daniels-Higginbotham, Charla Marshall, Ryan Parr
The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano-Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2)...
October 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981682/francisella-like-endosymbiont-detected-in-haemaphysalis-ticks-acari-ixodidae-from-the-republic-of-korea
#15
Ratree Takhampunya, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Achareeya Korkusol, Bousaraporn Tippayachai, Silas A Davidson, Jeannine M Petersen, Terry A Klein
A total of 6,255 ticks belonging to three genera and six species (Haemaphysalis flava Neumann, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, Haemaphysalis phasiana Saito, Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka & Saito, Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, and Amblyomma testudinarium Koch) collected from May-August, 2013, at four southwestern provinces in the Republic of Korea (ROK) were submitted to the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences and assayed for selected tick-borne pathogens. One pool each of H. flava and H. phasiana was positive by PCR and sequencing for a Francisella-like endosymbiont, while all pools were negative for Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980321/post-exercise-recovery-of-contractile-function-and-endurance-in-humans-and-mice-is-accelerated-by-heating-and-slowed-by-cooling-skeletal-muscle
#16
Arthur J Cheng, Sarah J Willis, Christoph Zinner, Thomas Chaillou, Niklas Ivarsson, Niels Ørtenblad, Johanna T Lanner, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Håkan Westerblad
Manipulation of muscle temperature is believed to improve post-exercise recovery, with cooling being especially popular among athletes. However, it is unclear whether such temperature manipulations actually have positive effects. Accordingly, we studied the effect of muscle temperature on the acute recovery of force and fatigue resistance after endurance exercise. One hour of moderate-intensity arm cycling exercise in humans was followed by two hours recovery in which the upper arms were either heated to 38°C, not treated (33°C), or cooled to ∼15°C...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977500/monitoring-of-returnees-from-ebola-affected-areas-lessons-learned-based-on-the-experience-of-french-armed-forces-deployed-in-guinea-2015
#17
Ghislain Manet, Gabriel Bédubourg, Guillaume Velut, Franck de Laval, Aurélie Mayet, Aissata Dia, Franck Berger, Benoît Quentin, Jean-Baptiste Meynard, Rémy Michel, Sandrine Duron
Introduction: During the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, French armed forces were involved in the treatment and management of Ebola patients in Guinea. The constant flow of military personnel returning from their deployment posed a risk of secondary dissemination of the Ebola virus. Our objective was to describe the follow-up of returning service members that was implemented to prevent this risk of dissemination in France. Method: For the French military, a specific complementary follow-up was added to the national monitoring to take into account the need for a detailed record for follow-up of returning military personnel and to keep the military chain of command informed...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973832/improved-hand-function-self-rated-health-and-decreased-activity-limitations-results-after-a-two-month-hand-osteoarthritis-group-intervention
#18
Linda Bjurehed, Nina Brodin, Ulla Nordenskiöld, Mathilda Björk
INTRODUCTION: Hand Osteoarthritis (hand OA) causes pain, impaired mobility and reduced grip force, which cause activity limitations. Osteoarthritis group interventions in primary care settings are sparsely reported. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects on hand function, activity limitations and self-rated health of a primary care hand OA group intervention. METHOD: 64 individuals with hand OA agreed to participate, 15 were excluded due to not fulfilling the inclusion criteria...
October 3, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971327/importance-of-consistent-datasets-in-musculoskeletal-modelling-a-study-of-the-hand-and-wrist
#19
Benjamin Goislard De Monsabert, Dafydd Edwards, Darshan Shah, Angela Kedgley
Hand musculoskeletal models provide a valuable insight into the loads withstood by the upper limb; however, their development remains challenging because there are few datasets describing both the musculoskeletal geometry and muscle morphology from the elbow to the finger tips. Clinical imaging, optical motion capture and microscopy were used to create a dataset from a single specimen. Subsequently, a musculoskeletal model of the wrist was developed based on these data to estimate muscle tensions and to demonstrate the potential of the provided parameters...
October 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970972/an-exploration-of-strategies-used-by-dressage-horses-to-control-moments-around-the-center-of-mass-when-performing-passage
#20
Hilary M Clayton, Sarah Jane Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Locomotion results from the generation of ground reaction forces (GRF) that cause translations of the center of mass (COM) and generate moments that rotate the body around the COM. The trot is a diagonally-synchronized gait performed by horses at intermediate locomotor speeds. Passage is a variant of the trot performed by highly-trained dressage horses. It is distinguished from trot by having a slow speed of progression combined with great animation of the limbs in the swing phase...
2017: PeerJ
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