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Trench fever

Didier Raoult
We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
C Sadanandane, A Elango, Noonu Marja, P V Sasidharan, K H K Raju, P Jambulingam
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. The line-list data of KFD cases available with District Medical Office, Wayanad were analysed. Case investigation was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak and possible site of contraction infections...
September 21, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult
Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest...
2016: BioMed Research International
Gregory M Anstead
In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Irenee Umulisa, Jared Omolo, Katherine A Muldoon, Jeanine Condo, Francois Habiyaremye, Jean Marie Uwimana, Marie Aimee Muhimpundu, Tura Galgalo, Samuel Rwunganira, Anicet G Dahourou, Eric Tongren, Jean Baptiste Koama, Jennifer McQuiston, Pratima L Raghunathan, Robert Massung, Wangeci Gatei, Kimberly Boer, Thierry Nyatanyi, Edward J Mills, Agnes Binagwaho
In August 2012, laboratory tests confirmed a mixed outbreak of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda. Seventy-six suspected cases and 118 controls were enrolled into an unmatched case-control study to identify risk factors for symptomatic illness during the outbreak. A suspected case was fever or history of fever, from April 2012, in a resident of the rehabilitation center. In total, 199 suspected cases from a population of 1,910 male youth (attack rate = 10...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Peter C Wever, A J Hodges
Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho, Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi, Marina Rovani Drummond, Bruno Grosselli Lania, Maria Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Stanley Sowy, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Diana Gerardi Scorpio
Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miroslaw J Smogorzewski
The first alarming reports about a new disease called "trench nephritis" affecting soldiers of the British Expeditionary Forces in Flanders appeared in British medical press in 1915th. Soon, the Medical Research Council initiated a special research investigation on trench nephritis at St. Bartholomews Hospital and the results of these studies were discussed during the Royal Society of Medicine meeting in February 1916. William Osler was invited as one of the four main speakers for this presentation. He had lived in England since 1906 and served as the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford...
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Sara Moutailler, Françoise Féménia, Philippe Raymond, Olivier Croce, Bernard La Scola, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult
Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp...
March 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Takuma Iwamatsu, Daisuke Miyamoto, Hidefumi Mitsuno, Yoshiaki Yoshioka, Takeshi Fujii, Takeshi Sakurai, Yukio Ishikawa, Ryohei Kanzaki
The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil...
April 2016: Parasitology Research
Rezak Drali, Jean-Christophe Shako, Bernard Davoust, Georges Diatta, Didier Raoult
The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C...
November 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Akina Nara, Hisashi Nagai, Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Yohsuke Makino, Fumiko Chiba, Ken-ichi Yoshida, Daisuke Yajima, Hirotaro Iwase
Pediculus humanus humanus (known as body lice) are commonly found in the folds of clothes, and can cause skin disorders when they feed on human blood, resulting in an itching sensation. Body lice are known as vectors of infectious diseases, including typhus, recurrent fever, and trench fever. An infestation with blood-sucking body lice induces severe cutaneous pruritus, and this skin disorder is known as "vagabond's disease." A body lice infestation is sometimes complicated with iron deficiency anemia. In the present case, a man in his late 70s died of lethal hypothermia in the outdoors during the winter season...
May 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jaime M Tovar-Corona, Atahualpa Castillo-Morales, Lu Chen, Brett P Olds, John M Clark, Stuart E Reynolds, Barry R Pittendrigh, Edward J Feil, Araxi O Urrutia
Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice...
October 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Hamza Leulmi, Idir Bitam, Jean Michel Berenger, Hubert Lepidi, Jean Marc Rolain, Lionel Almeras, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hamza Leulmi, Idir Bitam, Jean Michel Berenger, Hubert Lepidi, Jean Marc Rolain, Lionel Almeras, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B...
May 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
N Lameire
This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology...
December 2014: Acta Clinica Belgica
Susanna Hernandez-Bou, Victoria Trenchs, Astrid Batlle, Amadeu Gene, Carles Luaces
AIM: The rate of paediatric occult bacteraemia after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine is relatively unknown. We determined the rate, and identified isolated pathogens, in children aged three to 36 months who presented to a paediatric emergency department with fever, but otherwise appeared well. We also analysed the yield of laboratory parameters traditionally considered risk factors for occult bacteraemia. METHODS: Children aged three to 36 months who were febrile, but otherwise appeared well, were included if they had blood tests in the paediatric emergency department between April 2010 and September 2012...
February 2015: Acta Paediatrica
I Kooli, C Loussaief, H Ben Brahim, A Aouem, A Toumi, M Chakroun
INTRODUCTION: Bartonella quintana (Bq) is responsible of various clinical pictures. Neuromeningeal complications are rarely reported. CASE: A 20-year-old woman was admitted for fever, headache lasting for 5 days. On admission, she was febrile at 39.3°C and had a stiff neck. Symptoms, contact with animals, biological tests and lumbar puncture (PL) rendered viral meningitis a likely diagnosis. She had received symptomatic treatment and the outcome was favorable. Three days later, the patient had headache, agitation and confusion with fever...
December 2014: Pathologie-biologie
Neriman Aydin, Rıfat Bülbül, Murat Tellı, Berna Gültekın
Bartonella species cause several diseases in humans such as cat stratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, endocarditis, Carrion disease and trench fever. Cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis cases have already been reported in Turkey. Studies from our region, namely Aydin (a province located at Western Anatolia, Turkey) indicated that mean Bartonella henselae IgG seropositivity rate is 11.5% in risk groups and may reach to 26.5% in pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of B...
July 2014: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
E Mayhew
Ayrshire general practitioner Charles McKerrow was appointed regimental medical officer (RMO) to the 10th Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers in 1915. At this time, fundamental restructuring of the military medical service on the Western Front had two main effects: surgical capability was moved forward as close to the front as possible and specialist stretcher bearers were trained to apply emergency first aid at the place of injury and to triage casualties appropriately. The specialist stretcher bearers were the equivalent of today's combat medical technicians...
2014: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
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