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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430872/optimal-screening-schedules-for-disease-progression-with-application-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Ionut Bebu, John M Lachin
Clinical management of chronic diseases requires periodic evaluations. Subjects transition between various levels of severity of a disease over time, one of which may trigger an intervention that requires treatment. For example, in diabetic retinopathy, patients with type 1 diabetes are evaluated yearly for either the onset of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or clinically significant macular edema (CSME) that would require immediate treatment to preserve vision. Herein, we investigate methods for the selection of personalized cost-effective screening schedules and compare them with a fixed visit schedule (e...
April 20, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427061/emerging-insights-into-pathogenesis
#2
Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423385/guidelines-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema-by-the-european-society-of-retina-specialists-euretina
#3
Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Jose Garcia-Arumi, Francesco Bandello, Karina Berg, Usha Chakravarthy, Bianca S Gerendas, Jost Jonas, Michael Larsen, Ramin Tadayoni, Anat Loewenstein
Diabetic retinal disease is envisioned to become the plague of the coming decades with a steep increase of worldwide diabetes incidence followed by a substantial rise in retinal disease. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic care have to cope with this dilemma in a clinically and socioeconomically efficient manner. Laser treatment has found a less destructive competitor in pharmacological treatments. As a consequence of recent rigorous clinical trials, laser photocoagulation is no longer recommended for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has emerged as first-line therapy...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423126/chronic-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-with-harmonic-scalpel-during-mitral-valve-surgery
#4
Alexandre Visconti Brick, Domingo M Braile
Objective: To evaluate surgical treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation with ultrasound in patients with mitral valve disease, considering preoperative clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical procedure and follow-up in the immediate postoperative period, in hospital and up to 60 months after discharge. Methods: We studied 100 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and mitral valve disease who underwent surgical treatment using ultrasound ablation...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420825/colchicine-improves-survival-left-ventricular-remodeling-and-chronic-cardiac-function-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Koichiro Fujisue, Koichi Sugamura, Hirofumi Kurokawa, Junichi Matsubara, Masanobu Ishii, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Seigo Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that colchicine attenuated the infarct size and inflammation in acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, the sustained benefit of colchicine administration on survival and cardiac function after MI is unknown. It was hypothesized that the short-term treatment with colchicine could improve survival and cardiac function during the recovery phase of MI.Methods and Results:MI was induced in mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
April 18, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419865/the-nitroxyl-donor-angeli-s-salt-ameliorates-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-septic-arthritis-in-mice
#6
Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Talita P Domiciano, Victor Fattori, Sandra S Mizokami, Jacinta S Pelayo, Juliano Bordignon, Florêncio Figueiredo, Rubia Casagrande, Katrina M Miranda, Waldiceu A Verri
Septic arthritis is a severe and rapidly debilitating disease associated with severe joint pain, inflammation and oxidative stress. Nitroxyl (HNO) has become a nitrogen oxide of significant interest due to its pharmacological endpoints that are potentially favorable for treating varied diseases. However, whether HNO also serves as a treatment to septic arthritis is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the HNO donor, Angeli's salt (AS), in the outcome of chronic Staphylococcus aureus (S...
April 15, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419850/overpressure-blast-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-response-in-rat-frontal-cortex-and-cerebellum
#7
Hale Z Toklu, Zhihui Yang, Sehkar Oktay, Yasemin Sakarya, Nataliya Kirichenko, Michael K Matheny, Judy Muller-Delp, Kevin Strang, Philip J Scarpace, Kevin K W Wang, Nihal Tümer
BACKGROUND & AIM: Overpressure blast-wave induced brain injury (OBI) and its long-term neurological outcome pose significant concerns for military personnel. Our aim is to investigate the mechanism of injury due to OBI. METHODS: Rats were divided into 3 groups: 1) Control, 2) OBI (exposed 30psi peak pressure, 2-2.5ms), 3) Repeated OBI (r-OBI) (three exposures over one-week period). Lung and brain (cortex and cerebellum) tissues were collected at 24h post injury...
April 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419400/a-nine-year-follow-up-of-macular-complications-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-and-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Dario Pasquale Mucciolo, Andrea Sodi, Vittoria Murro, Gianni Virgili, Stanislao Rizzo
The authors report a 9-year follow-up of macular complications in a 66-year-old woman affected with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rarely, clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy are presented in a patient with retinal dystrophy. This patient developed a bilateral diabetic macular edema (DME), which made its management complex due to the multiple pathogenic processes involved. Despite the chronicity of the DME, visual acuity remained stable without therapy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of DME in RP with such a long follow-up...
April 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414672/a-strong-and-fortuitous-case-of-dyspnea
#9
R Hammer, M Sciaudone
CASE: A 48 year-old man with no past medical history was sent to our emergency department (ED); from a primary care clinic for hypertensive urgency of 200/130. The man reported an intermittent non-productive cough of approximately one year's duration and worsening dyspnea on exertion and orthopnea over the last month with lower extremity swelling. Of note, he emigrated from Honduras twenty years ago. Blood pressure normalized with administration of Lasix in the ED. Physical exam revealed rales in lung bases bilaterally, jugular venous distension, lower extremity pitting edema with serpiginous patches of erythema and excoriation, and a cardiac gallop...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411688/anti-inflammatory-and-membrane-stabilizing-properties-of-methyl-jasmonate-in-rats
#10
Solomon Umukoro, Akinyinka Oladipo Alabi, Anthony Taghogho Eduviere, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Oluwafemi Gabriel Oluwole
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in experimental rat models of acute and chronic inflammation. The effects of MJ on acute inflammation were assessed using carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema model. The granuloma air pouch model was employed to evaluate the effects of MJ on chronic inflammation produced by carrageenan in rats. The number of white blood cells (WBC) in pouch exudates was estimated using light microscopy...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408159/brain-mrs-glutamine-as-a-biomarker-to-guide-therapy-of-hyperammonemic-coma
#11
Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Alexander P Lin, Sai K Merugumala, Frances Rohr, Susan E Waisbren, Rebecca Lynch, Vatche Tchekmedyian, Aaron D Goldberg, Andrew Bellinger, J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Tracey Simon, Esteban F Gershanik, Bruce D Levy, David E Cohen, Martin A Samuels, Gerard T Berry, Natasha Y Frank
Acute idiopathic hyperammonemia in an adult patient is a life-threatening condition often resulting in a rapid progression to irreversible cerebral edema and death. While ammonia-scavenging therapies lower blood ammonia levels, in comparison, clearance of waste nitrogen from the brain may be delayed. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor cerebral glutamine levels, the major reservoir of ammonia, in a gastric bypass patient with hyperammonemic coma undergoing therapy with N-carbamoyl glutamate and the ammonia-scavenging agents, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407281/multiparametric-quantitative-ultrasound-imaging-in-assessment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Jing Gao, Alan Perlman, Safa Kalache, Nathaniel Berman, Surya Seshan, Steven Salvatore, Lindsey Smith, Natasha Wehrli, Levi Waldron, Hanish Kodali, James Chevalier
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the value of multiparametric quantitative ultrasound imaging in assessing chronic kidney disease (CKD) using kidney biopsy pathologic findings as reference standards. METHODS: We prospectively measured multiparametric quantitative ultrasound markers with grayscale, spectral Doppler, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in 25 patients with CKD before kidney biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers. Based on all pathologic (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, arteriosclerosis, and edema) scores, the patients with CKD were classified into mild (no grade 3 and <2 of grade 2) and moderate to severe (at least 2 of grade 2 or 1 of grade 3) CKD groups...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401379/kidney-lung-pathophysiological-crosstalk-its-characteristics-and-importance
#13
REVIEW
Pilar Domenech, Tomas Perez, Agustina Saldarini, Pedro Uad, Carlos G Musso
Crosstalk between the lung and the kidney is based on the similarities that these organs share. This is why different diseases that affect one organ can have repercussions on the other. Patients with acute kidney injury can present complications such as pulmonary edema and require mechanical ventilation in respiratory failure. This interaction occurs due to the increase in systemic immune mediators that cause inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and an increase in vascular permeability in the lung. With regard to lung-induced renal damage, the kidney can also be affected by chemical mediators, which are translocated into the bloodstream...
April 11, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399038/intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-assisted-descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-for-anterior-chamber-fibrous-ingrowth
#14
Tarek A Shazly, Lillian K To, Ian P Conner, Ladan Espandar
PURPOSE: Here, we present the first reported case of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-assisted Descemet membrane stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in a patient with anterior segment fibrous ingrowth. METHODS: A 61-year-old woman with corneal edema and chronic angle-closure glaucoma secondary to fibrous ingrowth after 2 glaucoma shunt device implantations underwent dissection and removal of anterior chamber fibrous ingrowth and DSAEK...
April 10, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398413/imatinib-mesylate-induced-lichenoid-drug-eruption
#15
Erin H Penn, Hye Jin Chung, Matthew Keller
Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Since then, the number of indicated uses for imatinib has substantially increased. It is increasingly important that dermatologists recognize adverse cutaneous manifestations of imatinib and are aware of their management and outcomes to avoid unnecessarily discontinuing a potentially lifesaving medication. Adverse cutaneous manifestations in response to imat-inib are not infrequent and can include dry skin, alopecia, facial edema, and photosensitivity rash...
March 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392675/clinical-utility-of-intravitreal-fluocinolone-acetonide-iluvien-%C3%A2-implant-in-the-management-of-patients-with-chronic-diabetic-macular-edema-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#16
REVIEW
Habiba Saedon, Astha Anand, Yit C Yang
The first-line therapy for patients with center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME) is with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, with or without adjunctive macular laser treatment. However, a significant proportion of patients have persistent and recurrent edema despite repeated anti-VEGF injections. The fluocinolone acetonide (FA) 190 μg intravitreal implant has been shown in pivotal clinical trials to be efficacious for the treatment of DME and has been approved in many countries for use in patients who have not responded to first-line therapy...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389773/analysis-of-clinical-features-and-visual-outcomes-of-pars-planitis
#17
Nilufer Berker, Emine Sen, Ufuk Elgin, Cemile Ucgul Atilgan, Erdem Dursun, Pelin Yilmazbas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of patients with pars planitis in a tertiary referral center in Turkey. METHODS: Medical records of patients with pars planitis were retrospectively reviewed. The data including demographic and ocular features and treatment outcomes were recorded. The distribution of clinical findings and complications were evaluated according to age and gender groups. The changes in final BCVA compared to the initial BCVA were noted...
April 7, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386585/comprehensive-histological-and-immunochemical-forensic-studies-in-deaths-occurring-in-custody
#18
REVIEW
Kenneth Nugent, Menfil A Orellana-Barrios, Dolores Buscemi
In-custody deaths have several causes, and these include homicide, suicide, natural death from chronic diseases, and unexplained death possibly related to acute stress, asphyxia, excited delirium, and drug intoxication. In some instances, these deaths are attributed to undefined accidents and natural causes even though there is no obvious natural cause apparent after investigation. Understanding these deaths requires a comprehensive investigation, including documentation of circumstances surrounding the death, review of past medical history, drug and toxicology screens, and a forensic autopsy...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382117/fibrotic-tissue-and-middle-turbinate-exhibit-similar-mechanical-properties-is-fibrosis-a-solution-in-nasal-polyposis
#19
Luciano Gregório, Rogério Pezato, Rafael Souza Felici, Eduardo Macoto Kosugi
Introduction Nasal polyposis (NP) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the upper airway characterized by overgrowth of nasal mucosa. Recent studies have shown a mechanical dysfunction in the nasal polyp tissue. Objective This study aims to evaluate the mechanical properties of nasal fibrotic tissue. Method This study was an institutional review board approved translational study in 20 participants (8 patients with NP, 7 patients with nasal synechiae, and 5 subjects without sinus disease (control group)...
April 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376759/prognostic-value-of-mri-in-arthroscopic-treatment-of-chronic-patellar-tendinopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Peter Ogon, Kaywan Izadpanah, Helge Eberbach, Gernot Lang, Norbert P Südkamp, Dirk Maier
BACKGROUND: To date, prognostic outcome factors for patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment due to chronic patellar tendinopathy (PT) are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperatively assessed MRI parameters might be of prognostic value for prediction of functional outcome and return to sports in arthroscopic treatment of chronic PT. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted including 30 cases (4 female and 24 male competitive athletes) undergoing arthroscopic patellar release (APR) due to chronic PT...
April 4, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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