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Multiple drug resistant organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162636/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-novel-plasmodium-falciparum-surface-antigens-and-possible-vaccine-candidates
#1
Sandra K Nilsson Bark, Rushdy Ahmad, Kathleen Dantzler, Amanda K Lukens, Mariana De Niz, Matthew J Szucs, Xiaojing Jin, Joanne Cotton, Dietmar Hoffmann, Eva Bric-Furlong, Ray Oomen, Mark Parrington, Dan Milner, Daniel E Neafsey, Steven A Carr, Dyann F Wirth, Matthias Marti
Despite recent efforts towards control and elimination, malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum resistance against artemisinin, used in front line combination drugs, is on the rise, and the only approved vaccine shows limited efficacy. Combinations of novel and tailored drug and vaccine interventions are required to maintain the momentum of the current malaria elimination program. Current evidence suggests that strain-transcendent protection against malaria infection can be achieved using whole organism vaccination or with a polyvalent vaccine covering multiple antigens or epitopes...
November 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155836/genetic-variation-in-dip5-an-amino-acid-permease-and-pdr5-a-multiple-drug-transporter-regulates-glyphosate-resistance-in-s-cerevisiae
#2
Xiaoqing Rong-Mullins, Apoorva Ravishankar, Kirsten A McNeal, Zachery R Lonergan, Audrey C Biega, J Philip Creamer, Jennifer E G Gallagher
S. cerevisiae from different environments are subject to a wide range of selective pressures, whether intentional or by happenstance. Chemicals classified by their application, such as herbicides, fungicides and antibiotics, can affect non-target organisms. First marketed as RoundUp™, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide. In plants, glyphosate inhibits EPSPS, of the shikimate pathway, which is present in many organisms but lacking in mammals. The shikimate pathway produces chorismate which is the precursor to all the aromatic amino acids, para-aminobenzoic acid, and Coenzyme Q10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155673/strengthening-global-surveillance-for-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-through-the-enhanced-gonococcal-antimicrobial-surveillance-program
#3
Emily J Weston, Teodora Wi, John Papp
Monitoring trends in antimicrobial drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a critical public health and global health security activity because the number of antimicrobial drugs available to treat gonorrhea effectively is rapidly diminishing. Current global surveillance methods for antimicrobial drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae have many limitations, especially in countries with the greatest burden of disease. The Enhanced Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program is a collaboration between the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138320/structural-basis-for-antibody-recognition-of-the-nanp-repeats-in-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein
#4
David Oyen, Jonathan L Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B Ward, C Richter King, Ian A Wilson
Acquired resistance against antimalarial drugs has further increased the need for an effective malaria vaccine. The current leading candidate, RTS,S, is a recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that contains 19 NANP repeats followed by a thrombospondin repeat domain. Although RTS,S has undergone extensive clinical testing and has progressed through phase III clinical trials, continued efforts are underway to enhance its efficacy and duration of protection. Here, we determined that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 311 and 317), isolated from a recent controlled human malaria infection trial exploring a delayed fractional dose, inhibit parasite development in vivo by at least 97%...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133644/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-an-emerging-entity-for-cluster-endophthalmitis
#5
Sarita Beri, Anurag Shandil, Rajiv Garg
PURPOSE: This was a study of acute cluster endophthalmitis along with clinical features, culture results, and visual outcomes of 10 eyes of 10 patients after intravitreal injection of Avastin (bevacizumab) in one sitting from a single vial. METHODS: Retrospective review of intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml bevacizumab that was given to 10 eyes of 10 patients on the same day from a freshly opened vial. All patients manifested with endophthalmitis the next day...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110590/new-strategy-on-antimicrobial-resistance-inhibitors-of-dna-replication-enzymes
#6
Lanhua Yi, Xin Lu
Antimicrobial resistance is found in all microorganisms and has become one of the biggest threats to global health. New antimicrobials with different action mechanisms from existing drugs are effective weapons to fight antibiotic-resistance. DNA replication universally exists in all living organisms and is a complicated process involving in multiple enzymes. Enzymes in bacterial DNA replication of initiation and elongation phases bring abundant targets for antimicrobial development as they are conserved and indispensable...
November 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109301/personalized-medicine-a-modern-approach-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Carmine Savoia, Massimo Volpe, Guido Grassi, Claudio Borghi, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Rhian M Touyz
The main goal of treating hypertension is to reduce blood pressure to physiological levels and thereby prevent risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension-associated target organ damage. Despite reductions in major risk factors and the availability of a plethora of effective antihypertensive drugs, the control of blood pressure to target values is still poor due to multiple factors including apparent drug resistance and lack of adherence. An explanation for this problem is related to the current reductionist and 'trial-and-error' approach in the management of hypertension, as we may oversimplify the complex nature of the disease and not pay enough attention to the heterogeneity of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of the disorder...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072630/liposome-coated-iron-fumarate-metal-organic-framework-nanoparticles-for-combination-therapy
#8
Bernhard Illes, Stefan Wuttke, Hanna Engelke
One of the main problems for effective treatment of cancer is resistances, which often require combination therapy-for effective treatment. While there are already some potential drug carriers-e.g., liposomes, available for treatment-the effective loading and retention of the desired drug ratio can be challenging. To address this challenge, we propose a new type of drug carrier: liposome-coated metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles. They combine the advantages of liposomes with an easy and efficient loading process...
October 26, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049010/biofilm-related-diseases-and-omics-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-enterococcus-faecium-reveals-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-biofilm-and-planktonic-cells
#9
Shu Yong Lim, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038038/global-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-dynamics-indicate-novel-mechanisms-of-vitamin-c-induced-dormancy-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#10
Claudia Albeldas, Naadir Ganief, Bridget Calder, Kehilwe C Nakedi, Shaun Garnett, Andrew J M Nel, Jonathan M Blackburn, Nelson C Soares
Vitamin C has been found to affect mycobacteria in multiple ways, including increasing susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, inducing dormancy, and having a bactericidal effect. However, the regulatory events mediating vitamin C related adaptations remain largely elusive. Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation plays an important regulatory role in mycobacteria, contributing to environmental adaptation, including dormancy and drug resistance. This study utilised the model organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and TiO2 phosphopeptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods to elucidate the mycobacterial signalling and regulatory response to sub-lethal concentrations of vitamin C...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023424/dietary-anthocyanins-and-insulin-resistance-when-food-becomes-a-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Tarun Belwal, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam
Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017249/characterization-of-aerosols-generated-during-patient-care-activities
#12
Caroline A O'Neil, Jiayu Li, Anna Leavey, Yang Wang, Matthew Hink, Meghan Wallace, Pratim Biswas, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Hilary M Babcock
Background: Questions remain about the degree to which aerosols are generated during routine patient care activities and whether such aerosols could transmit viable pathogens to healthcare personnel (HCP). The objective of this study was to measure aerosol production during multiple patient care activities and to examine the samples for bacterial pathogens. Methods: Five aerosol characterization instruments were used to measure aerosols during 7 patient care activities: patient bathing, changing bed linens, pouring and flushing liquid waste, bronchoscopy, noninvasive ventilation, and nebulized medication administration (NMA)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990537/nanomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis
#13
Zabih Ullah, Md Tanwir Athar, Abdus Samad
BACKGROUND: The diseases tuberculosis, triggered by intracellular pathogens, is a major problem for the global medical professionals. Treatments for these diseases through conventional dosage form consist of long-term therapy with multiple drugs leads to several side effects and contribute to low patient compliance and drug resistance. METHODS: The pathogens are fond to be situated in the intracellular compartments of the cells, which ultimately results in additional blockades to effective treatment...
October 6, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986301/sustained-antimicrobial-activity-and-reduced-toxicity-of-oxidative-biocides-through-biodegradable-microparticles
#14
Panagiotis Sofokleous, Shanom Ali, Peter Wilson, Asma Buanz, Simon Gaisford, Dharmit Mistry, Adrian Fellows, Richard M Day
The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. Small molecule precursor compounds that produce oxidative biocides with well-established antimicrobial properties could provide a range of new therapeutic products to combat resistant infections. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel biomaterials-based approach for the manufacture, targeted delivery and controlled release of a peroxygen donor (sodium percarbonate) combined with an acetyl donor (tetraacetylethylenediamine) to deliver local antimicrobial activity via a dynamic equilibrium mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid...
December 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972102/plk4-and-aurora-a-cooperate-in-the-initiation-of-acentriolar-spindle-assembly-in-mammalian-oocytes
#15
Leah Bury, Paula A Coelho, Angela Simeone, Samantha Ferries, Claire E Eyers, Patrick A Eyers, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, David M Glover
Establishing the bipolar spindle in mammalian oocytes after their prolonged arrest is crucial for meiotic fidelity and subsequent development. In contrast to somatic cells, the first meiotic spindle assembles in the absence of centriole-containing centrosomes. Ran-GTP can promote microtubule nucleation near chromatin, but additional unidentified factors are postulated for the activity of multiple acentriolar microtubule organizing centers in the oocyte. We now demonstrate that partially overlapping, nonredundant functions of Aurora A and Plk4 kinases contribute to initiate acentriolar meiosis I spindle formation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971790/sepsis-after-elective-ureteroscopy
#16
Jonathan Bloom, Cristina Fox, Sean Fullerton, Gerald Matthews, John Phillips
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine our rate of postoperative sepsis after ureteroscopy as well as identifying associative factors, common antibiotic practices along with culture data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of all patients who underwent elective ureteroscopy from 2010 to 2015 at an urban tertiary care facility were retrospectively reviewed. Factors thought to be associated with infection were collected, along with comorbidities depicted as Charlson Age-Adjusted Comorbidity Index (CAACI) and American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) score...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939316/controlling-a-possible-outbreak-of-candida-auris-infection-lessons-learnt-from-multiple-interventions
#17
M Biswal, S M Rudramurthy, N Jain, A S Shamanth, D Sharma, K Jain, L N Yaddanapudi, A Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Candida auris infection has been reported from five continents in recent years. The prevalence of C. auris invasive infection has been estimated at 5.3% for intensive-care-acquired candidaemia in India. The transmission of the organism between the patients and from environment to patients is rapid. AIM: To understand the intra-hospital dynamics of C. auris transmission and to determine the possible interventions to prevent its spread...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928941/computational-design-of-molecular-motors-as-nanocircuits-in-leishmaniasis
#18
Dipali Kosey, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of lesihmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major and is spread by the bite of a sandfly .This species infects the macrophages and dendritic cells Due to multi-drug resistance, there is a need for a new therapeutic technique. Recently, a novel molecular motor of Leishmania, Myosin XXI, was classified and characterized. In addition, the drug resistance in this organism has been linked with the overexpression of ABC transporters. Systems biology aims to study the simulation and modeling of natural biological systems whereas synthetic biology deals with building novel and artificial biological parts and devices  Together they have contributed enormously to drug discovery, vaccine design and development, infectious disease detection and diagnostics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#19
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#20
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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