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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324181/effective-antibiotic-stewardship-in-spinal-cord-injury-challenges-and-a-way-forward
#1
Felicia Skelton, Katie Suda, Charlesnika Evans, Barbara Trautner
Context Antibiotic stewardship, defined as a multidisciplinary program to reduce the misuse of antibiotics, and in turn, antibiotic resistance, is a high priority. Persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) are vulnerable to receiving multiple courses of antibiotics over their lifetime given frequent healthcare exposure, and have high rates of bacterial infection with multi-drug resistant organisms. Additional challenges to evaluating appropriate use of antibiotics in this population include bacterial colonization in the urine and the differences in the presenting signs and symptoms of infection...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319523/temperature-ph-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-are-potent-inhibitors-of-biofilm-formation-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-clinical-isolates
#2
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299207/first-report-of-oxa-143-lactamase-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-qom-iran
#3
Zohreh Sarikhani, Razieh Nazari, Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami
Objectives: Antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and outbreaks caused by this organism have been reported from several areas of the world. The present study aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the distribution of OXA-type beta-lactamases among Iranian Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Qom of Iran. Materials and Methods: For this study, 108 non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates were obtained from clinical specimens in four teaching hospitals in Qom in the central of Iran...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289883/natural-compounds-and-combination-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-treatment
#4
A Rejhová, A Opattová, A Čumová, D Slíva, P Vodička
Colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy using conventional chemotherapeutics represents a considerable burden for the patient's organism because of high toxicity while the response is relatively low. Our review summarizes the findings about natural compounds as chemoprotective agents for decreasing risk of CRC. It also identifies natural compounds which possess anti-tumor effects of various characteristics, mainly in vitro on colorectal cell lines or in vivo studies on experimental models, but also in a few clinical trials...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280358/thermoresponsive-supramolecular-chemotherapy-by-v-shaped-armed-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-star-polymer-to-overcome-drug-resistance
#5
Xiaoshan Fan, Hongwei Cheng, Xiaoyuan Wang, Enyi Ye, Xian Jun Loh, Yun-Long Wu, Zibiao Li
Pump mediated drug efflux is the key reason to result in the failure of chemotherapy. Herein, a novel star polymer β-CD-v-(PEG-β-PNIPAAm)7 consisting of a β-CD core, grafted with thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the multiple "V"-shaped arms is designed and further fabricated into supramolecular nanocarriers for drug resistant cancer therapy. The star polymer could encapsulate chemotherapeutics between β-cyclodextrin and anti-cancer drug via inclusion complex (IC)...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231142/crispr-cas-in-medicinal-chemistry-applications-and-regulatory-concerns
#6
Aliuska Duardo-Sanchez
A rapid search in scientific publication's databases shows how the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editions' technique has considerably expanded, and its growing importance, in modern molecular biology. Just in pub-med platform, the search of the term gives more than 3000 results. Specifically, in Drug Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology in general CRISPR method may have multiple applications. Some of these applications are: resistance-selection studies of antimalarial lead organic compounds; investigation of druggability; development of animal models for chemical compounds testing, etc...
December 11, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222405/multiple-weekly-dalbavancin-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-native-vertebral-osteomyelitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-case-report
#7
Thamer A Almangour, Valerie Fletcher, Mohammed Alessa, Abdullah A Alhifany, Deanne Tabb
BACKGROUND Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) is a common form of hematogenous osteomyelitis, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) being the most commonly isolated organism. Dalbavancin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and has a sufficiently promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile to be considered for the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis. We describe here what is probably the first reported case of using multiple weekly dalbavancin to treat a complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and vertebral osteomyelitis...
December 9, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220419/high-resolution-single-cell-sequencing-of-malaria-parasites
#8
Simon G Trevino, Standwell C Nkhoma, Shalini Nair, Benjamin J Daniel, Karla Moncada, Stanley Khoswe, Rachel L Banda, François Nosten, Ian H Cheeseman
Single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for determining the genetic architecture of complex communities of unicellular organisms. In areas of high transmission, malaria patients are often challenged by the activities of multiple Plasmodium falciparum lineages, which can potentiate pathology, spread drug resistance loci and also complicate most genetic analysis. Single-cell sequencing of P. falciparum would be key to understanding infection complexity, though efforts are hampered by the extreme nucleotide composition of its genome (∼80% AT-rich)...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219878/community-based-management-of-multiple-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania-a-best-practice-implementation-project
#9
Isaya Jelly, Micah D J Peters
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. AIM: The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization...
December 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205871/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-the-model-based-pharmacokinetics-of-five-anti-hiv-drugs-how-does-this-influence-the-effect-of-aging
#10
Jingxian Chen, Farida S Akhtari, Michael J Wagner, Oscar Suzuki, Tim Wiltshire, Alison A Motsinger-Reif, Julie B Dumond
Analysis of aging and pharmacogenetics (PGx) on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PKs) could inform precision dosing for older human HIV-infected patients. Seventy-four participants receiving either atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/RTV) or efavirenz (EFV) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TFV/FTC) provided PK and PGx information. Aging-PGx-PK association and interaction analyses were conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and Random Forest ensemble methods. Our analyses associated unbound ATV disposition with multidrug resistance protein (MRP)4, RTV with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and EFV with cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 and MRP4 genetic variants...
December 3, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196220/new-chalcone-compound-as-a-promising-antileishmanial-drug-for-an-old-neglected-disease-biological-evaluation-using-radiolabeled-biodistribution
#11
Ariane de J Sousa-Batista, Cíntia I M Silva Philipon, Marta de Souza Albernaz, Suyene Rocha Pinto, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The current treatment of leishmaniasis remains a challenge, especially due to the need for multiple painful injections, the toxicity of the current drugs against the disease, the lack of efficacy and, lately the drug-resistant. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the biological behavior of 3-nitro-2-hydroxi-4,6-dimetoxychalcone (CH8) in animal model of cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis Methodology: In order to evaluate itsbiological behavior the CH8 compound has been radiolabeled with 99mTc using the direct reaction...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190379/fungal-specific-cyp51-inhibitor-vt-1598-demonstrates-in-vitro-activity-against-candida-and-cryptococcus-species-endemic-fungi-including-coccidioides-species-aspergillus-species-and-rhizopus-arrhizus
#12
Nathan P Wiederhold, Hoja P Patterson, Bich Hue Tran, Christopher M Yates, Robert J Schotzinger, Edward P Garvey
Background: Invasive fungal infections, including those caused by yeasts, moulds and endemic organisms, can be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, those with multiple comorbidities and occasionally immunocompetent hosts. Current antifungal agents are often limited by drug toxicities, drug interactions or the development of resistance. VT-1598 is a novel tetrazole that has greater specificity for fungal Cyp51 than currently available triazoles and thus the potential for clinically significant drug interactions is reduced...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189181/good-fashion-is-evolution-not-revolution-methods-to-enhance-existing-anticancer-medicines-primarily-with-use-of-transition-metal
#13
Magdalena Katarzyna Guzowska, Monika Kalinowska, Wlodzimierz Lewandowski
The constant search for a successful cancer therapies lasts for decades. Apart from the huge scientific effort and enormous sum of spent money, only a small amount of newly developed medicines move into clinical use (only 94 registered anticancer drugs in the last 12 years [1]). Anticancer regimes are still overcome by drugs invented over 50 years ago such as cisplatin and doxorubicin. Significant progress in the development of improved anticancer drugs was made due to multiple studies on the relationship between the molecular structure of chemical compounds and their cytostatic activity...
November 29, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184888/targeting-dna-replication-and-repair-for-the-development-of-novel-therapeutics-against-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Reiche, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease which results in approximately 10 million incident cases and 1.4 million deaths globally each year, making it the leading cause of mortality from infection. An effective frontline combination chemotherapy exists for TB; however, this regimen requires the administration of four drugs in a 2 month long intensive phase followed by a continuation phase of a further 4 months with two of the original drugs, and is only effective for the treatment of drug-sensitive TB...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174084/cost-effectiveness-of-public-health-policy-options-in-the-presence-of-pretreatment-nnrti-drug-resistance-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-modelling-study
#15
Andrew N Phillips, Valentina Cambiano, Fumiyo Nakagawa, Paul Revill, Michael R Jordan, Timothy B Hallett, Meg Doherty, Andrea De Luca, Jens D Lundgren, Mutsa Mhangara, Tsitsi Apollo, John Mellors, Brooke Nichols, Urvi Parikh, Deenan Pillay, Tobias Rinke de Wit, Kim Sigaloff, Diane Havlir, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Anton Pozniak, David van de Vijver, Marco Vitoria, Mark A Wainberg, Elliot Raizes, Silvia Bertagnolio
BACKGROUND: There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high. METHODS: The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations...
November 22, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168557/probiotics-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-non-pregnant-women
#16
REVIEW
Huan Yu Xie, Dan Feng, Dong Mei Wei, Ling Mei, Hui Chen, Xun Wang, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is estimated to be the second most common form of infection after bacterial vaginosis. The ability of probiotics in maintaining and recovering the normal vaginal microbiota, and their potential ability to resist Candidas give rise to the concept of using probiotics for the treatment of VVC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women...
November 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162636/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-novel-plasmodium-falciparum-surface-antigens-and-possible-vaccine-candidates
#17
Sandra K Nilsson Bark, Rushdy Ahmad, Kathleen Dantzler, Amanda K Lukens, Mariana De Niz, Matthew J Szucs, Xiaojing Jin, Joanne Cotton, Dietmar Hoffmann, Eva Bric-Furlong, Ray Oomen, Mark Parrington, Dan Milner, Daniel E Neafsey, Steven A Carr, Dyann F Wirth, Matthias Marti
Despite recent efforts towards control and elimination, malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum resistance against artemisinin, used in front line combination drugs, is on the rise, and the only approved vaccine shows limited efficacy. Combinations of novel and tailored drug and vaccine interventions are required to maintain the momentum of the current malaria elimination program. Current evidence suggests that strain-transcendent protection against malaria infection can be achieved using whole organism vaccination or with a polyvalent vaccine covering multiple antigens or epitopes...
November 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155836/genetic-variation-in-dip5-an-amino-acid-permease-and-pdr5-a-multiple-drug-transporter-regulates-glyphosate-resistance-in-s-cerevisiae
#18
Xiaoqing Rong-Mullins, Apoorva Ravishankar, Kirsten A McNeal, Zachery R Lonergan, Audrey C Biega, J Philip Creamer, Jennifer E G Gallagher
S. cerevisiae from different environments are subject to a wide range of selective pressures, whether intentional or by happenstance. Chemicals classified by their application, such as herbicides, fungicides and antibiotics, can affect non-target organisms. First marketed as RoundUp™, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide. In plants, glyphosate inhibits EPSPS, of the shikimate pathway, which is present in many organisms but lacking in mammals. The shikimate pathway produces chorismate which is the precursor to all the aromatic amino acids, para-aminobenzoic acid, and Coenzyme Q10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155673/strengthening-global-surveillance-for-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-through-the-enhanced-gonococcal-antimicrobial-surveillance-program
#19
Emily J Weston, Teodora Wi, John Papp
Monitoring trends in antimicrobial drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a critical public health and global health security activity because the number of antimicrobial drugs available to treat gonorrhea effectively is rapidly diminishing. Current global surveillance methods for antimicrobial drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae have many limitations, especially in countries with the greatest burden of disease. The Enhanced Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program is a collaboration between the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138320/structural-basis-for-antibody-recognition-of-the-nanp-repeats-in-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein
#20
David Oyen, Jonathan L Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B Ward, C Richter King, Ian A Wilson
Acquired resistance against antimalarial drugs has further increased the need for an effective malaria vaccine. The current leading candidate, RTS,S, is a recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that contains 19 NANP repeats followed by a thrombospondin repeat domain. Although RTS,S has undergone extensive clinical testing and has progressed through phase III clinical trials, continued efforts are underway to enhance its efficacy and duration of protection. Here, we determined that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 311 and 317), isolated from a recent controlled human malaria infection trial exploring a delayed fractional dose, inhibit parasite development in vivo by at least 97%...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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