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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#1
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#2
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874378/mycobacterium-abscessus-whib7-regulates-a-species-specific-repertoire-of-genes-to-confer-extreme-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Kelley Hurst-Hess, Paulami Rudra, Pallavi Ghosh
Mycobacterium abscessus causes acute and chronic broncho-pulmonary infection in patients with chronic lung damage, of which cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are particularly vulnerable. The major threat posed by this organism is its high intrinsic antibiotic resistance. A typical treatment regimen involves a 6-12 month long combination therapy of clarithromycin and amikacin, with cure rates below 50% and multiple side effects, especially due to amikacin. In the present work we show that M. abscessuswhiB7, a homologue of M...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873061/comprehensive-in-situ-killing-of-six-common-wound-pathogens-with-manuka-honey-dressings-using-a-modified-aatcc-tm100
#4
Denis Watson, Stephen Bergquist, Julie Nicholson, David H Norrie
OBJECTIVE: While Manuka honey in vitro is strongly antimicrobial, there have been, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies showing that dressings impregnated with Manuka honey can kill organisms in the dressing itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigators used the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists' 100 test methodology to compare honey-impregnated dressings with control dressings (without honey) on the ability to kill common wound pathogens...
July 26, 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872867/multidrug-anti-hiv-amorphous-solid-dispersions-nature-and-mechanisms-of-impacts-of-drugs-on-each-other-s-solution-concentrations
#5
Hale Çigdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Durga Dahal, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Drug therapy has been instrumental in prolonging the lives of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to combat development of resistance, therapies involving three or more drugs in combination are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to suppress HIV and prevent development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is desirable for multidrug combinations to be co-formulated into single dosage forms where possible, to promote patient convenience and adherence to dosage regimens, for which when amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is particularly well-suited...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856473/the-role-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-during-infection-and-chronic-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Xiaojing Xia, Likun Cheng, Shouping Zhang, Lei Wang, Jianhe Hu
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a family of small polypeptides that are produced by constitutive or inducible expression in organisms, are integral components of the host innate immune system. In addition to their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, natural AMPs also have many biological activities against fungi, viruses and parasites. Natural AMPs exert multiple immunomodulatory roles that may predominate under physiological conditions where they lose their microbicidal properties in serum and tissue environments...
August 30, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851229/the-california-hiv-aids-research-program-history-impact-and-hiv-cure-initiative
#7
Lisa Loeb Stanga, Laura Packel, Tyler Martz, George Lemp
This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study...
August 29, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840557/personalised-medicine-genome-maintenance-lessons-learned-from-studies-in-yeast-as-a-model-organism
#8
Arwa A Abugable, Dahlia A Awwad, Dalia Fleifel, Mohamed M Ali, Sherif El-Khamisy, Menattallah Elserafy
Yeast research has been tremendously contributing to the understanding of a variety of molecular pathways due to the ease of its genetic manipulation, fast doubling time as well as being cost-effective. The understanding of these pathways did not only help scientists learn more about the cellular functions but also assisted in deciphering the genetic and cellular defects behind multiple diseases. Hence, yeast research not only opened the doors for transforming basic research into applied research, but also paved the roads for improving diagnosis and innovating personalized therapy of different diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839297/use-of-colistin-for-the-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-isolates-in-neonates
#9
Shehla Choudhry, Ejaz Ahmad, Amna Batool, Nazarullah Raja
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of using colistin for multidrug-resistant organisms in neonates. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised microbiological data of babies from January 2010 to October 2012.The data was reviewed to identify the babies infected with multidrug-resistant organisms and who had received colistin therapy. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 30 neonates, 24(80%) were males and 6(20%) were females...
August 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838072/mycoplasma-genitalium-accurate-diagnosis-is-necessary-for-adequate-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Charlotte A Gaydos
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is very difficult to grow in culture but has been more able to be studied for disease associations since the advent of research molecular amplification assays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other molecular assays have demonstrated an association with adverse disease outcomes, such as urethritis or nongonococcal urethritis in men and adverse reproductive sequelae in women-for example, cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), including an association with risk for human immunodeficiency virus...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822858/comparison-of-genome-engineering-using-the-crispr-cas9-system-in-c-glabrata-wild-type-and-lig4-strains
#11
Yuke Cen, Bea Timmermans, Ben Souffriau, Johan M Thevelein, Patrick Van Dijck
Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in North America and is threatening patients all over the world. Its incidence is rising, while it has developed resistance to the most widely used antifungal drugs, necessitating new approaches based on better insight into the biology of the organism. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, generating precise genomic alterations in this species is problematic. Previously we have shown that deletion of LIG4, which encodes an enzyme involved in Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), strongly enhances the probability of obtaining correctly modified transformants...
October 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776045/whole-genome-sequencing-of-human-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-reveals-misidentification-and-misunderstandings-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-klebsiella-variicola-and-klebsiella-quasipneumoniae
#12
S Wesley Long, Sarah E Linson, Matthew Ojeda Saavedra, Concepcion Cantu, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Randall J Olsen
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major threat to public health, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The emergence of highly drug-resistant strains is particularly concerning. There has been a recognition and division of Klebsiella pneumoniae into three distinct phylogenetic groups: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. K. variicola and K. quasipneumoniae have often been described as opportunistic pathogens that have less virulence in humans than K. pneumoniae does...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774698/the-global-problem-of-antifungal-resistance-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management
#13
REVIEW
David S Perlin, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
All serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance greatly hampers patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. The spread of agriculturally derived azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and emerging threats such as multidrug resistant Candida auris are also alarming...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759425/managing-cutaneous-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#14
Bettina M Brown-Gallardo
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a prevalent disease worldwide; an estimated one third of the world's population is infected and 2015 data from the World Health Organization show 10 million people had an active infection. Although TB often is cited as a disease that most commonly occurs in underdeveloped countries, the evolution of drug-resistant forms of TB and infection sensitivity of immunocompromised individuals have made this disease a focal point for indus- trialized countries as well. When TB is spread, it commonly affects the lungs, but it can infect any organ of the body...
July 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758635/cluster-distinguishing-genotypic-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-solid-organ-transplantation-patients-a-comparative-study
#15
Theodoros Karampatakis, Anastasia Geladari, Lida Politi, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elias Iosifidis, Olga Tsiatsiou, Aggeliki Karyoti, Vasileios Papanikolaou, Athanassios Tsakris, Emmanuel Roilides
PURPOSE: Solid-organ transplant recipients may display high rates of colonization and/or infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria. We analysed and compared the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients in the Solid Organ Transplantation department of our hospital. METHODOLOGY: Between March 2012 and August 2013, 56 CR strains from various biological fluids underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing with VITEK 2, molecular analysis by PCR amplification and genotypic analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745483/postsynthetic-modification-of-zif-90-for-potential-targeted-codelivery-of-two-anticancer-drugs
#16
Feng-Ming Zhang, Hong Dong, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Jun Sun, Ming Liu, Dou-Dou Yang, Xin Liu, Jin-Zhi Wei
Combination therapy has been regarded as a promising strategy for cancer treatment due to the enhanced anticancer efficacy achieved by blocking multiple drug resistance pathways. In this work, a drug carrier based on nanoscale ZIF-90 for the codelivery of two anticancer drugs has been synthesized by covalently attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to the surface of ZIF-90 via Schiff base reaction of amino group in DOX and aldehyde group of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (ICA) ligand and encapsulating 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) into the pores of the framework...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723468/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-urologic-practice
#17
REVIEW
Hala Kandil, Emma Cramp, Tejal Vaghela
CONTEXT: The significant global upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, represents a serious threat to health care systems. The implications for urologic practice are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in antibiotic resistance in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We report current European trends of resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In addition to β-lactam resistance, Gram-negative pathogens are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, commonly used to treat urologic infections...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685693/multi-targeted-anticancer-agents
#18
Wei Zheng, Yao Zhao, Qun Luo, Yang Zhang, Kui Wu, Fuyi Wang
There is great demand for the development of novel anticancer drugs, due to the increasing morbidity and high mortality of cancer. To date, chemotherapy still plays a central role in the clinical treatment of cancer, but this role is being reduced by targeted therapies. Since cancer is a complicated and multiple genes involved disease, drugs that act at multiple targets can enhance efficacy and lower drug resistance, and are thought to be the future of novel anticancer drug development. In this paper, we discuss the recent development of "single molecule, multi-target" anticancer agents that combine two or more pharmacophores in a single molecule, including organic multi-targeted anticancer agents and metal based complexes such as platinum, ruthenium, iridium and rhodium complexes...
July 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685681/exploiting-cancer-metal-metabolism-using-anti-cancer-metal-binding-agents
#19
Angelica M Merlot, Danuta S Kalinowski, Zaklina Kovacevic, Patric J Jansson, Sumit Sahni, Michael L Huang, Darius L Lane, Hiu Lok, Des R Richardson
Metals are vital cellular elements necessary for multiple indispensable biological processes of living organisms, including energy transduction and cell proliferation. Interestingly, alterations in metal levels and also changes in the expression of proteins involved in metal metabolism have been demonstrated in a variety of cancers. Considering this and the important role of metals for cell growth, the development of drugs that sequester metals have become an attractive target for the development of novel anti-cancer agents...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678730/comprehensive-in-situ-killing-of-six-common-wound-pathogens-with-manuka-honey-dressings-using-a-modified-aatcc-tm100
#20
Denis Watson, Stephen Bergquist, Julie Nicholson, David H Norrie
OBJECTIVE: While Manuka honey in vitro is strongly antimicrobial, there have been, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies showing that dressings impregnated with Manuka honey can kill organisms in the dressing itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigators used the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists' 100 test methodology to compare honey-impregnated dressings with control dressings (without honey) on the ability to kill common wound pathogens...
June 28, 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
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