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Multiple drug resistant organism

Janie Anne Zuber, Shannon Takala-Harrison
Based on the emergence and spread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of multiple artemisinin-resistant lineages, the prevalence of multidrug resistance leading to high rates of artemisinin-based combination treatment failure in parts of the GMS, and the declining malaria burden in the region, the World Health Organization has recommended complete elimination of falciparum malaria from the GMS. Mass drug administration (MDA) is being piloted as one elimination intervention to be employed as part of this effort...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Praneeth Moka, Pooja Goswami, Arti Kapil, Immaculata Xess, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Anoop Saraya
OBJECTIVES: The knowledge about pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns is essential to select an appropriate antibiotic. METHODS: We investigated the microbiological profile in pancreatic and extrapancreatic infections, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with acute pancreatitis. RESULTS: Of 556 patients with acute pancreatitis, only 189 developed bacterial infection; however, bacteremia was present in 42 patients (7...
April 2018: Pancreas
M Katsiari, A Mavroidi, E D Platsouka, C Nikolaou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine potential host-, pathogen-, infection- and treatment-related risk factors that might predict a fulminant, fatal course of bacteremia caused extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDR Aba). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with monomicrobial growth of XDR Aba in blood cultures within a 6-year period were studied. Patients were divided into three groups, according to ICU outcome. Group A (n=40) consisted of patients who survived, Group B (n=10) included patients with fulminant sepsis that died early (<48h), whereas Group C (n=37) included patients that died later (> 48h) after the onset of bacteremia...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Mathias Schneeweiss, Barbara Peter, Siham Bibi, Gregor Eisenwort, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Katharina Blatt, Mohamad Jawhar, Daniela Berger, Gabriele Stefanzl, Susanne Herndlhofer, Georg Greiner, Gregor Hoermann, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Karoline V Gleixner, Peter Bettelheim, Klaus Geissler, Wolfgang R Sperr, Andreas Reiter, Michel Arock, Peter Valent
Systemic mastocytosis is a complex disease defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. Most patients exhibit a D816V-mutated variant of KIT, which confers resistance against imatinib. Clinical problems in systemic mastocytosis arise from mediator-related symptoms and/or organ destruction caused by malignant expansion of neoplastic mast cells and/or other myeloid cells in various organ systems. DCC-2618 is a spectrum-selective pan KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor which blocks KIT D816V and multiple other kinase-targets relevant to systemic mastocytosis...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
Bashir Akhlaq Akhoon, Laxmi Rathor, Rakesh Pandey
The conserved EGFR pathway is linked with multiple cancers in humans including breast, ovarian, and lung carcinoma. Withanolide A, one of the major withanolidal active compounds isolated from the Withania somnifera, extends lifespan and ameliorates stress resistance in wild-type C. elegans by targeting the Insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. Up-regulation of IGF1 can transactivate EGFR which inturn reduces longevity and promotes tumor development in an organism. We examined the effects of Withanolide A on the lifespan of a human EGFR-driven C...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Kirsten White, Will Garner, Lilian Wei, Joseph J Eron, Lijie Zhong, Michael D Miller, Hal Martin, Andrew Plummer, Cecilia Tran-Muchowski, Kim Lindstrom, James Porter, David Piontkowsky, Angela Light, Heinz Reiske, Erin Quirk
OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. METHODS: To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Mahmoud S Sherif, Taha A Rehab, Zayed A Hamdia, Vladmir P Torchilin
Natural products are invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery. They generally viewed as safe but weak, within the framework of nanotechnology, they can serve as template for potent anticancer drugs. We first evaluated the cytotoxic activity of different propolis extracts (water, 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol and hexane) in many cancer cell lines, then the solid nanoparticles from the organic solvent extracts were prepared and their cytotoxicity was evaluated as well. Finally, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes were prepared from the most cytotoxic organic solvent extract and their cytotoxicity was also evaluated...
January 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study...
February 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Lindsey Cox, Chang He, Jack Bevins, J Quentin Clemens, John T Stoffel, Anne P Cameron
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine if gentamicin bladder instillations reduce the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) in neurogenic bladder (NGB) patients on intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) who have recurrent UTIs. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of intravesical gentamicin on the organism resistance patterns. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our prospective NGB database. Inclusion criteria were NGB patients performing ISC exclusively for bladder drainage with clinical data available for six months before and six months after initiating prophylactic intravesical gentamicin instillations...
September 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Sara Valpione, Matteo S Carlino, Johanna Mangana, Meghan J Mooradian, Grant McArthur, Dirk Schadendorf, Axel Hauschild, Alexander M Menzies, Ana Arance, Paolo A Ascierto, AnnaMaria Di Giacomo, Francesco de Rosa, James Larkin, John J Park, Simone M Goldinger, Ryan J Sullivan, Wen Xu, Elisabeth Livingstone, Michael Weichenthal, Rajat Rai, Lydia Gaba, Georgina V Long, Paul Lorigan
BACKGROUND: Most metastatic melanoma patients treated with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) ± MEK inhibitors (MEKi) eventually progress on treatment. Along with acquired resistance due to genetic changes, epigenetic mechanisms that could be reversed after BRAFi discontinuation have been described. The purpose of this study was to analyse retrospectively outcomes for patients retreated with BRAF-directed therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred sixteen metastatic melanoma patients who received BRAFi-based therapy and, after a break, were rechallenged with BRAFi ± MEKi at 14 centres in Europe, US and Australia were studied, respectively...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Yash Gandhi, Timothy Eley, Aberra Fura, Wenying Li, Richard J Bertz, Tushar Garimella
Daclatasvir is a first-in-class, highly selective, hepatitis C virus, non-structural protein 5a polymerase replication complex inhibitor with picomolar potency and broad genotypic coverage in vitro. Daclatasvir undergoes rapid absorption, with a time to reach maximum plasma concentration of 1-2 h and an elimination half-life of ~ 10 to 14 h observed in single-ascending dose studies. Steady state was achieved by day 4 in multiple-ascending dose studies. Daclatasvir can be administered without regard to food or pH modifiers...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Naoko Kariya, Naomi Sakon, Jun Komano, Kazunori Tomono, Hiroyasu Iso
Residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly are vulnerable to health care-associated infections. However, compared to medical institutions, long-term care facilities for the elderly lag behind in health care-associated infection control and prevention. We conducted a epidemiologic study to clarify the current status of infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. A questionnaire survey on the aspects of infection prevention and control was developed according to SHEA/APIC guidelines and was distributed to 617 long-term care facilities for the elderly in the province of Osaka during November 2016 and January 2017...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Petra Heffeter, Veronika F S Pape, Eva A Enyedy, Bernhard K Keppler, Gergely Szakas, Christian R Kowol
SIGNIFICANCE: During the last decades, thiosemicarbazones have been clinically developed for a variety of diseases including tuberculosis, viral infections, malaria and cancer. With regard to malignant diseases, the class of α-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, and here especially Triapine, was intensively developed in multiple clinical phase I/II trials. Recent Advances: Very recently two new derivatives, namely COTI-2 and DpC have entered phase I evaluation. Based on the strong metal-chelating/metal-interacting properties of thiosemicarbazones, interference with the cellular iron (and copper) homeostasis is assumed to play an important role in their biological activity...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Felicia Skelton, Katie Suda, Charlesnika Evans, Barbara Trautner
Context Antibiotic stewardship, defined as a multidisciplinary program to reduce the misuse of antibiotics, and in turn, antibiotic resistance, is a high priority. Persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) are vulnerable to receiving multiple courses of antibiotics over their lifetime given frequent healthcare exposure, and have high rates of bacterial infection with multi-drug resistant organisms. Additional challenges to evaluating appropriate use of antibiotics in this population include bacterial colonization in the urine and the differences in the presenting signs and symptoms of infection...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Zohreh Sarikhani, Razieh Nazari, Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami
Objectives: Antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and outbreaks caused by this organism have been reported from several areas of the world. The present study aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the distribution of OXA-type beta-lactamases among Iranian Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Qom of Iran. Materials and Methods: For this study, 108 non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates were obtained from clinical specimens in four teaching hospitals in Qom in the central of Iran...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
A Rejhová, A Opattová, A Čumová, D Slíva, P Vodička
Colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy using conventional chemotherapeutics represents a considerable burden for the patient's organism because of high toxicity while the response is relatively low. Our review summarizes the findings about natural compounds as chemoprotective agents for decreasing risk of CRC. It also identifies natural compounds which possess anti-tumor effects of various characteristics, mainly in vitro on colorectal cell lines or in vivo studies on experimental models, but also in a few clinical trials...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaoshan Fan, Hongwei Cheng, Xiaoyuan Wang, Enyi Ye, Xian Jun Loh, Yun-Long Wu, Zibiao Li
Pump mediated drug efflux is the key reason to result in the failure of chemotherapy. Herein, a novel star polymer β-CD-v-(PEG-β-PNIPAAm)7 consisting of a β-CD core, grafted with thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the multiple "V"-shaped arms is designed and further fabricated into supramolecular nanocarriers for drug resistant cancer therapy. The star polymer could encapsulate chemotherapeutics between β-cyclodextrin and anti-cancer drug via inclusion complex (IC)...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Aliuska Duardo-Sanchez
A rapid search in scientific publication's databases shows how the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editions' technique has considerably expanded, and its growing importance, in modern molecular biology. Just in pub-med platform, the search of the term gives more than 3000 results. Specifically, in Drug Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology in general CRISPR method may have multiple applications. Some of these applications are: resistance-selection studies of antimalarial lead organic compounds; investigation of druggability; development of animal models for chemical compounds testing, etc...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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