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Multiple drug resistant organism

Raghavendra Gowda, Arati Sharma, Gavin P Robertson
Melanoma is a highly drug resistant cancer. To circumvent this problem, a class of synergistically acting drug combinations, which inhibit multiple key pathways in melanoma cells, could be used as one approach for long-term treatment of this deadly disease. A screen has been undertaken on cell lines to identify those that could be combined to synergistically kill melanoma cells. Plumbagin and Celecoxib are two agents that were identified to synergistically kill melanoma cells by inhibiting the COX-2 and STAT3 pathways, which are constitutively activated in up to 70% of melanomas...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Letters
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
G Odewale, O J Adefioye, J Ojo, F A Adewumi, O A Olowe
Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates. The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51-60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Solène Le Pennec-Prigent, Erwan Flecher, Vincent Auffret, Guillaume Leurent, Jean-Claude Daubert, Christophe Leclercq, Philippe Mabo, Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Raphael P Martins
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal life support is used for patients with severe heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. We aimed at analyzing the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal life support to treat refractory arrhythmic storm responsible for cardiogenic shock in patients resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital of Rennes, France. PATIENTS: Patients with refractory arrhythmic storm admitted between January 2005 and March 2015...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Arshad Khan, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells that occur in almost all human tissues and can be cultured and expanded to large numbers in vitro. They secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines and express Toll-like receptors on their surface, although multiple cell biological mechanisms remain unclear. MSCs are multi-potent and can differentiate into many cell types including adipocytes, neuronal cells and osteoclasts. Despite gaps in cell biology, because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative capacity, several hundred clinical trials have used MSCs for therapy of cancer, autoimmune diseases and control of inflammation during organ transplantation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Josephine M Bryant, Daniel P Depledge, Ben K Margetts, Jacob Simmonds, Stephanos Nicolaou, Helena J Tutill, Rachel Williams, Austen J J Worth, Stephen D Marks, Paul Veys, Elizabeth Whittaker, Judith Breuer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, with the potential to cause fatal pneumonitis and colitis, as well as increasing the risk of organ rejection in transplant patients. With the advent of new anti-HCMV drugs there is therefore considerable interest in using virus sequence data to monitor emerging resistance to antiviral drugs in HCMV viraemia and disease, including the identification of putative new mutations. We used target-enrichment to deep sequence HCMV DNA from 11 immunosuppressed pediatric patients receiving single or combination anti-HCMV treatment, serially sampled over 1-27 weeks...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amos Adler, N Deborah Friedman, Dror Marchaim
Antimicrobial resistance is a common iatrogenic complication of both modern life and medical care. Certain multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant Gram-negative organisms pose the biggest challenges to health care today, predominantly owing to a lack of therapeutic options. Containing the spread of these organisms is challenging, and in reality, the application of multiple control measures during an evolving outbreak makes it difficult to measure the relative impact of each measure. This paper reviews the usefulness of various infection control measures in containing the spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli...
September 19, 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen
UNLABELLED: Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States...
2016: MBio
Etsuko Sugawara, Seiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nikaido
: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, is becoming a major problem in health care because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics including cephalosporins of the latest generation and more recently even carbapenems. This is largely due to the spread of plasmid-coded extended spectrum β-lactamases. However, antimicrobial agents must first penetrate through the outer membrane barrier in order to reach their targets, and hydrophilic and charged β-lactams presumably diffuse through the porin channels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Bamidele Tolulope Odumosu, Olabayo Ajetunmobi, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Idowu Odutayo
Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) constitute a major public health threat globally. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most studied MDROs however there is paucity of information regarding the susceptibility of its animal and plants isolates to antipseudomonas drug in Nigeria. From a total of 252 samples consisting of plants, animals and clinical samples, 54, 24 and 22 P. aeruginosa were isolated from vegetables, animals and clinical sources respectively. All the isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods...
2016: SpringerPlus
Federica Barbieri, Adriana Bajetto, Stefano Thellung, Roberto Würth, Tullio Florio
Chemokines control homing and trafficking of leukocytes in bone marrow and lymphoid organs. In particular, CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4/CXCR7 control the homeostasis of multiple organs and systems. Their overexpression is linked to tumor development, both through a direct modulation of neoplastic cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and, indirectly, acting on the tumor microenvironment which sustains drug resistant tumor stem-like cells. Leukemia and lymphomas frequently display upregulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 in bone marrow that nurtures tumor cells, and confers resistance to conventional chemotherapy, increasing disease relapse...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Jun Li, Ming-Xiang Zou, Hai-Chen Wang, Qing-Ya Dou, Yong-Mei Hu, Qun Yan, Wen-En Liu
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae bacteria, which cause serious disease outbreaks worldwide, was rarely detected in Xiangya Hospital, prior to an outbreak that occurred from August 4, 2014, to March 17, 2015. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the K. pneumoniae strains isolated during the outbreak. METHODS: Nonduplicate carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were screened for blaKPC-2and multiple other resistance determinants using polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Zaynab Al-Eisawi, Philip Beale, Charles Chan, Jun Qing Yu, Nicholas Proschogo, Mark Molloy, Fazlul Huq
BACKGROUND: The management of ovarian cancer remains a challenge. Because of the lack of early symptoms, it is often diagnosed at a late stage when it is likely to have metastasized beyond ovaries. Currently, platinum based chemotherapy is the primary treatment for the disease. However acquired drug resistance remains an on-going problem. As cisplatin brings about apoptosis by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, this study aimed to determine changes in activity of platinum drugs when administered in two aliquots as against a bolus and sought to determine association with changes in GSH, speciation of platinum drugs and changes in protein expression...
2016: BMC Cancer
Lucila Nassif Kerbauy, Simrit Parmar, José Mauro Kutner, Breno Moreno de Gusmão, Nelson Hamerschlak
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: For the last nine years, hematologists and oncologists have gathered annually at an educational symposium organized by a Brazilian and an American hospital. During the 2015 Board Review, a survey among the attendees evaluated the differences in management and treatment methods for multiple myeloma (MM). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study during an educational hematology symposium in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hematologists present at the symposium gave responses to an electronic survey by means of mobile phone...
July 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Ranju Bansal, Deepika Sharma, Ranjit Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a primordial infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the etiological agent of TB and currently more than one-third of the world population is suffering from TB. For the treatment of TB, administration of multiple antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol is required for long time period to kill the bacteria. Therefore antibiotic resistance is the emerging problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections...
August 23, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Nora Rauch, Oleksii S Rukhlenko, Walter Kolch, Boris N Kholodenko
The RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK kinase pathway has been extensively studied for more than 25 years, yet we continue to be puzzled by its intricate dynamic control and plasticity. Different spatiotemporal MAPK dynamics bring about distinct cell fate decisions in normal vs cancer cells and developing organisms. Recent modelling and experimental studies provided novel insights in the versatile MAPK dynamics concerted by a plethora of feedforward/feedback regulations and crosstalk on multiple timescales. Multiple cancer types and various developmental disorders arise from persistent alterations of the MAPK dynamics caused by RAS/RAF/MEK mutations...
August 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Yani Liu, Xiaomei Luo, Chunxiao Yang, Tingyu Yang, Jiali Zhou, Shaojun Shi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether quercetin (Que) modulates the mRNA and protein expression levels of drug‑metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters (DTs) in the small intestine and liver, and thus modifies the pharmacokinetic profile of cyclosporine (CsA) in rats. This two‑part study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of CsA in the presence or absence of Que (experiment I) and the involvement of DMEs and DTs (experiment II). In experiment I, 24 rats received single‑dose CsA (10 mg/kg) on day 1, single‑dose Que (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day; eight rats in each group) on days 3‑8, and concomitant CsA/Que on day 9...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xi Yang, Zhiyuan Ma, Sisi Zhou, Yayun Weng, Hongmei Lei, Su Zeng, Liping Li, Huidi Jiang
Entecavir (ETV) is a first-line antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Renal excretion is the major elimination path of ETV, in which tubular secretion plays the key role. However, the secretion mechanism has not been clarified. We speculated that renal transporters mediated the secretion of ETV. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate which transporters contribute to the renal disposition of ETV. Our results revealed that ETV (50 μM) remarkably reduced the accumulation of probe substrates in MDCK cells stably expressing human multidrug and toxin efflux extrusion proteins (hMATE1/2-K), organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2), and carnitine/organic cation transporters (hOCTNs) and increased the substrate accumulation in cells transfected with multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (hMRP2) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (hMDR1)...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Falzon A Parascandalo, P Zarb, E Tartari, D Lacej, S Bitincka, O Manastirliu, D Nika, M A Borg
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR) organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. METHODS: A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS) screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country's only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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