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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089172/metal-oxide-nanoparticles-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-promise-for-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Ekambaram Perumal
Microbial infectious diseases are a global threat to human health. Excess and improper use of antibiotics has created antimicrobial-resistant microbes that can defy clinical treatment. The hunt for safe and alternate antimicrobial agents is on in order to overcome such resistant micro-organisms, and the birth of nanotechnology offers promise to combat infectious organisms. Over the past two decades, metal oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) have become an attractive alternative source to combat microbes that are highly resistant to various classes of antibiotics...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#3
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062543/multiple-slc-and-abc-transporters-contribute-to-the-placental-transfer-of-entecavir
#4
Zhiyuan Ma, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Mengru Bai, Caihong Zheng, Su Zeng, Dongli Sun, Huidi Jiang
Entecavir (ETV), a nucleoside analogue with high efficacy against hepatitis B virus, is recommended as a first-line antiviral drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. However, scant information is available on the use of ETV in pregnancy. To better understand the safety of ETV in pregnant women, we aimed to demonstrate whether ETV could permeate placental barrier and the underlying mechanism. Our study showed that small amount of ETV could permeate across placenta in mice. ETV accumulation in activated or non-activated BeWo cells (treated with or without forskolin) was sharply reduced in the presence of 100 μM of adenosine, cytidine and in Na+ free medium, indicating that nucleoside transporters possibly mediate the uptake of ETV...
January 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053513/metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-very-elderly-patients-challenges-and-solutions
#5
REVIEW
Orazio Caffo, Francesca Maines, Mimma Rizzo, Stefania Kinspergher, Antonello Veccia
The treatment of elderly patients with cancer is usually viewed by clinicians as a challenge, because of the age-related decline in normal organ function and the frequent concomitant administration of multiple drugs for comorbid conditions. Clinicians therefore tend not to prescribe antineoplastic agents (mainly in the case of chemotherapy) to elderly patients, with the fear of excess toxicity leading to an unfavorable cost:benefit ratio. The cutoff age defining a cancer patient as elderly is usually 70 years, but over the last 10 years clinicians have paid more attention to functional status, as evaluated by means of a comprehensive geriatric assessment and comorbidity burden, rather than chronological age...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043527/overview-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-worldwide
#6
Ali A Velayati, Parissa Farnia, Amir M Farahbod
Even in the 21st century, we are losing the battle against eradication of tuberculosis (TB). In 2015, 9.6 million people were estimated to have fallen ill with TB, of which 1.5 million people died. This is the real situation despite the well-structured treatment programs and availability of effective treatment options since the 1950s. The high mortality rate has been associated with other risk factors, such as the HIV epidemic, underlying diseases, and decline of socioeconomic standards. Furthermore, the problem of drug resistance that was recognized in the early days of the chemotherapeutic era raises serious concerns...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043515/evaluation-of-rifampicin-resistance-and-81-bp-rifampicin-resistant-determinant-region-of-rpob-gene-mutations-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detected-with-xpertmtb-rif-in-cross-river-state-nigeria
#7
Ernest A Ochang, Ubong A Udoh, Ubleni E Emanghe, Gerald O Tiku, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Emmanuel Nkombe, Oju E Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: World Health Organization tuberculosis (TB) indices from 2014 to 2016 showed that Nigeria had the 6th highest prevalence, 4th highest incidence, and the highest mortality rate globally. In efforts to improve TB care, the XpertMTB/Rif (GeneXpert) technology, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA, which has revolutionized TB detection with concomitant rifampicin-resistance molecular detection, was introduced in Cross River State, South-South Nigeria, in 2014. The GeneXpert uses molecular beacons to detect five overlapping 81-bp regions in the rpoB gene known as the Rifampicin Resistant Determinant Region (RRDR)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032542/the-molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-phenotypes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-patients-in-three-hospitals-in-southern-vietnam
#8
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Huynh Minh Tuan, Nguyen Si Tuan, Dao Minh Y, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Stephen Baker, Ho Huynh Thuy Duong
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii limits therapeutic options and impacts on clinical care. Resistance against carbapenems, a group of last-resort antimicrobials for treating MDR A. baumannii infections, is associated with the expression (and over-expression) of carbapenemases encoded by the blaOXA genes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant A. baumannii associated with infection in three hospitals in southern Vietnam and to characterise the genetic determinants associated with resistance against carbapenems...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010905/an-investigation-of-antimicrobial-usage-patterns-by-small-animal-veterinarians-in-south-africa
#9
John K Chipangura, Hayley Eagar, Marcia Kgoete, Darrell Abernethy, Vinny Naidoo
AIM: At present very little information is available on antimicrobial use patterns in small animal veterinary practice in South Africa. The aim of this study was firstly to provide some indication of antimicrobial use patterns, and secondly to ascertain if the country's small animal veterinarians make use of prudent use guidelines to optimise their antimicrobial use in order to minimise the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODOLOGY: In order to understand use patterns, a questionnaire was circulated to registered South African veterinarians, whose responses were evaluated by descriptive statistics...
January 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008866/antiviral-potential-and-mode-of-action-of-indigofera-heterantha-against-hsv-2-by-targeting-the-early-stages-of-infection
#10
Natasha Kapoor Kaushik, Rupa Guha, Becky M Thomas
BACKGROUND: The development of antivirals against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) has a major public health importance because of the wide spectrum of associated clinical disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations. Even with the extensive use of acyclovir, issues such as emergence of drug resistant strains, poor oral bioavailability, and low effectiveness in recurrent infections have highlighted the requirement for alternate therapies. Plants, which are rich in metabolites and active against viruses, are being explored as one such source...
December 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984411/multiple-drug-resistance-in-burn-patients-a-retrospective-study-on-the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-on-survival-and-length-of-stay
#11
Ilse van Langeveld, Robin C Gagnon, Peggie F Conrad, Richard L Gamelli, Brendan Martin, Mashkoor A Choudhry, Michael J Mosier
Despite improvements in early treatment, survival following burn injury remains challenged by sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Additionally, susceptibility to infections and growing antibiotic resistance places burn patients at increased risk for infections with multiple-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). We therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of MDRO infections on survival and hospital length of stay, as well as examine the role of these organisms in the development of complications, such as acute kidney injury, sepsis, and MODS...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974412/clinical-and-pathophysiological-overview-of-acinetobacter-infections-a-century-of-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Darren Wong, Travis B Nielsen, Robert A Bonomo, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian Luna, Brad Spellberg
SUMMARYAcinetobacter is a complex genus, and historically, there has been confusion about the existence of multiple species. The species commonly cause nosocomial infections, predominantly aspiration pneumonia and catheter-associated bacteremia, but can also cause soft tissue and urinary tract infections. Community-acquired infections by Acinetobacter spp. are increasingly reported. Transmission of Acinetobacter and subsequent disease is facilitated by the organism's environmental tenacity, resistance to desiccation, and evasion of host immunity...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960015/-corticosteroid-induced-diabetes-mellitus-diagnosis-and-management
#13
Alberto De Micheli
Steroid diabetes occurs in 20% (range 10-60%) of the persons treated with corticosteroid drugs. Steroid diabetes diagnosis often is omitted or late because the diagnostic sensitivity of fasting blood sugar is low, so the postprandial blood glucose must be monitored and the diagnosis should be made clinically, based on 2 hours after lunch blood glucose or OGTT. Steroid diabetes causes increased hospitalizations for acute diabetic complications; there are few data on the chronic complications. Steroid therapy increases the macrovascular complications in diabetic people, while globally does not increase the mortality...
2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956787/occurrence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-spp-in-retail-raw-table-eggs-sold-for-human-consumption-in-enugu-state-nigeria
#14
O Josephine Okorie-Kanu, E Vivienne Ezenduka, C Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, L Chinweokwu Ugwu, U John Nnamani
AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014)...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942218/ceftolozane-tazobactam-and-ceftazidime-avibactam-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#15
REVIEW
Kellie J Goodlet, David P Nicolau, Michael D Nailor
Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) represent a large proportion of all hospital admissions and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Rising rates of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), including extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas spp., for which there are few remaining active antimicrobial agents, pose an increased challenge to clinicians. Patients with frequent exposures to the health care system or multiple recurrent IAIs are at increased risk for MDRO; however, treatment options have traditionally been limited, in some cases necessitating the utilization of last-line agents with unfavorable side-effect profiles...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907224/single-versus-combination-intravenous-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotic-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Heather E Elphick, Alison Scott
BACKGROUND: Choice of antibiotic, and the use of single or combined therapy are controversial areas in the treatment of respiratory infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF). Advantages of combination therapy include wider range of modes of action, possible synergy and reduction of resistant organisms; advantages of monotherapy include lower cost, ease of administration and reduction of drug-related toxicity. Current evidence does not provide a clear answer and the use of intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis requires further evaluation...
1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896890/diterpenes-as-lead-molecules-against-neglected-tropical-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867276/ursolic-acid-a-natural-pentacylcic-triterpene-from-ochrosia-elliptica-and-its-role-in-the-management-of-certain-neglected-tropical-diseases
#18
Rola M Labib, Sherif S Ebada, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Samir A Ross
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis are recognized as the leading causes of mortality and morbidity with the greatest prevalence in the developing countries. They affect more than one billion of the poorest people on the globe. OBJECTIVE: To find a cheap, affordable, safe, and efficacious antileshmanial and antitrypanosomal natural drug and to elucidate its probable mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical investigation of the non-polar fraction of the methanol extract of leaves of Ochrosia elliptica Labill...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833412/computed-tomography-findings-of-community-acquired-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#19
Yoon Ki Cha, Jeung Sook Kim, Seong Yeon Park, Jin Young Oh, Jae Hyun Kwon
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a rare, but globally emerging gram-negative multiple-drug-resistant organism usually found in a nosocomial setting in immunocompromised patients. To our best knowledge, computed tomography (CT) features of community-acquired S. maltophilia pneumonia have not been previously reported in an immunocompetent patient. Herein, we presented the CT findings of a previous healthy 56-year-old male with S. maltophilia pneumonia.
November 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828770/responding-to-a-zoonotic-emergency-with-multi-omics-research-pentatrichomonas-hominis-hydrogenosomal-protein-characterization-with-use-of-rna-sequencing-and-proteomics
#20
Yi-Kai Fang, Kun-Yi Chien, Kuo-Yang Huang, Wei-Hung Cheng, Fu-Mann Ku, Rose Lin, Ting-Wen Chen, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic flagellated protist that colonizes the large intestine of a number of mammals, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The wide host range of this organism is alarming and suggests a rising zoonotic emergency. However, knowledge on in-depth biology of this protist is still limited. Similar to the human pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis, P. hominis possesses hydrogenosomes instead of mitochondria. Studies in T. vaginalis indicated that hydrogenosome is essential for cell survival and associated with numerous pivotal biological functions, including drug resistance...
November 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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