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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907224/single-versus-combination-intravenous-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotic-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Heather E Elphick, Alison Scott
BACKGROUND: Choice of antibiotic, and the use of single or combined therapy are controversial areas in the treatment of respiratory infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF). Advantages of combination therapy include wider range of modes of action, possible synergy and reduction of resistant organisms; advantages of monotherapy include lower cost, ease of administration and reduction of drug-related toxicity. Current evidence does not provide a clear answer and the use of intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis requires further evaluation...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896890/diterpenes-as-lead-molecules-against-neglected-tropical-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867276/ursolic-acid-a-natural-pentacylcic-triterpene-from-ochrosia-elliptica-and-its-role-in-the-management-of-certain-neglected-tropical-diseases
#3
Rola M Labib, Sherif S Ebada, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Samir A Ross
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis are recognized as the leading causes of mortality and morbidity with the greatest prevalence in the developing countries. They affect more than one billion of the poorest people on the globe. OBJECTIVE: To find a cheap, affordable, safe, and efficacious antileshmanial and antitrypanosomal natural drug and to elucidate its probable mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical investigation of the non-polar fraction of the methanol extract of leaves of Ochrosia elliptica Labill...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833412/computed-tomography-findings-of-community-acquired-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#4
Yoon Ki Cha, Jeung Sook Kim, Seong Yeon Park, Jin Young Oh, Jae Hyun Kwon
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a rare, but globally emerging gram-negative multiple-drug-resistant organism usually found in a nosocomial setting in immunocompromised patients. To our best knowledge, computed tomography (CT) features of community-acquired S. maltophilia pneumonia have not been previously reported in an immunocompetent patient. Herein, we presented the CT findings of a previous healthy 56-year-old male with S. maltophilia pneumonia.
November 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828770/responding-to-a-zoonotic-emergency-with-multi-omics-research-pentatrichomonas-hominis-hydrogenosomal-protein-characterization-with-use-of-rna-sequencing-and-proteomics
#5
Yi-Kai Fang, Kun-Yi Chien, Kuo-Yang Huang, Wei-Hung Cheng, Fu-Mann Ku, Rose Lin, Ting-Wen Chen, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic flagellated protist that colonizes the large intestine of a number of mammals, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The wide host range of this organism is alarming and suggests a rising zoonotic emergency. However, knowledge on in-depth biology of this protist is still limited. Similar to the human pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis, P. hominis possesses hydrogenosomes instead of mitochondria. Studies in T. vaginalis indicated that hydrogenosome is essential for cell survival and associated with numerous pivotal biological functions, including drug resistance...
November 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825338/sequential-and-counter-selectable-cassettes-for-fission-yeast
#6
Hanna Amelina, Vera Moiseeva, Laura Catharine Collopy, Siân Rosanna Pearson, Christine Anne Armstrong, Kazunori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Fission yeast is one of the most commonly used model organisms for studying genetics. For selection of desirable genotypes, antibiotic resistance cassettes are widely integrated into the genome near genes of interest. In yeasts, this is achieved by PCR amplification of the cassette flanked by short homology sequences, which can be incorporated by homology directed repair. However, the currently available cassettes all share the same tef promoter and terminator sequences. It can therefore be challenging to perform multiple genetic modifications by PCR-based targeting, as existing resistance cassettes in strains can be favored for recombination due to shared homology between the cassettes...
November 8, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815960/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-analgesic-antidiarrheal-and-phytochemical-properties-of-hygrophila-spinosa-t-anders-whole-plant
#7
S M Faysal Bellah, Md Nur Islam, Md Rezaul Karim, Md Masudur Rahaman, Mst Samima Nasrin, Md Atiar Rahman, A S M Ali Reza
BACKGROUND: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803184/a-class-1-histone-deacetylase-with-potential-as-an-antifungal-target
#8
Ingo Bauer, Divyavaradhi Varadarajan, Angelo Pidroni, Silke Gross, Stefan Vergeiner, Birgit Faber, Martin Hermann, Martin Tribus, Gerald Brosch, Stefan Graessle
: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl moieties from lysine residues at histone tails and nuclear regulatory proteins and thus significantly impact chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. In recent years, HDACs of filamentous fungi were found to be decisive regulators of genes involved in pathogenicity and the production of important fungal metabolites such as antibiotics and toxins. Here we present proof that one of these enzymes, the class 1 type HDAC RpdA, is of vital importance for the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Recombinant expression of inactivated RpdA shows that loss of catalytic activity is responsible for the lethal phenotype of Aspergillus RpdA null mutants...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799986/infectious-spondylodiscitis-by-uncommon-pathogens-a-pitfall-of-empirical-antibiotics
#9
Seung Han Yu, Dong Hwan Kim, Hwan Soo Kim, Kyoung Hyup Nam, Byung Kwan Choi, In Ho Han
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of spondylodiscitis (SD) caused by uncommon pathogens and review the efficacy of the treatment strategy including the coverage by usual empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Ninety-nine consecutive patients diagnosed and treated for infectious SD between January 2007 to May 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The prevalence of uncommon SD, predisposing factors, antibiotics sensitivity, and clinical outcome were analyzed in comparison with that of common SD...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797842/crizotinib-in-ros1-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-from-response-to-resistance
#10
Eric Zhong, Hua Huang
We examined an immediate, but short-lived, response to crizotinib, a drug with a new indication for ROS1 rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a middle-aged non-smoker. The patient presented with metastatic NSCLC and extensive disease in multiple organs. He was treated with crizotinib 250 mg twice a day. Within 2-3 days, his condition rapidly improved, which was evident in a CT scan 2 months later. However, after 3 months of treatment, his condition deteriorated dramatically. The patient did not respond to ceritinib, a second-line drug that targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and died shortly after...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793885/molecular-mechanisms-of-anti-metastatic-activity-of-curcumin
#11
REVIEW
Y I Deng, Elise Verron, Ramin Rohanizadeh
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cancer occurs as a localized disease, its morbidity and mortality rates remain high due to the ability of cancer cells to break-off from the primary tumor and spread to distant organs. Currently, chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer; however, the increase in proportion of drug-resistant cancer cells and unpleasant side-effects of chemotherapy are still the major challenges in cancer therapy. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol compound and the main bioactive constituent of Indian spice turmeric, widely used in Indian and Chinese medicines...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793830/benzoate-and-salicylate-tolerant-strains-lose-antibiotic-resistance-during-laboratory-evolution-of-escherichia-coli-k-12
#12
Kaitlin E Creamer, Frederick S Ditmars, Preston J Basting, Karina S Kunka, Issam N Hamdallah, Sean P Bush, Zachary Scott, Amanda He, Stephanie R Penix, Alexandra S Gonzales, Elizabeth K Eder, Dominic Camperchioli, Adama Berndt, Michelle W Clark, Kerry A Rouhier, Joan L Slonczewski
: Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 grows in the presence of membrane-permeant organic acids that can depress cytoplasmic pH and accumulate in the cytoplasm. We conducted experimental evolution by daily diluting cultures in increasing concentrations of benzoic acid (up to 20 mM) buffered at external pH 6.5, a pH at which permeant acids concentrate in the cytoplasm. By 2,000 generations, clones isolated from evolving populations showed increasing tolerance to benzoate but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790949/nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-in-cancer-the-role-of-cell-membrane-structures
#13
Serap Yalçın, Özlem Özlüer, Ufuk Gündüz
Development of novel drug-delivery systems aims to specifically deliver anticancer drugs to tumor tissues and improve the efficiency of chemotherapy, while minimizing side effects of drugs on healthy tissues and organs. However, drug-delivery systems are confronted by membrane barriers and multiple drug resistance in cancer cells. In recent years, the obtained results indicate an important role of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in apoptosis, drug transport and the process of cellular uptake of nanoparticles via endocytosis...
October 28, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784885/tuberculosis
#14
Madhukar Pai, Marcel A Behr, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Maziar Divangahi, Catharina C Boehme, Ann Ginsberg, Soumya Swaminathan, Melvin Spigelman, Haileyesus Getahun, Dick Menzies, Mario Raviglione
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. Only active pulmonary TB is contagious...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778300/liver-perfusion-modifies-gd-dtpa-and-gd-bopta-hepatocyte-concentrations-through-transfer-clearances-across-sinusoidal-membranes
#15
Jean-Luc Daire, Benjamin Leporq, Valérie Vilgrain, Bernard E Van Beers, Sabine Schmidt, Catherine M Pastor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) is a commercialised hepatobiliary contrast agent used during liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect liver diseases. It enters into human hepatocytes through organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1/B3) and crosses the canalicular transporter multiple resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) to be excreted into bile canaliculi. Gd-BOPTA can return to sinusoids via the sinusoidal transporters MRP3/MRP4. Hepatocyte concentrations of Gd-BOPTA depend on three clearances: the sinusoidal clearance or volume of sinusoidal blood cleared of drugs per unit of time and two hepatocyte clearances (into bile canaliculi or back to sinusoids) or volume of hepatocytes cleared of drugs per unit of time in the respective liver compartments...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769779/synergistic-inhibitory-effects-of-celecoxib-and-plumbagin-on-melanoma-tumor-growth
#16
Raghavendra Gowda, Arati Sharma, Gavin P Robertson
Melanoma is a highly drug resistant cancer. To circumvent this problem, a class of synergistically acting drug combinations, which inhibit multiple key pathways in melanoma cells, could be used as one approach for long-term treatment of this deadly disease. A screen has been undertaken on cell lines to identify those that could be combined to synergistically kill melanoma cells. Plumbagin and Celecoxib are two agents that were identified to synergistically kill melanoma cells by inhibiting the COX-2 and STAT3 pathways, which are constitutively activated in up to 70% of melanomas...
January 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769174/severe-adverse-events-during-second-line-tuberculosis-treatment-in-the-context-of-high-hiv-co-infection-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766173/multidrug-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-ladoke-akintola-university-teaching-hospital-osogbo-nigeria
#18
G Odewale, O J Adefioye, J Ojo, F A Adewumi, O A Olowe
Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates. The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51-60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763732/antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755013/effectiveness-of-extracorporeal-life-support-for-patients-with-cardiogenic-shock-due-to-intractable-arrhythmic-storm
#20
Solène Le Pennec-Prigent, Erwan Flecher, Vincent Auffret, Guillaume Leurent, Jean-Claude Daubert, Christophe Leclercq, Philippe Mabo, Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Raphael P Martins
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal life support is used for patients with severe heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. We aimed at analyzing the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal life support to treat refractory arrhythmic storm responsible for cardiogenic shock in patients resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital of Rennes, France. PATIENTS: Patients with refractory arrhythmic storm admitted between January 2005 and March 2015...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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