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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645468/aldhs-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoietic-cells-potential-new-avenues-for-treatment-of-aml-and-other-blood-cancers
#1
Maura Gasparetto, Clayton A Smith
Multiple studies have demonstrated that ALDH1A1 is elevated in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As a means to better characterize such cells, we previously developed the fluorescent ALDH1A1 substrate Aldefluor to facilitate HSC identification and isolation. This has proven useful for counting and isolating HSCs from human bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood as well as stem cells in other tissues and organisms. Given the high level expression of ALDH1A1, we explored its biology and that of other ALDHs in HSCs and found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 were important in metabolizing reactive aldehydes (RAlds) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630127/deciphering-function-of-new-gonococcal-vaccine-antigens-using-phenotypic-microarrays
#2
Benjamin I Baarda, Sarah Emerson, Philip J Proteau, Aleksandra E Sikora
The function and extracellular location of cell envelope proteins make them attractive candidates for developing vaccines against bacterial diseases, including challenging, drug-resistant pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteomics-driven reverse vaccinology delivered multiple gonorrhea vaccine candidates; however, the biological functions of many of them remain to be elucidated. Herein, the functions of six gonorrhea vaccine candidates - NGO2121, NGO1985, NGO2054, NGO2111, NGO1205, and NGO1344 - in cell envelope homeostasis were probed using phenotype microarrays with 1,056 conditions and a ΔbamE mutant (Δngo1780) as a reference of perturbed outer membrane integrity...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627952/clinical-efficacy-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#3
Kohei Takimoto, Qianzhi Wang, Daisuke Suzuki, Mitsuya Katayama, Yoshiro Hayashi
Introduction Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) are skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that involve deep soft tissue. cSSTIs often require surgical intervention and/or hospitalization. cSSTIs are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, and carry a significant burden on health care systems. Piperacillin/tazobactam has been regarded as a standard treatment for cSSTIs because of its antibiotic spectrum, safety and clinical efficacy. Several antibiotics, as compared to piperacillin/tazobactam, have been evaluated in the treatment of cSSTIs...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624903/early-diagnosis-of-sepsis-is-an-integrated-omics-approach-the-way-forward
#4
REVIEW
Raymond J Langley, Hector R Wong
Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in the USA and it is expected to get worse as the population ages. Moreover, the standard of care, which recommends aggressive treatment with appropriate antibiotics, has led to an increase in multiple drug-resistant organisms. There is a dire need for the development of new antibiotics, improved antibiotic stewardship, and therapies that treat the host response. Development of new sepsis therapeutics has been a disappointment as no drugs are currently approved to treat the various complications from sepsis...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624725/multifunctional-polymeric-micelles-loaded-with-doxorubicin-and-poly-dithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole-for-near-infrared-light-controlled-chemo-phototherapy-of-cancer-cells
#5
Hui Liu, Kai Wang, Cangjie Yang, Shuo Huang, Mingfeng Wang
Polymeric micelles loaded with multiple therapeutic modalities are important to overcome challenges such as drug resistance and improve the therapeutic efficacy. Here we report a new polymer micellar drug carrier that integrates chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in a single platform. Specifically, a narrow bandgap poly(dithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (PDPP) polymer was encapsulated together with a model anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in the hydrophobic cores of polymeric micelles formed by Pluronic F127, an amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer...
June 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620262/prevalence-of-multiple-drug-resistant-streptococcus-suis-in-and-around-guwahati-india
#6
Mrinalee Devi, Jyoti B Dutta, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Dhireswar Kalita, Girindra Kumar Saikia, Bipin Chandra Das, Razibuddin Ahmed Hazarika, Gauranga Mahato
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603118/carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-spp-restricted-the-therapeutic-alternatives
#7
Naheed Afshan, Benish Nawaz, Maliha Hamid
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter has appeared an organism of uncertain resistivity towards antimicrobial agents. Among non-fermenting bacterium Acinetobacter is the second-most-commonly-isolated organisms in human. The fast intensify of their resistance to antibiotics, especially global emergence and extend of Acinetobacter strains resistant to carbapenem more restricted the therapeutic alternatives. The importation of A. baumannii and subsequent presence in hospitals has been well documented. In this study we evaluate the resistivity of Acinetobacter against carbapenem antibiotics at Jinnah University for Women, Karachi...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597291/multiple-drug-transporters-mediate-the-placental-transport-of-sulpiride
#8
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595200/-daptomycin-in-left-sided-endocarditis-a-single-center-experience
#9
Burak Açar, Yasemin Tezer Tekçe, Çağrı Yayla, Sefa Ünal, Ahmet Göktuğ Ertem, Bihter Şentürk, Özlem Özcan Çelebi, Sinan Aydoğdu
OBJECTIVE: Infective endocarditis (IE) carries a high risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality, despite advances in the contemporary armamentarium. Along with the development of antibiotic resistant strains, research focusing on the efficacy of novel agents other than standard antibiotic regimens continues. Daptomycin, one of these antibiotics, is approved for the treatment of Staphylococcus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis. This retrospective study was an investigation of the effectiveness of daptomycin in patients with left-sided IE...
June 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593524/virulence-factors-associated-with-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-human-infections
#10
K R Soumya, Suja Philip, Sheela Sugathan, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Infections caused by commensal organisms by changing to infectious life style generate much challenge to the current treatment strategies. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are one of them, with their coexisting biofilm forming and multiple antibiotic resistance properties form important agents of nosocomial infection. To evaluate species distribution, biofilm formation, and antibiogram, CoNS isolates from various clinical samples were isolated. The presence of biofilm and associated genes icaAB, aap, atlE, embp, bhp, and fbe in CoNS was screened by PCR...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584461/infective-endocarditis-due-to-abiotrophia-defectiva-and-its-feared-complications-in-an-immunocompetent-person-rare-but-real
#11
Mohan Rudrappa, Laxmi Kokatnur
Abiotrophia defectiva is nutritional deficient streptococci that cannot be cultured on routine culture medias. Even though fastidious in growth requirement, it is a virulent bacterium preferentially affecting endovascular structures and is implicated in many culture-negative endocarditis cases. Unlike other organisms, it is known for heart valve destruction leading to heart failure and excessive embolization rates. It's inherent resistance to routinely used antibiotics also contributed to increased mortality and morbidity in affected individuals and warrants timely diagnosis and prompt treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577529/the-effect-of-immunoregulation-of-streptococcus-lactis-l16-strain-upon-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#12
Maopeng Wang, Shengjie Gong, Shouwen Du, Yilong Zhu, Fengjun Rong, Rongrong Pan, Yang Di, Chang Li, Dayong Ren, Ningyi Jin
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes various infections in medical facilities. However, resistance to multiple drugs has made this infection difficult to manage. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to solve this worldwide public health problem. The Streptococcus lactis L16 strain was isolated from the fermented hot chili sauce. To explore whether it can be used as a protective agent against S. aureus infection, we designed a mouse model of S...
June 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577365/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-lumbini-medical-college-and-teaching-hospital-palpa-western-nepal
#13
Shristi Raut, Kishor Bajracharya, Janak Adhikari, Sushama Suresh Pant, Bipin Adhikari
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is common in both tertiary and primary health care settings. Emergence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) along with macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLSB) has made treatment of Staphylococcal infection more challenging. The main objective of this study was to detect MRSA, MLSB (inducible; MLSBi and constitutive; MLSBc) resistant S. aureus using phenotypic methods and to determine their antibiogram. METHODS: Various samples were collected from 1981 patients who attended Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital (LMCTH) during the period of 6 months from September 2015 to February 2016...
June 2, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537430/multifaceted-roles-of-glutathione-and-glutathione-based-systems-in-carcinogenesis-and-anticancer-drug-resistance
#14
Elie Hatem, Nadine El Banna, Meng-Er Huang
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione is the most abundant antioxidant molecule in living organisms and has multiple functions. Intracellular glutathione homeostasis, through its synthesis, consumption, and degradation is an intricately balanced process. Glutathione levels are often high in tumor cells prior to treatment and there is a strong correlation between elevated levels of intracellular glutathione/sustained glutathione-mediated redox activity and resistance to pro-oxidant anticancer therapy...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536329/-multilateral-strategies-utilizing-exosomes-for-cancer-therapy
#15
Nao Nishida-Aoki, Takahiro Ochiya
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526792/environmental-spread-of-ndm-1-producing-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#16
Mohammad Aminul Islam, Moydul Islam, Rashedul Hasan, M Iqbal Hossain, Ashikun Nabi, Mahdia Rahman, Wil H F Goessens, Hubert P Endtz, Alexandria B Boehm, Shah M Faruque
Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. To monitor possible source of spread of these organisms in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we conducted comparative analysis of waste water samples from hospital adjacent areas (HAR) and from community areas (COM) as well as public tap water samples for the occurrence and characteristics of NDM-1 producing bacteria. Of 72 HAR samples tested 51 (71%) were positive for NDM-1-producing bacteria as evidenced by phenotypic tests and the presence of blaNDM-1 gene, compared to 5 of 41 (12...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516494/recommendations-for-approaches-to-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcal-infections-of-small-animals-diagnosis-therapeutic-considerations-and-preventative-measures-clinical-consensus-guidelines-of-the-world-association-for-veterinary-dermatology
#17
REVIEW
Daniel O Morris, Anette Loeffler, Meghan F Davis, Luca Guardabassi, J Scott Weese
BACKGROUND: Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats...
June 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512703/metal-homeostasis-in-bacteria-the-role-of-arsr-smtb-family-of-transcriptional-repressors-in-combating-varying-metal-concentrations-in-the-environment
#18
REVIEW
Rudra P Saha, Saikat Samanta, Surajit Patra, Diganta Sarkar, Abinit Saha, Manoj Kumar Singh
Bacterial infections cause severe medical problems worldwide, resulting in considerable death and loss of capital. With the ever-increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of development of new antibiotics, research on metal-based antimicrobial therapy has now gained pace. Metal ions are essential for survival, but can be highly toxic to organisms if their concentrations are not strictly controlled. Through evolution, bacteria have acquired complex metal-management systems that allow them to acquire metals that they need for survival in different challenging environments while evading metal toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507720/in-vivo-imaging-of-leucine-aminopeptidase-activity-in-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-liver-cancer-via-a-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#19
Xinyuan He, Lihong Li, Yu Fang, Wen Shi, Xiaohua Li, Huimin Ma
The liver, a main detoxification organ, has evolved a complex enzymatic system to respond to multiple pathological conditions, in which leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) has been reported to participate in detoxifying cisplatin in hepatoma cells and contribute to the intrinsic drug resistance. In vivo imaging of LAP activity in liver disease models is thus helpful to further understand the function of LAP in detoxification and medicine, but such an imaging approach is still lacking. Herein, we develop a selective and sensitive near-infrared fluorescent probe (HCAL) for this purpose...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497114/selectable-markers-for-use-in-genetic-manipulation-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-humc1
#20
Brian M Luna, Amber Ulhaq, Jun Yan, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Travis B Nielsen, Bryan W Davies, Luis A Actis, Brad Spellberg
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens in clinical medicine, and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains are commonly isolated from infected patients. Such XDR strains are already resistant to traditional selectable genetic markers, limiting the ability to conduct pathogenesis research by genetic disruption. Optimization of selectable markers is therefore critical for the advancement of fundamental molecular biology techniques to use in these strains. We screened 23 drugs that constitute a broad array of antibiotics spanning multiple drug classes against HUMC1, a highly virulent and XDR A...
March 2017: MSphere
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