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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770096/canadian-recommendations-for-laboratory-interpretation-of-multiple-or-extensive-drug-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-acinetobacter-species-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
G J German, M Gilmour, G Tipples, H J Adam, H Almohri, J Bullard, T Dingle, D Farrell, G Girouard, D Haldane, L Hoang, P N Levett, R Melano, J Minion, R Needle, S N Patel, R Rennie, R C Reyes, J Longtin, M R Mulvey
The goal of this document was to provide Canadian laboratories with a framework for consistent reporting and monitoring of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) and extensively drug resistant organisms (XDRO) for common gram-negative pathogens. This is the final edition of the interim recommendations, which were modified after one year of broad consultative review. This edition represents a consensus of peer-reviewed information and was co-authored by the Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network and the Canadian Association of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...
January 4, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765356/soluble-and-cell-cell-mediated-drivers-of-proteasome-inhibitor-resistance-in-multiple-myeloma
#2
REVIEW
Mariah L Farrell, Michaela R Reagan
It is becoming clear that myeloma cell-induced disruption of the highly organized bone marrow components (both cellular and extracellular) results in destruction of the marrow and support for multiple myeloma (MM) cell proliferation, survival, migration, and drug resistance. Since the first phase I clinical trial on bortezomib was published 15 years ago, proteasome inhibitors (PIs) have become increasingly common for treatment of MM and are currently an essential part of any anti-myeloma combination therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761425/genistein-has-the-function-of-alleviating-and-treating-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-caused-by-lipopolysaccharide
#3
Xueqin Chen, Jingyi Tan, Mengqi Yang, Zhi-Kai Liao, Cheng Lu, Youwei Huang, Liang-Cai Wu
Symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) include thromboembolism, acute attrition bleeding and multiple organ failure. Genistein isolated from leguminous plants has been shown to be effective in oxidation resistance and tumor inhibition. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of genistein in DIC and preliminarily discuss the mechanisms regarding the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effect of genistein. Swiss mice were randomly divided into the following groups-(1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (2) genistein, (3) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, the non-major solvent component of genistein), (4) DMSO + LPS, (5) saline control group, and (6) heparin control group...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#4
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754381/non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#5
REVIEW
Mana Rao, Fernanda P Silveira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in thoracic transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous but are an uncommon cause of disease after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of infection is higher in thoracic transplant recipients than in abdominal transplant recipients, with most cases seen after lung transplantation...
May 12, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740793/immune-checkpoint-receptors-homeostatic-regulators-of-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Riva, Shilpa Chokshi
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an escalating global problem accounting for more than 3 million deaths annually. Bacterial infections are diagnosed in 25-47% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and represent the most important trigger for acute decompensation, multi-organ failure, septic shock and death. Current guidelines recommend intensive antibiotic therapy, but this has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, there is a pressing need to explore new paradigms for anti-infective therapy and host-directed immunomodulatory therapies are a promising approach...
May 8, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734778/antibiotic-sensitivity-profiling-and-virulence-potential-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-estuarine-water-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#7
Anthony C Otigbu, Anna M Clarke, Justine Fri, Emmanuel O Akanbi, Henry A Njom
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is a zoonotic microbe and a major causative organism of diarrheal infection in humans that often has its functional characteristics inactivated in stressed conditions. The current study assessed the correlation between recovered CJ and water quality parameters and the drug sensitivity patterns of the pathogen to frontline antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. Water samples ( n = 244) from rivers/estuarines were collected from April⁻September 2016, and physicochemical conditions were recorded on-site...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723292/caenorhabditis-elegans-susceptibility-to-daldinia-cf-concentrica-bioactive-volatiles-is-coupled-with-expression-activation-of-the-stress-response-transcription-factor-daf-16-a-part-of-distinct-nematicidal-action
#8
Payal Sanadhya, Patricia Bucki, Orna Liarzi, David Ezra, Abraham Gamliel, Sigal Braun Miyara
The bionematicidal effect of a synthetic volatile mixture (SVM) of four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the endophytic fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica against the devastating plant-parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica has been recently demonstrated in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments. However, the mode of action governing the observed irreversible paralysis of J2 larvae upon exposure to SVM is unknown. To unravel the mechanism underlying the anthelmintic and nematicidal activities, we used the tractable model worm Caenorhabditis elegans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721665/status-and-future-directions-in-the-management-of-pancreatic-cancer-potential-impact-of-nanotechnology
#9
REVIEW
Catherine M Sielaff, Shaker A Mousa
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage, has limited treatments, and patients have poor survival rates. It currently ranks as the seventh leading cause of cancer deaths globally and has increasing rates of diagnosis. Improved PDAC treatment requires the development of innovative, effective, and economical therapeutic drugs. The late stage diagnosis limits options for surgical resection, and traditional PDAC chemotherapeutics correlate with increased organ and hematologic toxicity...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700415/comparative-systems-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-the-opportunistic-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-other-aspergillus-species
#10
R P Vivek-Ananth, Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Muralidharan Vandanashree, Anupam Jhingran, James P Craig, Areejit Samal
Aspergillus fumigatus and multiple other Aspergillus species cause a wide range of lung infections, collectively termed aspergillosis. Aspergilli are ubiquitous in environment with healthy immune systems routinely eliminating inhaled conidia, however, Aspergilli can become an opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised patients. The aspergillosis mortality rate and emergence of drug-resistance reveals an urgent need to identify novel targets. Secreted and cell membrane proteins play a critical role in fungal-host interactions and pathogenesis...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669882/influential-parameters-for-the-analysis-of-intracellular-parasite-metabolomics
#11
Maureen A Carey, Vincent Covelli, Audrey Brown, Gregory L Medlock, Mareike Haaren, Jessica G Cooper, Jason A Papin, Jennifer L Guler
Metabolomics is increasingly popular for the study of pathogens. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , both targeted and untargeted metabolomics have improved our understanding of pathogenesis, host-parasite interactions, and antimalarial drug treatment and resistance. However, purification and analysis procedures for performing metabolomics on intracellular pathogens have not been explored. Here, we purified in vitro -grown ring-stage intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites for untargeted metabolomics studies; the small size of this developmental stage amplifies the challenges associated with metabolomics studies as the ratio between host and parasite biomass is maximized...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625658/quorum-sensing-a-less-known-mode-of-communication-among-fungi
#12
REVIEW
Sajad Ahmad Padder, Rajendra Prasad, Abdul Haseeb Shah
Quorum sensing (QS), a density-dependent signaling mechanism of microbial cells, involves an exchange and sense of low molecular weight signaling compounds called autoinducers. With the increase in population density, the autoinducers accumulate in the extracellular environment and once their concentration reaches a threshold, many genes are either expressed or repressed. This cell density-dependent signaling mechanism enables single cells to behave as multicellular organisms and regulates different microbial behaviors like morphogenesis, pathogenesis, competence, biofilm formation, bioluminescence, etc guided by environmental cues...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615654/functional-metagenomic-approach-to-identify-overlooked-antibiotic-resistance-mutations-in-bacterial-rrna
#13
Kentaro Miyazaki, Kei Kitahara
Our knowledge as to how bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance is still fragmented, especially for the ribosome-targeting drugs. In this study, with the aim of finding novel mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to the ribosome-targeting antibiotics, we developed a general method to systematically screen for antibiotic resistant 16 S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which are the major target for multiple antibiotics (e.g. spectinomycin, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides), and identify point mutations therein...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600281/construction-and-use-of-a-recyclable-marker-to-examine-the-role-of-major-facilitator-superfamily-protein-members-in-candida-glabrata-drug-resistance-phenotypes
#14
Bao G Vu, W Scott Moye-Rowley
Candida glabrata is the second most common species causing candidiasis. C. glabrata can also readily acquire resistance to azole drugs, complicating its treatment. Here we add to the collection of disruption markers to aid in genetic analysis of this yeast. This new construct is marked with a nourseothricin resistance cassette that produces an estrogen-activated form of Cre recombinase in a methionine-regulated manner. This allows eviction and reuse of this cassette in a facile manner. Using this new disruption marker, we have constructed a series of strains lacking different members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporter proteins...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593404/in-vitro-studies-on-oxidative-stress-independent-ag-nanoparticles-induced-cell-toxicity-of-candida-albicans-an-opportunistic-pathogen
#15
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Mohammed Haris Siddiqui, Tulika Prasad
Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have attracted maximal attention among all metal nanoparticles, and the study of their biological properties has gained impetus for further medical adoption. This study evaluated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the action of AgNps against an opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans . Spherical, stable AgNp (average size 21.6 nm) prepared by a chemical reduction method showed minimum inhibitory concentration (required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms) at 40 μg/mL...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593275/genomic-epidemiology-of-the-uk-outbreak-of-the-emerging-human-fungal-pathogen-candida-auris
#16
Johanna Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Rhys A Farrer, Christina A Cuomo, David M Aanensen, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher, Silke Schelenz
Candida auris was first described in 2009, and it has since caused nosocomial outbreaks, invasive infections, and fungaemia across at least 19 countries on five continents. An outbreak of C. auris occurred in a specialized cardiothoracic London hospital between April 2015 and November 2016, which to date has been the largest outbreak in the UK, involving a total of 72 patients. To understand the genetic epidemiology of C. auris infection both within this hospital and within a global context, we sequenced the outbreak isolate genomes using Oxford Nanopore Technologies and Illumina platforms to detect antifungal resistance alleles and reannotate the C...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589552/evaluation-and-management-of-the-child-with-thyrotoxicosis
#17
Alexander K C Leung, Alexander A C Leung
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis, especially in early infancy, may cause irreversible damage to the central nervous system as well as profound effects on the function of many organs. Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies and treatment depends on the underlying etiology. An accurate diagnosis is essential so that appropriate treatment can be initiated without undue delay. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of children with thyrotoxicosis...
March 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563916/old-yellow-enzyme-from-trypanosoma-cruzi-exhibits-in-vivo-prostaglandin-f-2-%C3%AE-synthase-activity-and-has-a-key-role-in-parasite-infection-and-drug-susceptibility
#18
Florencia Díaz-Viraqué, María Laura Chiribao, Andrea Trochine, Fabiola González-Herrera, Christian Castillo, Ana Liempi, Ulrike Kemmerling, Juan Diego Maya, Carlos Robello
The discovery that trypanosomatids, unicellular organisms of the order Kinetoplastida, are capable of synthesizing prostaglandins raised questions about the role of these molecules during parasitic infections. Multiple studies indicate that prostaglandins could be related to the infection processes and pathogenesis in trypanosomatids. This work aimed to unveil the role of the prostaglandin F2 α synthase Tc OYE in the establishment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the causative agent of Chagas disease. This chronic disease affects several million people in Latin America causing high morbidity and mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563494/the-global-distribution-and-spread-of-the-mobilized-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1
#19
Ruobing Wang, Lucy van Dorp, Liam P Shaw, Phelim Bradley, Qi Wang, Xiaojuan Wang, Longyang Jin, Qing Zhang, Yuqing Liu, Adrien Rieux, Thamarai Dorai-Schneiders, Lucy Anne Weinert, Zamin Iqbal, Xavier Didelot, Hui Wang, Francois Balloux
Colistin represents one of the few available drugs for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the recent plasmid-mediated spread of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 poses a significant public health threat, requiring global monitoring and surveillance. Here, we characterize the global distribution of mcr-1 using a data set of 457 mcr-1-positive sequenced isolates. We find mcr-1 in various plasmid types but identify an immediate background common to all mcr-1 sequences...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556176/conflicting-effects-of-methylglyoxal-and-potential-significance-of-mirnas-for-seizure-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Hua Tao, Xu Zhou, Bin Zhao, Keshen Li
According to an update from the World Health Organization, approximately 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy, and nearly one-third of these individuals are resistant to the currently available antiepileptic drugs, which has resulted in an insistent pursuit of novel strategies for seizure treatment. Recently, methylglyoxal (MG) was demonstrated to serve as a partial agonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor and to play an inhibitory role in epileptic activities. However, MG is also a substrate in the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that function by activating the receptor of AGEs (RAGE)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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