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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641547/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-micrornas-in-both-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#2
Adele Vivacqua, Paola De Marco, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#3
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640591/managing-psychotropic-medications-in-complex-real-world-patients-using-comprehensive-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#4
Jeffrey J Sutherland, Ryan D Morrison, J Scott Daniels, Stephen B Milne, Timothy P Ryan
There are multiple treatment options for depression, anxiety, psychosis, and other psychiatric disorders, and psychiatry patients are often comorbid with complex, polypharmacy treatment regimens. Unlike cardiovascular disease and diabetes, there are no readily available biomarkers to gauge treatment success with psychotropic medications, often resulting in subjective determination of medication therapy effectiveness. The physiochemical properties of psychiatric medications in general lend themselves to quantitative measurement in blood, offering an avenue to optimize treatment for each patient...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#5
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637396/modulation-of-mir29a-improves-impaired-post-ischemic-angiogenesis-in-hyperglycemia
#6
Lingdan Chen, Emmanuel Okeke, Dawit Ayalew, Danny Wang, Lyeba Shahid, Ayotunde O Dokun
Individuals with diabetes mellitus suffer from impaired angiogenesis and this contributes to poorer peripheral arterial disease outcomes. In experimental peripheral arterial disease, angiogenesis and perfusion recovery are impaired in mice with diabetes. We recently showed that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 12 (ADAM12) is upregulated in ischemic endothelial cells and plays a key role in post-ischemic angiogenesis and perfusion recovery following experimental peripheral arterial disease...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636532/a-novel-pan-nox-inhibitor-apx-115-protects-kidney-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-possible-role-of-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#7
Guideock Kwon, Md Jamal Uddin, Gayoung Lee, Songling Jiang, Ahreum Cho, Jung Hwa Lee, Sae Rom Lee, Yun Soo Bae, Sung Hwan Moon, Soo Jin Lee, Dae Ryong Cha, Hunjoo Ha
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly recognized as a key factor in inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic kidney disease. APX-115 (3-phenyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-propyl-1-5-hydroxypyrazol HCl) is a novel orally active pan-Nox inhibitor. The objective of this study was to compare the protective effect of APX-115 with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (losartan), the standard treatment against kidney injury in diabetic patients, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634519/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-heart-failure-in-the-usa-nhanes-2013-2014-epidemiological-follow-up-study
#8
Saketram Komanduri, Yogesh Jadhao, Sai S Guduru, Pramil Cheriyath, Yijin Wert
Background: Heart Failure (HF) is a progressive epidemic associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Self-reported data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides a unique representation of individuals suffering from HF. The purpose of this study is to analyze updated NHANES 2013-2014 data to identify any changes in the prevalence and current risk factors of HF, especially given the novel lifestyles and increased medical awareness of current generations. Methods: NHANES uses a multistage probability sampling design under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632765/ctrp3-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-diabetic-retinopathy-and-inhibits-hghl-induced-vcam-1-expression-in-an-ampk-dependent-manner
#9
Zheyi Yan, Jianli Zhao, Lu Gan, Yanqing Zhang, Rui Guo, Xiaoming Cao, Wayne Bond Lau, Xin Ma, Yajing Wang
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe complication of chronic diabetes. The C1q/TNF-related protein family (CTRPs) has been demonstrated to exert protective effects against obesity and atherosclerosis in animal studies. Heretofore, the association between circulating CTRPs and DR patients has been unexplored. In the current study, we attempt to define this association, as well as the effect of CTRPs upon DR pathophysiology. DESIGN: The present investigation is a case control study that enrolled control subjects and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients diagnosed with DR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#10
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627773/oleanolic-acid-derivative-dks26-exerts-antidiabetic-and-hepatoprotective-effects-in-diabetic-mice-and-promotes-glp-1-secretion-and-expression-in-intestinal-cells
#11
Fei-Fei Chen, Jian-Ta Wang, Li-Xia Zhang, Shu-Fang Xing, Yun-Xia Wang, Kai Wang, Shu-Li Deng, Ji-Quan Zhang, Lei Tang, Hao-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an important target for diabetes therapy based on its key role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects of novel oleanolic acid derivative DKS26 in diabetic mice and elucidate its underlying GLP-1 related antidiabetic mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The therapeutic effects of DKS26 were inspected in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and db/db diabetic mouse models including levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), lipid profiles, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), oral glucose tolerance (OGT), pancreatic islets and hepatic histopathological morphology, liver lipid levels and expression of pro-inflammation cytokines...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627440/microrna-21-regulates-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-foxo1
#12
Ailing Luo, Haibo Yan, Jichao Liang, Chunyuan Du, Xuemei Zhao, Lijuan Sun, Yong Chen
Abnormal activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes; however, the potential role of microRNAs in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that hepatic expression levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) were decreased in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-21 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and inhibited glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625137/chemokine-like-receptor-1-cmklr-1-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-management-of-chemerin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cancer
#13
Sangeetha Perumalsamy, Nurul Ain Aqilah Mohd Zin, Riyanto Teguh Widodo, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Shireene Ratna Db Vethakkan, Hasniza Zaman Huri
BACKGROUND: Chemerin is an adipokine that induces insulin resistance by the mechanism of inflammation in adipose tissue but these are still unclear. A high level of chemerin in humans is considered as a marker of inflammation in insulin resistance and obesity as well as in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the role of chemerin in insulin resistance progression, chemerin as one of the novel adipokines is proposed to be involved in high cancer risk and mortality. AIM: The aim of this paper was to review the role of CMKLR-1 receptor and the potential therapeutic target in the management of chemerin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624657/adiponectin-improves-the-osteointegration-of-titanium-implant-under-diabetic-conditions-by-reversing-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-the-ampk-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#14
Xiao-Fan Hu, Lin Wang, Yi-Zhao Lu, Geng Xiang, Zi-Xiang Wu, Ya-Bo Yan, Yang Zhang, Xiong Zhao, Yuan Zang, Lei Shi, Wei Lei, Ya-Fei Feng
Diabetes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction would result in compromised osteointegration of titanium implant (TI) and high rate of implant failure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Adiponectin (APN) is a fat-derived adipocytokine with strong antioxidant, mitochondrial-protective and anti-diabetic efficacies. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction under diabetes may account for the oxidative stress in osteoblasts and titanium-bone interface (TBI) instability, which could be ameliorated by APN...
June 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624188/a-novel-single-strand-rnai-therapeutic-agent-targeting-the-pro-renin-receptor-suppresses-ocular-inflammation
#15
Atsuhiro Kanda, Erdal Tan Ishizuka, Atsushi Shibata, Takahiro Matsumoto, Hidekazu Toyofuku, Kousuke Noda, Kenichi Namba, Susumu Ishida
The receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin binding to the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] dually activates the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling. Here we revealed significant upregulation of prorenin and soluble (P)RR levels in the vitreous fluid of patients with uveitis compared to non-inflammatory controls, together with a positive correlation between these RAPS components and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 among several upregulated cytokines...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622524/ampk-mechanisms-of-cellular-energy-sensing-and-restoration-of-metabolic-balance
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Garcia, Reuben J Shaw
AMPK is a highly conserved master regulator of metabolism, which restores energy balance during metabolic stress both at the cellular and physiological levels. The identification of numerous AMPK targets has helped explain how AMPK restores energy homeostasis. Recent advancements illustrate novel mechanisms of AMPK regulation, including changes in subcellular localization and phosphorylation by non-canonical upstream kinases. Notably, the therapeutic potential of AMPK is widely recognized and heavily pursued for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, but also obesity, inflammation, and cancer...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618324/stem-cells-an-emerging-novel-therapeutic-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Umang G Thakkar, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
Stem cell based strategies are therapeutically potent for treating type-1 diabetes mellitus owing to their intrinsic regenerative capacity and immunomodulatory properties to arrest autoimmune β-cell destruction, preserve residual β-cell mass, facilitate endogenous regeneration, ameliorate innate/ alloimmune graft rejection, restore β-cell-specific unresponsiveness in absence of chronic immunosuppression and to reverse hyperglycemia.
April 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611789/association-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15-with-mortality-in-a-prospective-hemodialysis-cohort
#18
Amy S You, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Lorena Lerner, Tracy Nakata, Nancy Lopez, Lidia Lou, Mary Veliz, Melissa Soohoo, Jennie Jing, Frank Zaldivar, Jeno Gyuris, Danh V Nguyen, Connie M Rhee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting are among the strongest predictors of the high mortality of dialysis patients. In the general population, the novel cardiovascular and wasting biomarker, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is associated with decreased survival. However, little is known about GDF15 in dialysis patients. METHODS: Among prevalent hemodialysis patients participating in a prospective study (October 2011 to August 2015), we examined the association of baseline GDF15 levels with all-cause mortality using unadjusted and case mix-adjusted death hazard ratios (HRs) that controlled for age, sex, race, ethnicity, diabetes, and dialysis vintage...
February 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609558/ipsc-technology-based-regenerative-therapy-for-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Yasushi Kondo, Taro Toyoda, Nobuya Inagaki, Kenji Osafune
The directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), into pancreatic endocrine lineages has been vigorously examined by reproducing the in vivo developmental processes of pancreas. Recent advances in this research field have enabled the generation from hESCs/iPSCs of functionally mature β-like cells in vitro that show glucose-responsive insulin secretion ability. The therapeutic potentials of hESC/iPSC-derived pancreatic cells have been evaluated using diabetic animal models, and transplantation methods including immunoprotective devices that prevent immune responses from hosts to the implanted pancreatic cells have been investigated towards the development of regenerative therapies against diabetes...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608418/characterization-of-an-insulinotropic-peptide-from-skin-secretions-of-odorrana-andersonii
#20
Weijie Shang, Xinwang Yang, Xiaoman Ju, Yueying Xie, Yun Zhang, Wen-Hui Lee
Insulinotropic peptide agents are regarded as potential candidates for anti-diabetic treatment. In the present study, a novel insulinotropic peptide, termed OA-A1, was purified from frog skin secretions of Odorrana andersonii. Mature OA-A1 was determined to be a 1965.049 Da peptide with an amino acid sequence of LVGKLLKGAVGDVCGLLPIC, in which an intramolecular disulfide bridge was formed by two cysteine residues. At the cellular level, OA-A1 exhibited potent proliferation promoting effects on mouse-derived pancreatic β-TC-6 cells and significantly stimulated insulin release in β-TC-6 cells at a minimum concentration of 1 nM...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
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