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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332406/continuous-glucose-monitor-interference-with-commonly-prescribed-medications
#1
Ananda Basu, Michael Q Slama, Wayne T Nicholson, Loralie Langman, Thomas Peyser, Rickey Carter, Rita Basu
BACKGROUND: Reliability of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) is a prerequisite for therapeutic dosing of insulin without the need for confirmatory blood glucose meter measurements. Interference of CGMs with commonly prescribed substances has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS: We sought to undertake a novel pilot study to determine the susceptibility of FDA-approved CGM systems (Medtronic Guardian Sof-Sensor, Dexcom G4 Platinum) to erroneous readings in the presence of common medications...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327441/structure-based-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-amino-phosphonate-derivatives-as-human-glucokinase-activators
#2
Nanda Kumar Yellapu, Ravendra Babu Kilaru, Nagaraju Chamarthi, Sarma Pvgk, Bhaskar Matcha
Glucokinase (GK) is a potential therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes and GK activators (GKAs) represent a promising class of small organic molecules which enhance GK activity. Based on the configuration and conformation of the allosteric site of GK, we have designed a novel class of amino phosphonate derivatives in order to develop potent GKAs. The QSAR model developed using numerous descriptors revealed its potential with the best effective statistical values of RMSE=1.52 and r(2)=0.30. Moreover, application of this model on the present test set GKAs proved to be worthy to predict their activities as a better linear relationship was observed with RMSE=0...
March 2, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325853/deletion-of-macrophage-mineralocorticoid-receptor-protects-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-through-er%C3%AE-hgf-met-pathway
#3
Yu-Yao Zhang, Chao Li, Gao-Feng Yao, Lin-Juan Du, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Shuai Yan, Jian-Yong Sun, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Liu, Xiaoran Zhang, Gang Wei, Wenxin Tong, Xiaobei Chen, Yong Wu, Shuyang Sun, Suling Liu, Qiurong Ding, Ying Yu, Huiyong Yin, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Although the importance of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized, it remains elusive how macrophages impact hepatocytes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implied to play important roles in NAFLD and T2DM. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report that myeloid MR knockout (MRKO) improves glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Estrogen signaling is sufficient and necessary for such improvements...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#4
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323912/sex-hormones-and-cardiometabolic-health-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors
#5
Deborah Clegg, Andrea L Hevener, Kerrie L Moreau, Eugenia Morselli, Alfredo Criollo, Rachael E Van Pelt, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
With increased life expectancy, women will spend over three decades of life post-menopause. The menopausal transition increases susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Thus, it is more important than ever to develop effective hormonal treatment strategies to protect aging women. Understanding the role of estrogens, and their biological actions mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), in the regulation of cardiometabolic health is of paramount importance to discover novel targeted therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322845/metformin-like-antidiabetic-cardio-protective-and-non-glycemic-effects-of-naringenin-molecular-and-pharmacological-insights
#6
REVIEW
Annah Nsoaki Nyane, Thabiso Bethwel Tlaila, Tanki Gabriel Malefane, Dudu Edith Ndwandwe, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Its blood glucose-lowering effects are initially due to inhibition of hepatic glucose production and increased peripheral glucose utilization. Metformin has also been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and it is the only oral antihyperglycaemic agent thus far associated with decreased macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Adenosine Monophosphate Activated-Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322199/adrenomedullin-suppresses-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced-vascular-hyperpermeability-and-inflammation-in-retinopathy
#7
Akira Imai, Yuichi Toriyama, Yasuhiro Iesato, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Takayuki Sakurai, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Megumu Tanaka, Tian Liu, Xian Xian, Liuyu Zhai, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Akihiro Yamauchi, Toshinori Murata, Takayuki Shindo
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is caused by blood-retinal barrier breakdown associated with retinal vascular hyperpermeability and inflammation, and it is the major cause of visual dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is an endogenous peptide first identified as a strong vasodilator. ADM is expressed in the eyes and is up-regulated in various eye diseases, although the pathophysiological significance is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of ADM on DME. In Kimba mice, which overexpress human vascular endothelial growth factor in their retinas, the capillary dropout, vascular leakage, and vascular fragility characteristic of diabetic retinopathy were observed, and these changes were accompanied by retinal inflammation...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317889/mirnas-novel-regulators-of-autoimmunity-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-destruction-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Ying Zheng, Zhen Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. miRNAs are involved in almost every physiological and pathological process. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is the result of selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells driven by the immune system. miRNAs are also important participants in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we review the most recent data on the potential involvement of miRNAs in T1D. Specifically, we focus on two aspects: the roles of miRNAs in maintaining immune homeostasis and regulating β-cell survival and/or functions in T1D...
March 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303572/intracellular-calcium-release-channels-an-update
#9
Gaetano Santulli, Ryutaro Nakashima, Qi Yuan, Andrew R Marks
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are calcium (Ca(2+) ) release channels on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). Here we summarize the latest advances in the field, describing the recently discovered mechanistic roles of intracellular Ca(2+) release channels in the regulation of mitochondrial fitness and endothelial function, providing novel therapeutic options for the treatment of heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. This article is protected by copyright...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303408/methylene-blue-decreases-mitochondrial-lysine-acetylation-in-the-diabetic-heart
#10
Jessica M Berthiaume, Chia-Heng Hsiung, Alison B Austin, Sean P McBrayer, Mikayla M Depuydt, Margaret P Chandler, Masaru Miyagi, Mariana G Rosca
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is preceded by mitochondrial alterations, and progresses to heart failure. We studied whether treatment with methylene blue (MB), a compound that was reported to serve as an alternate electron carrier within the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), improves mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes. MB was administered at 10 mg/kg/day to control and diabetic rats. Both echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed to assess cardiac function...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303386/t-cell-metabolism-as-a-target-to-control-autoreactive-t-cells-in-%C3%AE-cell-autoimmunity
#11
REVIEW
Carlotta Bordignon, Adriana Canu, Aleksandra Dyczko, Serena Leone, Paolo Monti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An increasing body of evidence indicates that bio-energetic metabolism of activated T cells is a potential target to control the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RECENT FINDINGS: T-cell activation and proliferation is linked to the cell capacity to provide sufficient energy and biosynthesis molecules to support T-cell growth and division. This makes T cells susceptible to metabolic inhibition for the control of the T-cell response...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#12
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295415/adipose-tissue-nad-biology-in-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-from-mechanism-to-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Shintaro Yamaguchi, Jun Yoshino
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) biosynthetic pathway, mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a key NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme, plays a pivotal role in controlling many biological processes, such as metabolism, circadian rhythm, inflammation, and aging. Over the past decade, NAMPT-mediated NAD(+) biosynthesis, together with its key downstream mediator, namely the NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1, has been demonstrated to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in a tissue-dependent manner...
March 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294194/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-preserves-renal-hemodynamics-and-function-in-mice-with-diabetic-kidney-disease-by-modulating-mir-22-and-bmp7
#14
Riccardo Pofi, Daniela Fiore, Rita De Gaetano, Giuseppe Panio, Daniele Gianfrilli, Carlotta Pozza, Federica Barbagallo, Yang Kevin Xiang, Konstantinos Giannakakis, Susanna Morano, Andrea Lenzi, Fabio Naro, Andrea M Isidori, Mary Anna Venneri
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Preclinical and experimental studies show that PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5is) exert protective effects in DN improving perivascular inflammation. Using a mouse model of diabetic kidney injury we investigated the protective proprieties of PDE5is on renal hemodynamics and the molecular mechanisms involved. PDE5i treatment prevented the development of DN-related hypertension (P < 0.001), the increase of urine albumin creatinine ratio (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294170/exploring-inter-organ-crosstalk-to-uncover-mechanisms-that-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass
#15
REVIEW
J Shirakawa, D F De Jesus, R N Kulkarni
Impaired β-cell function and insufficient β-cell mass compensation are twin pathogenic features that underlie type 2 diabetes (T2D). Current therapeutic strategies continue to evolve to improve treatment outcomes in different ethnic populations and include approaches to counter insulin resistance and improve β-cell function. Although the effects of insulin secretion on metabolic organs such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose is directly relevant for improving glucose uptake and reduce hyperglycemia, the ability of pancreatic β-cells to crosstalk with multiple non-metabolic tissues is providing novel insights into potential opportunities for improving β-cell function and/or mass that could have beneficial effects in patients with diabetes...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293906/who-should-be-considered-for-islet-transplantation-alone
#16
REVIEW
Nantia Othonos, Pratik Choudhary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Episodic hypoglycemia is an almost inevitable consequence of exogenous insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes, and in up to 30% of patients, this can lead to impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. This predisposes to recurrent severe hypoglycemia and has a huge impact on quality of life. Although many patients can get resolution of severe hypoglycemia through novel education and technology, some patients continue to have ongoing life-threatening hypoglycemia. Islet transplantation offers an alternative therapeutic option for these patients, in whom these conventional approaches have been unsuccessful...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292028/bixin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-injury-in-mice-through-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-suppression
#17
Zhou Xu, Xiang-Qing Kong
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is known as an essential complication of diabetes, a main reason leading to mortality for diabetic patients, and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment are urgently required. Bixin (BX), isolated from the seeds of Bixa orellana, is a carotenoid, possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. In our study, we attempted to calculate the role of bixin in cardiac injury progression, and reveal the possible molecular mechanism. Bixin treatment ameliorated cardiac dysfunction through inhibiting fibrosis, inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
March 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290602/ajs1669-a-novel-small-molecule-muscle-glycogen-synthase-activator-improves-glucose-metabolism-and-reduces-body-fat-mass-in-mice
#18
Kazuhiro Nakano, Sen Takeshita, Noriko Kawasaki, Wataru Miyanaga, Yoriko Okamatsu, Mizuki Dohi, Tadakiyo Nakagawa
Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289965/novel-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-and-clinical-aspects-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
REVIEW
Zubair Ilyas, Joumana T Chaiban, Armand Krikorian
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a well-described complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased albuminuria has been the gold standard for screening, data suggests that renal damage starts long before the onset of clinically apparent increases in macro and even micro-albuminuria. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention of DN have been traditionally focused on the control of serum glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia, with some focus on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as a main target for successful therapy...
March 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289375/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-target-genes-contribute-to-retinal-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Lin Cheng, Honghua Yu, Naihong Yan, Kunbei Lai, Mengqing Xiang
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that facilitates cellular adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia. Long-standing evidence suggests that one isotype of HIF, HIF-1α, is involved in the pathogenesis of various solid tumors and cardiac diseases. However, the role of HIF-1α in retina remains poorly understood. HIF-1α has been recognized as neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia in the past two decades. Additionally, an increasing number of studies has shown that HIF-1α and its target genes contribute to retinal neuroprotection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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