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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714900/a-nutrigenomic-approach-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Paola Dongiovanni, Luca Valenti
Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702327/loss-of-adamts5-enhances-brown-adipose-tissue-mass-and-promotes-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-creb-signaling
#2
Dries Bauters, Mathias Cobbaut, Lotte Geys, Johan Van Lint, Bianca Hemmeryckx, H Roger Lijnen
OBJECTIVE: A potential strategy to treat obesity - and the associated metabolic consequences - is to increase energy expenditure. This could be achieved by stimulating thermogenesis through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or the induction of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Over the last years, it has become clear that several metalloproteinases play an important role in adipocyte biology. Here, we investigated the potential role of ADAMTS5. METHODS: Mice deficient in ADAMTS5 (Adamts5(-/-)) and wild-type (Adamts5(+/+)) littermates were kept on a standard of Western-type diet for 15 weeks...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698546/obesity-induces-organ-and-tissue-specific-tight-junction-restructuring-and-barrier-deregulation-by-claudin-switching
#3
Rizwan Ahmad, Bilal Rah, Dhundy Bastola, Punita Dhawan, Amar B Singh
Obesity increases susceptibility to multiple organ disorders, however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The subclinical inflammation assisted by obesity-induced gut permeability may underlie obesity-associated co-morbidities. Despite eminent clinical significance of the obesity led gut barrier abnormalities, its precise molecular regulation remains unclear. It is also unknown whether barrier deregulations, similar to the gut, characterize other vital organs in obese individuals. The claudin family of proteins is integral to the tight junction (TJ), the apical cell-cell adhesion and a key regulator of the epithelial barrier...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682785/artificial-light-at-night-a-novel-lifestyle-risk-factor-for-metabolic-disorder-and-cancer-morbidity
#4
REVIEW
Abed E Zubidat, Abraham Haim
Both obesity and breast cancer are already recognized worldwide as the most common syndromes in our modern society. Currently, there is accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies suggesting that these syndromes are closely associated with circadian disruption. It has been suggested that melatonin (MLT) and the circadian clock genes both play an important role in the development of these syndromes. However, we still poorly understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between circadian disruption and the modern health syndromes...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682223/-gut-microbiota-and-immune-crosstalk-in-metabolic-disease
#5
Rémy Burcelin
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#6
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677104/the-dark-side-of-browning
#7
REVIEW
Kirstin A Tamucci, Maria Namwanje, Lihong Fan, Li Qiang
The induction of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue (WAT) confers numerous metabolic benefits by decreasing adiposity and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, WAT browning has gained considerable attention for its potential to reverse obesity and its associated co-morbidities. However, this perspective has been tainted by recent studies identifying the detrimental effects of inducing WAT browning. This review aims to highlight the adverse outcomes of both overactive and underactive browning activity, the harmful side effects of browning agents, as well as the molecular brake-switch system that has been proposed to regulate this process...
July 4, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674442/investigating-the-effects-of-orexin-a-on-thermogenesis-in-human-deep-neck-brown-adipose-tissue
#8
M F Pino, A Divoux, A V Simmonds, S R Smith, L M Sparks
BACKGROUND: Despite successful pre-clinical testing, 85% of early clinical trials for novel drugs fail. Most futilities originate from molecular mechanisms of the drug(s) tested. It is critically important to develop validated human cell-based model systems in which animal-based research can be translated in order to complement the preclinical in vivo findings prior to implementation of a clinical trial. Obesity is associated with reduced circulating levels of Orexin-A (OX-A) in humans...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670087/plasmapheresis-for-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-from-hypertriglyceridemia
#9
Kathleen Kopecky, Amber Moreland, Christopher Hebert, Gates B Colbert
Acute pancreatitis is a known complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Therapeutic experience with plasmapheresis is less well reported but has been highly successful in life-threatening presentations. We describe a 38-year-old obese Hispanic woman with a previous history of acute pancreatitis from diabetic hypertriglyceridemia who presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of worsening abdominal pain. Plasmapheresis was initiated with one calculated plasma volume exchange using 5% albumin replacement within 24 hours of admission...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663570/brain-stimulation-in-obesity
#10
REVIEW
C H Göbel, V M Tronnier, T F Münte
Obesity is taking up epidemic proportions worldwide with significant impacts on the health of both the affected individual and on society as a whole. Treatment approaches consist of behavioural and pharmacological approaches, however these are often found to be ineffective. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery is frequently performed. Unfortunately, 40% of patients show substantial weight gain over the long-term or display the associated metabolic syndrome, making the development of novel therapies necessary...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659749/anti-adipogenic-effects-of-tropaeolum-majus-nasturtium-ethanol-extract-on-3t3-l1-cells
#11
Gi-Chang Kim, Jin-Sook Kim, Gyoung-Mi Kim, Song-Yi Choi
Background: Edible flowers, Tropaeolum majus has been used as a disinfectant and an antibiotic, and for wound healing, but the anti-obesity effects of this plant have not been reported previously Objective: We investigated the anti-adipogenic effects of T. majus ethanol extract (TME) on 3T3-L1 cells. Design: 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated in the presence of different concentrations of TME. Lipid accumulation levels were determined using Oil-Red O staining and a triglyceride content assay. Changes in the expression of proteins related to adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells were determined by SDS-PAGE and western blotting...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657335/immunometabolic-regulation-of-vascular-redox-state-the-role-of-adipose-tissue
#12
Evangelos K Oikonomou, Charalambos Antoniades
SIGNIFICANCE: Vascular oxidative stress plays a crucial role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent evidence suggests that vascular redox state is under the control of complex pathophysiological mechanisms, ranging from inflammation to obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Recent advances: Adipose tissue (AT) is now recognized as a dynamic endocrine and paracrine organ that secretes several bioactive molecules, called adipokines. AT has recently been shown to regulate vascular redox state in both an endocrine and a paracrine manner through the secretion of adipokines, therefore providing a mechanistic link for the association between obesity, IR, inflammation and vascular disease...
June 28, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656523/discovery-of-5-methyl-2-4-4-methylsulfonyl-benzyl-oxy-phenyl-4-piperazin-1-yl-pyrimidine-derivatives-as-novel-grp119-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-and-obesity
#13
Jinying Chen, Zitai Sang, Lu Li, Linhong He, Liang Ma
A series of fused-pyrimidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their agonistic activities against human GPR119. Compound 9i showed high potent agonistic activity against HEK293T cells over-expressing human GPR119 and improved glucose tolerance in dose-dependent manner, as well as promoted insulin secretion. In a DIO mice model, 9i also ameliorated the obese-related symptoms by decreasing the body weights without markedly changing food intake, normalized some serum biomarkers, such as ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHOL, HDL, and LDL, and exerted therapeutic activity on fat deposition in liver tissue...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656106/targeting-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-using-thiazolidinediones-strategy-for-design-of-novel-antidiabetic-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Neelaveni Thangavel, Mohammed Al Bratty, Sadique Akhtar Javed, Waquar Ahsan, Hassan A Alhazmi
Thiazolidinediones are a class of well-established antidiabetic drugs, also named as glitazones. Thiazolidinedione structure has been an important structural domain of research, involving design and development of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Extensive research on the mechanism of action and the structural requirements has revealed that the intended antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetes is due to their agonistic effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to the nuclear receptor super family...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652200/down-regulation-of-mirnas-in-the-brain-and-development-of-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Jaime G Maldonado-Avilés, Douglas J Guarnieri, Xianglong Zhu, Ralph J DiLeone
Novel therapeutic interventions for obesity and comorbid conditions require knowledge of the molecular elements playing a role in the development of obesity. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been consistently reported in obese individuals. In this study, we first determined whether key molecular modulators of inflammation, microRNA-155 (mir-155) and microRNA-146a (miR-146a), are regulated by an obesogenic diet within brain regions associated with reward, metabolism and energy balance. C57BL/6J mice were chronically exposed to a high fat diet (HFD) or a standard chow (CTL)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650457/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-regulates-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-mice
#16
Bérengère Benoit, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Martina Castelli, Stéphanie Chanon, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Christine Durand, Nadia Bendridi, Sandra Pesenti, Pierre-Axel Monternier, Anne-Cécile Durieux, Damien Freyssenet, Jennifer Rieusset, Etienne Lefai, Hubert Vidal, Jérôme Ruzzin
The endocrine-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has recently emerged as a potential target for treating metabolic disease. Given that skeletal muscle is a key metabolic organ, we explored the role of FGF19 in that tissue. Here we report a novel function of FGF19 in regulating skeletal muscle mass through enlargement of muscle fiber size, and in protecting muscle from atrophy. Treatment with FGF19 causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice, while physiological and pharmacological doses of FGF19 substantially increase the size of human myotubes in vitro...
June 26, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647369/synthesis-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-1-sco1-inhibits-insulin-sensitivity-by-decreasing-copper-levels-in-adipocytes
#17
Xiang-Bo Wei, Liang Guo, Yang Liu, Shui-Rong Zhou, Yuan Liu, Xin Dou, Shao-Yue Du, Meng Ding, Wan-Qiu Peng, Shu-Wen Qian, Hai-Yan Huang, Qi-Qun Tang
Dysregulation of insulin signaling leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is an important contributor to insulin resistance, and although the understanding of this relationship has improved in recent years, the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance is not completely understood. Disorders of copper metabolism tend to accompany the development of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance. Synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) functions in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and cellular copper homeostasis...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646531/morin-a-novel-lxr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-antagonist-has-potent-therapeutic-efficacy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#18
Ming Gu, Yu Zhang, Chuhe Liu, Dongshan Wang, Li Feng, Shengjie Fan, Baican Yang, Qingchun Tong, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Morin is a natural occurring flavonoid in many dietary plants and has a wide range of beneficial effects on metabolism; however, the mechanism underlying its action remains elusive. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Reporter assay and the Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer assay were used to identify morin as a dual antagonist of LXRα and LXRβ. High fat-diet mixed with morin (100 mg/100 g diet) was administrated to high-fat diet-induced obese or LXRβ(-/-) mice combining with Western blot and RT-PCR analysis to evaluate the pharmacological effect and mechanism of morin treatment...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#19
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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