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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147603/age-estrogen-and-immune-response-in-breast-adenocarcinoma-and-adjacent-normal-tissue
#1
David A Quigley, Andliena Tahiri, Torben Lüders, Margit H Riis, Allan Balmain, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Ida Bukholm, Vessela Kristensen
Chronic inflammation promotes breast tumor growth and invasion by accelerating angiogenesis and tissue remodeling in the tumor microenvironment. There is a complex relationship between inflammation and estrogen, which drives the growth of 70 percent of breast tumors. While low levels of estrogen exposure stimulate macrophages and other inflammatory cell populations, very high levels are immune suppressive. Breast tumor incidence is increased by obesity and age, which interact to influence inflammatory cell populations in normal breast tissue...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#2
Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143862/a20-prevents-obesity-induced-development-of-cardiac-dysfunction
#3
Wenjing Xu, Cheng Wang, Minglu Liang, Long Chen, Qin Fu, Fengxiao Zhang, Yan Wang, Dan Huang, Kai Huang
Obesity and an increased free fatty acid (FFA) level are tightly linked, leading to aberrant oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and progression to cardiovascular disorders. A20 is a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme that plays a significant role in the negative regulation of inflammatory response. Here, we study the role of A20 in obesity-induced heart injury and explore the underlying mechanisms. A20 expression was first increased in mouse hearts after 4 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD) and then was gradually decreased in the following 20 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#4
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#5
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138278/a-cytoplasmic-compass-is-necessary-for-cell-survival-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-by-regulating-metabolism
#6
Lu Wang, Clayton K Collings, Zibo Zhao, Kira Alia Cozzolino, Quanhong Ma, Kaiwei Liang, Stacy A Marshall, Christie C Sze, Rintaro Hashizume, Jeffrey Nicholas Savas, Ali Shilatifard
Mutations and translocations within the COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) family of histone lysine methyltransferases are associated with a large number of human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that SET1B/COMPASS, which is essential for cell survival, surprisingly has a cytoplasmic variant. SET1B, but not its SET domain, is critical for maintaining cell viability, indicating a novel catalytic-independent role of SET1B/COMPASS. Loss of SET1B or its unique cytoplasmic-interacting protein, BOD1, leads to up-regulation of expression of numerous genes modulating fatty acid metabolism, including ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1), COX7C, SDC4, and COQ7 Our detailed molecular studies identify ADIPOR1 signaling, which is inactivated in both obesity and human cancers, as a key target of SET1B/COMPASS...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138271/addressing-the-perfect-storm-biomarkers-in-obesity-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#7
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Dariush Mozaffarian, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: The worldwide rise of obesity has provoked intensified research to better understand its pathophysiology as a means for disease prevention. Several biomarkers that may reflect various pathophysiological pathways that link obesity and cardiometabolic diseases have been identified over the past decades. CONTENT: We summarize research evidence regarding the role of established and novel obesity-related biomarkers, focusing on recent epidemiological evidence for detrimental associations with cardiometabolic diseases including obesity-related cancer...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138180/inhibition-of-vascular-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-improves-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#8
Petia Doytcheva, Thomas Bächler, Erika Tarasco, Vincenzo Marzolla, Michael Engeli, Giovanni Pellegrini, Simona Stivala, Lucia Rohrer, Francesco Tona, Giovanni G Camici, Paul M Vanhoutte, Christian M Matter, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas F Lüscher, Elena Osto
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136581/honokiol-exerts-dual-effects-on-browning-and-apoptosis-of-adipocytes
#9
Jameel Lone, Jong Won Yun
BACKGROUND: Induction of brown adipocyte-like phenotype (browning) in white adipocytes and promotion of apoptosis by dietary and pharmacological compounds is considered a novel strategy against obesity. Here, we show that honokiol exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and apoptosis as well as activation of HIB1B brown adipocytes combined with inhibition of apoptosis. METHODS: Honokiol-induced browning and apoptosis were investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132311/weighted-gene-co-expression-network-analysis-of-expression-data-of-monozygotic-twins-identifies-specific-modules-and-hub-genes-related-to-bmi
#10
Weijing Wang, Wenjie Jiang, Lin Hou, Haiping Duan, Yili Wu, Chunsheng Xu, Qihua Tan, Shuxia Li, Dongfeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic management of obesity is challenging, hence further elucidating the underlying mechanisms of obesity development and identifying new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgent and necessary. Here, we performed differential gene expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify significant genes and specific modules related to BMI based on gene expression profile data of 7 discordant monozygotic twins. RESULTS: In the differential gene expression analysis, it appeared that 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were with a trend of up-regulation in twins with higher BMI when compared to their siblings...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121940/plasma-irisin-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-is-associated-with-increased-e-selectin-levels
#11
Karan S Rana, Chathyan Pararasa, Islam Afzal, David A Nagel, Eric J Hill, Clifford J Bailey, Helen R Griffiths, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva, Srikanth Bellary, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120924/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-eating-behaviour
#12
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111387/hyperlipidemia-induced-hepassocin-in-the-liver-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Tae Woo Jung, Yoon Hee Chung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, A M Abd El-Aty, Ji Hoon Jeong
Hepassocin (HPS) has recently been identified as a novel hepatokine that causes hepatic steatosis. However, the role of HPS in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle under obesity remains unclear. The effect of hyperlipidemia on hepatic HPS expression was evaluated in primary hepatocytes and liver of mice. HPS-mediated signal pathways were explored using small interfering (si) RNAs of specific genes or inhibitors. We found that treatment of primary hepatocytes with palmitate could induce HPS expression through C/EBPβ-mediated transcriptional activation...
October 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111280/akt-activation-a-potential-strategy-to-ameliorate-insulin-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Zhengyi Zhang, Huadong Liu, Jiankang Liu
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and obesity while the mechanism remains unclear. Current therapy to treat type 2 diabetes is metformin, the 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, owing to the ability to augment peripheral glucose uptake. However, metformin also displays limitations, as AMPK activation remains intact and regular in most type 2 diabetes and metformin does not seem to facilitate peripheral insulin resistance. Evidence has shown that PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway could be induced via insulin and act as an important effector...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107764/current-attempts-to-implement-microrna-based-diagnostics-and-therapy-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease-a-promising-future
#15
Punniyakoti V Thanikachalam, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Zheng W Wong, Koo B Jin, Wong J Ying, Mohd F B Abdullah, Chin Y Haur, Chia C Hou, Tan J Yi, Neo W Ting, Tan B Sen, Khan W Fang, Prashant Kesharwani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-translational level. miRNA-based therapeutic agents are important because of the functionality of miRNAs in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and their role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity, where dysregulation leads to disease; they are also important in angiogenesis. miRNAs additionally serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment of disease and in monitoring the response to treatment...
October 28, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106945/activation-of-the-sting-irf3-pathway-promotes-hepatocyte-inflammation-apoptosis-and-induces-metabolic-disorders-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
J T Qiao, C Cui, L Qing, L S Wang, T Y He, F Yan, F Q Liu, Y H Shen, X G Hou, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common result of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hepatocyte injury and metabolic disorders are hallmarks of NAFLD. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its downstream factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) trigger inflammatory reaction in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA. STING has recently been shown to play an important role in early alcoholic liver disease. However, little is known about the role of STING-IRF3 pathway in hepatocyte injury...
October 26, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104746/multimodal-imaging-for-the-detection-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-women-a-pilot-study-using-nirs-and-infrared-thermography
#17
Valentina Hartwig, Letizia Guiducci, Martina Marinelli, Laura Pistoia, Tommaso Minutoli Tegrimi, Giorgio Iervasi, Alfredo Quinones-Galvan, Antonio L'Abbate
Purpose: A clear link between obesity and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction has been recently demonstrated. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 2D imaging together with infrared thermography (IRT) is capable of identifying thermal and vascular response in the supraclavicular (SCV) areas after the ingestion of an oral glucose load as a thermogenic stimulation. Method: We studied two groups of women (obese versus lean) for discerning their different responses...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103176/oncostatin-m-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-potential-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#18
REVIEW
Tadasuke Komori, Yoshihiro Morikawa
Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ(-/-) mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ(-/-) mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ(-/-) mice compared to those in wild-type mice...
November 4, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100962/metabolic-features-of-macrophages-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#19
Yi Rang Na, Sungmo Je, Seung Hyeok Seok
Macrophages are now considered to be important players in various inflammatory diseases as well as tumor progression. Emerging evidence reveals that macrophage metabolic features are deeply associated with their immune functions. Understanding the interaction between cellular metabolism and immune signaling pathways in macrophages can help us to develop appropriate therapeutic approaches for inflammatory diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize key metabolic features of M1 and M2 macrophages as well as signaling interactions between major metabolic molecules with TLRs and NLRs...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089337/curcumin-and-other-dietary-polyphenols-potential-mechanisms-of-metabolic-actions-and-therapy-for-diabetes-and-obesity
#20
Tianru Jin, Zhuolun Song, Jianping Weng, I George Fantus
Recent controversy regarding the therapeutic potential of curcumin indicate the challenges to research in this field. Here, we highlight the investigations of curcumin and other plant-derived polyphenols that demonstrate their application to metabolic diseases, in particular obesity and diabetes. Thus a number of preclinical and clinical investigations have shown the beneficial effect of curcumin (and other dietary polyphenols) in attenuating body weight gain, improving insulin sensitivity and preventing diabetes development in rodent models and pre-diabetic subjects...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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