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Isotype switching

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768501/secretion-of-autoimmune-antibodies-in-the-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#1
Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Seth Thaller, Bonnie B Blomberg
The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743315/an-unmutated-igm-response-to-the-vi-polysaccharide-of-salmonella-typhi-contributes-to-protective-immunity-in-a-murine-model-of-typhoid
#2
Kalgi D Pandya, Isabel Palomo-Caturla, Justin A Walker, Vijay K Sandilya, Zhijiu Zhong, Kishore R Alugupalli
T cell-dependent B cell responses typically develop in germinal centers. Abs generated during such responses are isotype switched and have a high affinity to the Ag because of somatic hypermutation of Ab genes. B cell responses to purified polysaccharides are T cell independent and do not result in the formation of bona fide germinal centers, and the dominant Ab isotype produced during such responses is IgM with very few or no somatic mutations. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for both somatic hypermutation and Ig isotype switching in humans and mice...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743314/cd8-follicular-t-cells-promote-b-cell-antibody-class-switch-in-autoimmune-disease
#3
Kristen M Valentine, Dan Davini, Travis J Lawrence, Genevieve N Mullins, Miguel Manansala, Mufadhal Al-Kuhlani, James M Pinney, Jason K Davis, Anna E Beaudin, Suzanne S Sindi, David M Gravano, Katrina K Hoyer
CD8 T cells can play both a protective and pathogenic role in inflammation and autoimmune development. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of CD8 T cells to function as T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the germinal center in the context of infection. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in autoimmunity and contributes to autoimmune pathogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that CD8 T cells acquire a CD4 Tfh profile in the absence of functional regulatory T cells in both the IL-2-deficient and scurfy mouse models...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737217/update-on-fc-receptor-like-fcrl-family-new-immunoregulatory-players-in-health-and-diseases
#4
Davood Rostamzadeh, Tohid Kazemi, Zahra Amirghofran, Mahdi Shabani
Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, as recently identified members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), are preferentially expressed by B-cells. They have variable number of extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and cytoplasmic activating ITAMs and/or inhibitory ITIMs. FCRL1-5 are dominantly expressed in different stages of B-cells development. But, FCRL6 is preferentially expressed in different subsets of T-cells and NK cells. FCRL1-5 could regulate different features of B-cell evolution such as development, differentiation, activation, antibody secretion and isotype switching...
May 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722823/immunogenicity-and-immunological-memory-induced-by-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-followed-by-the-23-valent-polysaccharide-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#5
Paraskevi F Farmaki, Maria C Chini, Nikolaos M Mangafas, Marianna T Tzanoudaki, Christina P Piperi, Marios Z Lazanas, Vana S Spoulou
Background: Vaccine-induced memory B-cell (MBC) subsets have distinct roles in the establishment of protective immunity; MBCs expressing nonswitched immunoglobulin M (IgM+ MBCs) replenish the MBC pool, whereas MBCs expressing isotype-switched immunoglobulin (sIg+ MBCs) differentiate into plasma cells upon antigen reencounter. We investigated immunogenicity and MBCs induced by combined 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704886/physiological-role-of-kv%C3%AE-2-akr6-in-murine-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-regulation
#6
Kalyan C Chapalamadugu, Jared Tur, Sachin L Badole, Rakesh C Kukreja, Marco Brotto, Srinivas M Tipparaju
AIM: Potassium channel accessory subunits (Kvβ) play a key role in cardiac electrical activity through ion channel modulation. In the present study we hypothesize that Kvβ2 regulates skeletal muscle growth and fiber phenotype via protein-protein interactions. METHODS: Kvβ2 knockout mouse model was used for morphometric, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis to evaluate the role of Kvβ2 in skeletal muscle physiology. RESULTS: Deletion of Kvβ2 gene in mice (Kvβ2 knockout, KO) leads to significant decrease in body weight along with skeletal muscle size...
April 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704159/diversity-of-immunoglobulin-ig-isotypes-and-the-role-of-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-aid-in-fish
#7
REVIEW
Bhakti Patel, Rajanya Banerjee, Mrinal Samanta, Surajit Das
The disparate diversity in immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire has been a subject of fascination since the emergence of prototypic adaptive immune system in vertebrates. The carboxy terminus region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been well established in tetrapod lineage and is crucial for its function in class switch recombination (CSR) event of Ig diversification. The absence of CSR in the paraphyletic group of fish is probably due to changes in catalytic domain of AID and lack of cis-elements in IgH locus...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685902/pi-4-5-p2-determines-the-threshold-of-mechanical-force-induced-b-cell-activation
#8
Zhengpeng Wan, Chenguang Xu, Xiangjun Chen, Hengyi Xie, Zongyu Li, Jing Wang, Xingyu Ji, Haodong Chen, Qinghua Ji, Samina Shaheen, Yang Xu, Fei Wang, Zhuo Tang, Ji-Shen Zheng, Wei Chen, Jizhong Lou, Wanli Liu
B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to sense the chemical and physical features of antigens. The activation of isotype-switched IgG-BCR by mechanical force exhibits a distinct sensitivity and threshold in comparison with IgM-BCR. However, molecular mechanisms governing these differences remain to be identified. In this study, we report that the low threshold of IgG-BCR activation by mechanical force is highly dependent on tethering of the cytoplasmic tail of the IgG-BCR heavy chain (IgG-tail) to the plasma membrane...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664567/memory-control-by-the-b-cell-antigen-receptor
#9
REVIEW
Niklas Engels, Jürgen Wienands
The generation of memory B cells (MBCs) that have undergone immunoglobulin class switching from IgM, which dominates primary antibody responses, to other immunoglobulin isoforms is a hallmark of immune memory. Hence, humoral immunological memory is characterized by the presence of serum immunoglobulins of IgG subtypes known as the γ-globulin fraction of blood plasma proteins. These antibodies reflect the antigen experience of B lymphocytes and their repeated triggering. In fact, efficient protection against a previously encountered pathogen is critically linked to the production of pathogen-specific IgG molecules even in those cases where the primary immune response required cellular immunity, for example, T cell-mediated clearance of intracellular pathogens such as viruses...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661716/small-cell-lymphocytic-variant-of-marginal-zone-lymphoma-a-distinct-form-of-marginal-zone-lymphoma-derived-from-na%C3%A3-ve-b-cells-as-a-cutaneous-counterpart-to-the-na%C3%A3-ve-marginal-zone-lymphoma-of-splenic-origin
#10
REVIEW
Cynthia M Magro, Luke C Olson
Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma most commonly represents an indolent form of cutaneous B cell lymphoma. However, epidermotropic marginal zone lymphoma, blastic marginal zone lymphoma and B cell dominant variants without isotype switching can be associated with extracutaneous dissemination. The presumptive cell of origin is a post germinal center B cell with plasmacytic features. In the extracutaneous setting, however, a naïve B cell origin has been proposed for a subset of marginal zone lymphomas, notably splenic marginal zone lymphoma...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621504/interleukin10-1082-a-g-polymorphism-allele-frequency-correlation-with-disease-markers-messenger-rna-and-serum-levels-in-north-indian-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#11
Mohd Jahid, Rehan-Ul-Haq, Rajnish Avasthi, Rafat Sultana Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. IL-10 stimulates B cell survival and is involved in antibody isotype switching. The serum IL-10 levels are increased in RA patients. Ethnicity influences polymorphisms in cytokine genes. Therefore, this study was designed to explore possible association, if any, between polymorphism of IL10-1082 A/G, serum cytokine levels, inflammatory markers and gene expression in RA patients of North India...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573640/tipping-microtubule-dynamics-one-protofilament-at-a-time
#12
REVIEW
Amol Aher, Anna Akhmanova
Microtubules are polymeric tubes that switch between phases of growth and shortening, and this property is essential to drive key cellular processes. Microtubules are composed of protofilaments formed by longitudinally arranged tubulin dimers. Microtubule dynamics can be affected by structural perturbations at the plus end, such as end tapering, and targeting only a small subset of protofilaments can alter the dynamics of the whole microtubule. Microtubule lattice plasticity, including compaction along the longitudinal axis upon GTP hydrolysis and tubulin dimer loss and reinsertion along microtubule shafts can also affect microtubule dynamics or mechanics...
March 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572544/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-similar-molecular-signatures-for-class-switch-recombination-junctions-for-the-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-isotypes
#13
Hussein Issaoui, Nour Ghazzaui, Alexis Saintamand, Yves Denizot, François Boyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535729/epigenomic-modifications-mediating-antibody-maturation
#14
REVIEW
Emily C Sheppard, Rikke Brandstrup Morrish, Michael J Dillon, Rebecca Leyland, Richard Chahwan
Epigenetic modifications, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation status, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), all contribute to antibody maturation during somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR). Histone modifications alter the chromatin landscape and, together with DNA primary and tertiary structures, they help recruit Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) to the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus. AID is a potent DNA mutator, which catalyzes cytosine-to-uracil deamination on single-stranded DNA to create U:G mismatches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532268/monoclonal-gammopathy-in-rheumatic-diseases
#15
Yue Yang, Long Chen, Yuan Jia, Yang Liu, Lei Wen, Yaoxian Liang, Yuan An, Shi Chen, Yin Su, Zhanguo Li
To analyze the clinical spectrum, laboratory characteristics, and outcomes of monoclonal gammopathy (MG) in patients with rheumatic diseases. Screening for the presence of MG was performed in 872 inpatients with rheumatic diseases from January 2010 to July 2017. A total of 41 patients were enrolled. Their clinical and biological features in addition to outcomes were described. For each patient with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 2 age- and sex-matched pSS patients without MG were selected as controls. Risk factors for the presence of MG and malignant hematological neoplasias were assessed...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520062/the-h2b-deubiquitinase-usp22-promotes-antibody-class-switch-recombination-by-facilitating-non-homologous-end-joining
#16
Conglei Li, Thergiory Irrazabal, Clare C So, Maribel Berru, Likun Du, Evelyn Lam, Alexanda K Ling, Jennifer L Gommerman, Qiang Pan-Hammarström, Alberto Martin
Class switch recombination (CSR) has a fundamental function during humoral immune response and involves the induction and subsequent repair of DNA breaks in the immunoglobulin (Ig) switch regions. Here we show the role of Usp22, the SAGA complex deubiquitinase that removes ubiquitin from H2B-K120, in the repair of programmed DNA breaks in vivo. Ablation of Usp22 in primary B cells results in defects in γH2AX and impairs the classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), affecting both V(D)J recombination and CSR...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511082/igg-responses-to-porins-and-lipopolysaccharide-within-an-outer-membrane-based-vaccine-against-nontyphoidal-salmonella-develop-at-discordant-rates
#17
Anna E Schager, C Coral Dominguez-Medina, Francesca Necchi, Francesca Micoli, Yun Shan Goh, Margaret Goodall, Adriana Flores-Langarica, Saeeda Bobat, Charlotte N L Cook, Melissa Arcuri, Arianna Marini, Lloyd D W King, Faye C Morris, Graham Anderson, Kai-Michael Toellner, Ian R Henderson, Constantino López-Macías, Calman A MacLennan, Adam F Cunningham
Antibodies acquired after vaccination or natural infection with Gram-negative bacteria, such as invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, can protect against disease. Immunization with naturally shed outer membrane vesicles from Gram-negative bacteria is being studied for its potential to protect against many infections, since antigens within vesicles maintain their natural conformation and orientation. Shedding can be enhanced through genetic modification, and the resulting particles, generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA), not only offer potential as vaccines but also can facilitate the study of B-cell responses to bacterial antigens...
March 6, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505809/age-associated-distribution-of-normal-b-cell-and-plasma-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood
#18
Elena Blanco, Martín Pérez-Andrés, Sonia Arriba-Méndez, Teresa Contreras-Sanfeliciano, Ignacio Criado, Ondrej Pelak, Ana Serra-Caetano, Alfonso Romero, Noemí Puig, Ana Remesal, Juan Torres Canizales, Eduardo López-Granados, Tomas Kalina, Ana E Sousa, Menno van Zelm, Mirjam van der Burg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao
BACKGROUND: Humoral immunocompetence develops stepwise throughout life and contributes to individual susceptibility to infection, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) isotype serum levels can partly explain such age-related differences, but their relationship with the IgH isotype distribution within memory B-cell (MBC) and plasma cell (PCs) compartments remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: We studied the age-related distribution of MBCs and PCs expressing different IgH isotypes in addition to the immature/transitional and naive B-cell compartments...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503740/toll-like-receptor-1-2-agonist-pam3csk4-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-driven-igg1-production-while-enhancing-igg2a-production-by-b-cells
#19
Sang-Hoon Lee, Seok-Rae Park
Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig class switch recombination (CSR). However, roles of TLRs in B cell activation and differentiation are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of stimulation of TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 on mouse B cell viability, proliferation, activation, Ig production, and Ig CSR in vitro ...
February 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482627/baseline-autoantibody-profile-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-early-treatment-response-but-not-long-term-outcomes
#20
Emma C de Moel, Veerle F A M Derksen, Gerrie Stoeken, Leendert A Trouw, Holger Bang, Robbert J Goekoop, Irene Speyer, Tom W J Huizinga, Cornelia F Allaart, René E M Toes, Diane van der Woude
BACKGROUND: The autoantibody profile of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is very diverse and consists of various isotypes and antibodies to multiple post-translational modifications. It is yet unknown whether this varying breadth of the autoantibody profile is associated with treatment outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether the composition of the autoantibody profile in RA, as a marker of the underlying immunopathology, influences initial and long-term treatment outcomes. METHODS: In serum from 399 seropositive patients with RA in the IMPROVED study, drawn at baseline and at the moment of drug tapering, we measured IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies, IgM and IgA rheumatoid factor, and reactivity against four citrullinated and two acetylated peptides (anti-modified protein antibodies (AMPAs))...
February 26, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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