keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Isotype switching

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322016/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-antileishmanial-potential-of-bergenin-rich-bergenia-ligulata-wall-engl-root-extract-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-inbred-balb-c-mice-through-immunomodulation
#1
Rupinder Kaur, Sukhbir Kaur
Background: Medicinal plants with immunomodulatory properties can provide good alternative therapeutics for curing visceral leishmaniasis. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. is an interesting plant with strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. Aim: The present study was planned to determine the antileishmanial activity of plant extract by modulating the immune responses of inbred BALB/c mice. Methodology: Bergenin, the principle active component of B...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282308/b-cell-intrinsic-myd88-signaling-promotes-initial-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-to-enhance-the-germinal-center-response-to-a-virus-like-particle
#2
Meijie Tian, Zhaolin Hua, Sheng Hong, Zhimin Zhang, Can Liu, Lin Lin, Jiaorong Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuyu Zhou, Fuping Zhang, Anthony L DeFranco, Baidong Hou
Although TLR signaling in B cells has been implicated in the germinal center (GC) responses during viral infections and autoimmune diseases, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Bacterial phage Qβ-derived virus-like particle (Qβ-VLP) contains TLR ligands, which can enhance Qβ-VLP-induced Ab response, including GC response, through TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells. In this study, by examining Ag-specific B cell response to Qβ-VLP, we found that lack of B cell MyD88 from the beginning of the immune response led to a more severe defect in the GC scale than abolishing MyD88 at later time points of the immune response...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221597/evolution-of-autoantibody-responses-in-individuals-at-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
REVIEW
Willem J J Falkenburg, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg
Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factors (RFs), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), and other anti-modified protein antibodies are important risk factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and probably play an important role in its pathogenesis. In the phase before clinical arthritis becomes apparent, different autoantibody responses can evolve because of increases in their level, isotype switching, affinity maturation, epitope spreading, and a changing glycosylation profile. This evolution may be crucial for the pathogenic properties of the autoantibody responses, and interfering with this process in individuals at risk may become a route to prevent RA...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212666/stat4-and-t-bet-control-follicular-helper-t-cell-development-in-viral-infections
#4
Jason S Weinstein, Brian J Laidlaw, Yisi Lu, Jessica K Wang, Vincent P Schulz, Ningcheng Li, Edward I Herman, Susan M Kaech, Patrick G Gallagher, Joe Craft
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) B cell survival and proliferation and guide their differentiation and immunoglobulin isotype switching by delivering contact-dependent and soluble factors, including IL-21, IL-4, IL-9, and IFN-γ. IL-21 and IFN-γ are coexpressed by Tfh cells during viral infections, but transcriptional regulation of these cytokines is not completely understood. In this study, we show that the T helper type 1 cell (Th1 cell) transcriptional regulators T-bet and STAT4 are coexpressed with Bcl6 in Tfh cells after acute viral infection, with a temporal decline in T-bet in the waning response...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180996/antibody-heavy-chain-variable-domains-of-different-germline-gene-origins-diversify-through-different-paths
#5
Ufuk Kirik, Helena Persson, Fredrik Levander, Lennart Greiff, Mats Ohlin
B cells produce antibodies, key effector molecules in health and disease. They mature their properties, including their affinity for antigen, through hypermutation events; processes that involve, e.g., base substitution, codon insertion and deletion, often in association with an isotype switch. Investigations of antibody evolution define modes whereby particular antibody responses are able to form, and such studies provide insight important for instance for development of efficient vaccines. Antibody evolution is also used in vitro for the design of antibodies with improved properties...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172992/cellular-immunogenicity-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccines-cervarix-and-gardasil-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#6
Maria Zurek Munk-Madsen, Lars Toft, Tina Kube, Rolf Richter, Lars Ostergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Andreas M Kaufmann
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a frequent cause of malignant and non-malignant disease, in particular among persons with HIV. HPV serotype-specific anti L1 antibodies protect against HPV infection but little is known about prophylactic HPV vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity against HPV in high-risk individuals. We recently showed that both HPV vaccines (Gardasil® and Cervarix®) induce solid, serological immune responses in HIV-infected persons. This study aimed to characterize HPV-specific CD4 T cells in HIV-infected HPV-vaccine recipients, T cell responses being critical for B cell activation and antibody-isotype switching...
November 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132233/prospects-for-modulating-the-cd40-cd40l-pathway-in-the-therapy-of-the-hyper-igm-syndrome
#7
Xiangxue Meng, Bin Yang, Wen-Chen Suen
The critical role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in B-cell proliferation, immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype switching and germinal center formation has been studied and described extensively in previous literature. Interruption of the CD40/CD40L signal causes hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, which has been classified and recognized as a group of rare inherited immune deficiency disorders. Defects in CD40 and CD40L interactions or in downstream signaling molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, uracyl-DNA-glycosylase, NF-κB and DNA repair enzymes, result in an increased level of serum IgM and a significantly decreased or absent level of IgA, IgG and IgE that is accompanied by severe recurrent infections and autoimmune diseases...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114388/epistatic-interactions-between-mutations-of-taci-tnfrsf13b-and-tcf3-result-in-a-severe-primary-immunodeficiency-disorder-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Rohan Ameratunga, Wikke Koopmans, See-Tarn Woon, Euphemia Leung, Klaus Lehnert, Charlotte A Slade, Jessica C Tempany, Anselm Enders, Richard Steele, Peter Browett, Philip D Hodgkin, Vanessa L Bryant
Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of primary immunodeficiencies where monogenetic causes account for only a fraction of cases. On this evidence, CVID is potentially polygenic and epistatic although there are, as yet, no examples to support this hypothesis. We have identified a non-consanguineous family, who carry the C104R (c.310T>C) mutation of the Transmembrane Activator Calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand Interactor (TACI, TNFRSF13B) gene. Variants in TNFRSF13B/TACI are identified in up to 10% of CVID patients, and are associated with, but not solely causative of CVID...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113450/physiological-significance-of-plant-peroxiredoxins-prxs-and-the-structure-related-and-multi-functional-biochemistry-of-prx1
#9
Eun Seon Lee, Chang Ho Kang, Joung Hun Park, Sang Yeol Lee
<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Sessile plants respond to oxidative stress caused by internal and external stimuli by producing diverse forms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) in plants, including the Prx1, Prx5, Prx6, and PrxQ isoforms, constitute a family of antioxidant enzymes and play important functions in cells. Each Prx localizes to a specific subcellular compartment and has a distinct function in the control of plant growth, development, cellular metabolism, and various aspects of defense signaling...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109730/t-follicular-helper-cells-and-b-cell-dysfunction-in-aging-and-hiv-1-infection
#10
REVIEW
Suresh Pallikkuth, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Savita Pahwa
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045049/germinal-center-b-cells-are-essential-for-collagen-induced-arthritis
#11
Albert Dahdah, Katrin Habir, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Amit Saxena, Bingze Xu, Rikard Holmdahl, Stephen Malin
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a prototypical autoimmune disorder. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the known pathological function of B cells in RA, including antigen presentation, cytokine secretion and humoral immunity. METHODS: To address the function of B lymphocytes in experimental arthritis, we mapped the adaptive immune response following collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We subsequently followed these responses and disease outcomes in novel genetically modified mouse strains that lack mature B cells or germinal center functionality in a B cell-intrinsic manner on a CIA MHC-II susceptible background...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965920/selection-and-validation-of-antibody-clones-against-igg-and-iga-subclasses-in-switched-memory-b-cells-and-plasma-cells
#12
Elena Blanco, Martin Perez-Andres, Luzalba Sanoja-Flores, Marjolein Wentink, Ondrej Pelak, Marta Martín-Ayuso, Georgiana Grigore, Juan Torres-Canizales, Eduardo López-Granados, Tomas Kalina, Mirjam van der Burg, Sonia Arriba-Méndez, Santiago Santa Cruz, Noemí Puig, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao
The clinical value of assessing immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA subclasses in addition to the isotypes of soluble Igs in serum has been well established. >20years ago, the International Union of Immunological Societies and the World Health Organization performed collaborative studies in order to validate antibody (Ab) clones for the detection of IgG and IgA subclasses for a broad range of laboratory assays, except for flow cytometry. Here we analyzed the performance of commercially available Ab clones to detect IgG and IgA subclasses in memory B-cells and plasma cells (PCs) by flow cytometry...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950009/timing-of-the-human-prenatal-antibody-response-to-plasmodium-falciparum-antigens
#13
Samuel Tassi Yunga, Alexander K Kayatani, Josephine Fogako, Robert J I Leke, Rose G F Leke, Diane W Taylor
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-specific T- and B-cell responses may be present at birth; however, when during fetal development antibodies are produced is unknown. Accordingly, cord blood samples from 232 preterm (20-37 weeks of gestation) and 450 term (≥37 weeks) babies were screened for IgM to Pf blood-stage antigens MSP1, MSP2, AMA1, EBA175 and RESA. Overall, 25% [95% CI = 22-28%] of the 682 newborns were positive for IgM to ≥1 Pf antigens with the earliest response occurring at 22 weeks. Interestingly, the odds of being positive for cord blood Pf IgM decreased with gestational age (adjusted OR [95% CI] at 20-31 weeks = 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#14
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naive, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem) cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection, infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell-mediated viral control and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype-switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) to driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928744/ccctc-binding-factor-locks-premature-igh-germline-transcription-and-restrains-class-switch-recombination
#15
Ester Marina-Zárate, Arantxa Pérez-García, Almudena R Ramiro
In response to antigenic stimulation B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) to replace the primary IgM/IgD isotypes by IgG, IgE, or IgA. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) through the deamination of cytosine residues at the switch (S) regions of IgH. B cell stimulation promotes germline transcription (GLT) of specific S regions, a necessary event prior to CSR because it facilitates AID access to S regions. Here, we show that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-deficient mice are severely impaired in the generation of germinal center B cells and plasma cells after immunization in vivo, most likely due to impaired cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928405/nanopore-extended-field-effect-transistor-for-selective-single-molecule-biosensing
#16
Ren Ren, Yanjun Zhang, Binoy Paulose Nadappuram, Bernice Akpinar, David Klenerman, Aleksandar P Ivanov, Joshua B Edel, Yuri Korchev
There has been a significant drive to deliver nanotechnological solutions to biosensing, yet there remains an unmet need in the development of biosensors that are affordable, integrated, fast, capable of multiplexed detection, and offer high selectivity for trace analyte detection in biological fluids. Herein, some of these challenges are addressed by designing a new class of nanoscale sensors dubbed nanopore extended field-effect transistor (nexFET) that combine the advantages of nanopore single-molecule sensing, field-effect transistors, and recognition chemistry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923960/igh-isotype-specific-b-cell-receptor-expression-influences-b-cell-fate
#17
Pei Tong, Alessandra Granato, Teng Zuo, Neha Chaudhary, Adam Zuiani, Seung Seok Han, Rakesh Donthula, Akritee Shrestha, Debattama Sen, Jennifer M Magee, Michael P Gallagher, Cees E van der Poel, Michael C Carroll, Duane R Wesemann
Ig heavy chain (IgH) isotypes (e.g., IgM, IgG, and IgE) are generated as secreted/soluble antibodies (sIg) or as membrane-bound (mIg) B cell receptors (BCRs) through alternative RNA splicing. IgH isotype dictates soluble antibody function, but how mIg isotype influences B cell behavior is not well defined. We examined IgH isotype-specific BCR function by analyzing naturally switched B cells from wild-type mice, as well as by engineering polyclonal Ighγ1/γ1 and Ighε/ε mice, which initially produce IgG1 or IgE from their respective native genomic configurations...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911876/immunoglobulin-isotype-switching-of-antibodies-to-vimentin-is-associated-with-development-of-transplant-glomerulopathy-following-human-renal-transplantation
#18
Muthukumar Gunasekaran, Thin Thin Maw, Rowena Delos Santos, Surendra Shenoy, Jason Wellen, T Mohanakumar
BACKGROUND: Immune responses to tissue-restricted self-antigens are thought to play a role in chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation. De novo development of antibodies (Abs) to vimentin have been reported to be associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy after kidney transplant, and it has been suggested that immunoglobulin isotype switching of Abs to vimentin may occur during this process. We aimed to determine the correlation between immunoglobulin isotype switching of Abs to vimentin and development of transplant glomerulopathy (TG) after kidney transplant, and to determine whether citrullinated modification of vimentin is required for de novo anti-vimentin development...
September 11, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886236/waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinemia-two-malignant-clones-in-a-monoclonal-disease-molecular-background-and-clinical-reflection
#19
REVIEW
Kateřina Growková, Elena Kryukova, Zuzana Kufová, Jana Filipová, Tereza Ševčíková, Lucie Říhová, Michal Kaščák, Fedor Kryukov, Roman Hájek
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a complex disease characterized by apparent morphological heterogeneity within the malignant clonal cells representing a continuum of small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells. At the molecular level, the neoplastic B cell-derived clone has undergone somatic hypermutation, but not isotype switching, and retains the capability of plasmacytic differentiation. Although by classical definition, WM is formed by monoclonal expansion, long-lived clonal B lymphocytes are of heterogeneous origin...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881401/generation-of-t-follicular-helper-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-requirement-for-b-cell-receptor-cross-linking-and-cognate-b-and-t-cell-interaction
#20
Anne Kolenbrander, Bastian Grewe, David Nemazee, Klaus Überla, Vladimir Temchura
The minimum requirements for in vitro modelling of natural CD4(+) T-cell differentiation into T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are still under investigation. We co-cultured wild-type and T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD4(+) T cells from naive mice with dendritic cells and B-cell receptor (BCR) transgenic B cells in the presence of HIV-derived virus-like particles containing matched B-cell and T-cell epitopes. This co-culturing induced co-expression of Tfh-master regulator transcription factor BCL-6 and CXCR5 in up to 10% of the wild-type and up to 40% of the TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T cells...
September 7, 2017: Immunology
keyword
keyword
88478
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"