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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#1
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (n = 377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735151/do-air-pollution-and-neighborhood-greenness-exposures-improve-the-predicted-cardiovascular-risk
#2
Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Itai Kloog, Victor Novack
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies show associations between exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current cardiovascular equations incorporate the major risk factors for CVD. The patients' environment, however, is not incorporated in these equations. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we assessed the contribution of neighborhood greenness and particulate matter (coarse-PM and PM<2.5μm-PM2.5) to the development of CVD by analyzing the change in prediction abilities...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733128/dance-for-health-an-intergenerational-program-to-increase-access-to-physical-activity
#3
Krista Schroeder, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Adriana Perez, David Earley, Cory Bowman, Terri H Lipman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Dance for Health, an intergenerational program to increase access to physical activity in an underserved, high risk urban community. DESIGN AND METHODS: Dance for Health was developed using community-based participatory research methods and evaluated using an observational study design. The program entailed two hour line dancing sessions delivered by trained dance instructors in the neighborhood recreation center...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732236/neighborhood-ses-is-particularly-important-to-the-cardiovascular-health-of-low-ses-individuals
#4
Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Stephanie A Robert
RATIONALE: Health disparities defined by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are well established; it is less well understood whether neighborhood SES is differentially associated with health depending on one's own SES. OBJECTIVE: The double jeopardy hypothesis, collective resources model, fundamental cause theory, and relative deprivation hypothesis support differential patterns of association between neighborhood and individual SES with health. The first three models suggest that higher neighborhood SES predicts health more strongly among lower, as compared to higher, SES individuals...
July 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730559/fathers-know-best-inner-city-african-american-fathers-perceptions-regarding-their-involvement-in-the-pediatric-medical-home
#5
Orville Newton-Ray Bignall, Whitney J Raglin Bignall, Lisa M Vaughn, Ndidi I Unaka
OBJECTIVE: Despite nearly three in four African American (AA) children being born to unwed mothers, AA fathers maintain relatively high levels of parenting engagement, whether or not they live with their children. While father involvement correlates with decreased adverse child health outcomes, the nature of AA father involvement in child health-including engagement in the pediatric medical home-remains largely unexplored. Our study aimed to assess perceptions of pediatric medical home participation among a cohort of urban, AA fathers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728139/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-influence-of-the-neighborhood-environment-on-recreational-walking-within-the-neighborhood-results-from-reside
#6
Hayley Christian, Matthew Knuiman, Mark Divitini, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Bryan Boruff, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti
BACKGROUND: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727535/civil-unrest-in-the-context-of-chronic-community-violence-impact-on-maternal-depressive-symptoms
#7
Doris P Yimgang, Yan Wang, Grace Paik, Erin R Hager, Maureen M Black
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in maternal-child health surrounding the April 2015 civil unrest in Baltimore, Maryland, following Freddie Gray's death while in police custody. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional Children's HealthWatch surveys January 2014 through December 2015 in pediatric emergency departments and primary care clinics on maternal-child health and June 2015 through October 2015 on daily and community routines. We used trend analysis and piecewise logistic regression to examine effects of time, residential proximity moderation, and mediation analysis to assess proximity and maternal-child health relations via maternal concerns...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727523/from-lead-exposure-in-early-childhood-to-adolescent-health-a-chicago-birth-cohort
#8
Alix S Winter, Robert J Sampson
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. METHODS: We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726467/the-importance-of-the-neighborhood-in-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-the-united-states-distress-worry-and-functioning
#9
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the United States. The role of these community-level factors in emotional responses to this public health crisis is poorly understood. METHOD: Demographic factors, mental health, and stressful event history, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of residents from 2 metropolitan communities (New York City and Boston, total N = 1,346), were combined with neighborhood data from the U...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726015/community-perceptions-of-hospitals-and-shared-physical-space-a-qualitative-study
#10
Daniel Skinner, Berkeley Franz, Kelly Kelleher, Robert Penfold
In addition to providing critical medical services to communities, hospitals are also forces of broader change when seen from the perspective of neighborhood development. Over the past few decades the obligation on the part of U.S. nonprofit hospitals to positively impact the communities in which they are located has become entrenched in both U.S. tax law and the practices of many hospitals. This article presents findings from a grounded theory qualitative study of the relationship between a non-profit children's hospital in Columbus, Ohio, and the neighborhood in which it is located...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724129/association-of-cost-sharing-with-mental-health-care-use-involuntary-commitment-and-acute-care
#11
Bastian Ravesteijn, Eli B Schachar, Aartjan T F Beekman, Richard T J M Janssen, Patrick P T Jeurissen
Importance: A higher out-of-pocket price for mental health care may lead not only to cost savings but also to negative downstream consequences. Objective: To examine the association of higher patient cost sharing with mental health care use and downstream effects, such as involuntary commitment and acute mental health care use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This difference-in-differences study compared changes in mental health care use by adults, who experienced an increase in cost sharing, with changes in youths, who did not experience the increase and thus formed a control group...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722599/assessment-of-fecal-exposure-pathways-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods-in-accra-ghana-rationale-design-methods-and-key-findings-of-the-sanipath-study
#12
Katharine Robb, Clair Null, Peter Teunis, Habib Yakubu, George Armah, Christine L Moe
Rapid urbanization has contributed to an urban sanitation crisis in low-income countries. Residents in low-income, urban neighborhoods often have poor sanitation infrastructure and services and may experience frequent exposure to fecal contamination through a range of pathways. There are little data to prioritize strategies to decrease exposure to fecal contamination in these complex and highly contaminated environments, and public health priorities are rarely considered when planning urban sanitation investments...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713449/understanding-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-arrest-the-role-of-individual-home-school-and-community-characteristics
#13
Lauren Nichol Gase, Beth A Glenn, Louis M Gomez, Tony Kuo, Moira Inkelas, Ninez A Ponce
Contact with the justice system can lead to a range of poor health and social outcomes. While persons of color are disproportionately represented in both the juvenile and criminal justice systems, reasons for these patters remain unclear. This study sought to examine the extent and sources of differences in arrests during adolescence and young adulthood among blacks, whites, and Hispanics in the USA. Multilevel cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were conducted using data from waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 12,752 respondents)...
December 2016: Race and Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712959/associations-between-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-glycosylated-hemoglobin-and-diabetes
#14
Trenton Honda, Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposures have been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways associated with glucose metabolism. However, few studies have evaluated the associations between air pollution and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Further, no studies have evaluated these associations in US populations or investigated whether associations differ in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic populations. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711859/associations-between-multiple-green-space-measures-and-birth-weight-across-two-us-cities
#15
Leanne Cusack, Andrew Larkin, Susan E Carozza, Perry Hystad
INTRODUCTION: Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. METHODS: We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807)...
July 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709431/is-gentrification-all-bad-positive-association-between-gentrification-and-individual-s-perceived-neighborhood-collective-efficacy-in-montreal-canada
#16
Madeleine Steinmetz-Wood, Rania Wasfi, George Parker, Lisa Bornstein, Jean Caron, Yan Kestens
BACKGROUND: Collective efficacy has been associated with many health benefits at the neighborhood level. Therefore, understanding why some communities have greater collective efficacy than others is important from a public health perspective. This study examined the relationship between gentrification and collective efficacy, in Montreal Canada. METHODS: A gentrification index was created using tract level median household income, proportion of the population with a bachelor's degree, average rent, proportion of the population with low income, and proportion of the population aged 30-44...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708081/modeling-the-effects-of-urban-design-on-emergency-medical-response-calls-during-extreme-heat-events-in-toronto-canada
#17
Drew A Graham, Jennifer K Vanos, Natasha A Kenny, Robert D Brown
Urban residents are at risk of health-related illness during extreme heat events but the dangers are not equal in all parts of a city. Previous studies have found a relationship between physical characteristics of neighborhoods and the number of emergency medical response (EMR) calls. We used a human energy budget model to test the effects of landscape modifications that are designed to cool the environment on the expected number of EMR calls in two neighborhoods in Toronto, Canada during extreme heat events...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707547/-we-need-a-safe-walkable-way-to-connect-our-sisters-and-brothers-a-qualitative-study-of-opportunities-and-challenges-for-neighborhood-based-physical-activity-among-residents-of-low-income-african-american-communities
#18
Stephanie T Child, Andrew T Kaczynski, Melissa L Fair, Ellen W Stowe, S Morgan Hughey, Lauren Boeckerman, Sally Wills, Yvonne Reeder
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of the benefits of and influencing factors for neighborhood-based physical activity (PA), and elicit suggestions for increasing neighborhood-based PA among primarily Black residents living in lower income neighborhoods. DESIGN: Eight focus groups were conducted in low-income, predominantly Black neighborhoods (n = 8) in Greenville, SC during Spring 2014. Using a semi-structured focus group guide with open-ended questions, residents were asked to describe benefits of PA, neighborhood factors associated with PA, and ways to increase PA within their neighborhoods...
July 14, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707507/marketplace-clinics-complementing-diabetes-care-for-urban-residing-american-indians
#19
Robert Rick, Robert E Hoye, Raymond W Thron, Vibha Kumar
INTRODUCTION: For several decades, the Minneapolis American Indian population has experienced limited health care access and threefold diabetes health disparity. As part of an urban health initiative, the marketplace clinics located in nearby CVS, Target, and Supervalu stores committed financial support, providers, certified educators, and pharmacy staff for a community-based diabetes support group. OBJECTIVES: To measure the extent to which collaborating marketplace clinics and the community-based support group expanded diabetes care and provided self-management education for this largely urban Indian neighborhood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704175/age-related-differences-in-antihypertensive-medication-adherence-in-hispanics-a-cross-sectional-community-based-survey-in-new-york-city-2011-2012
#20
Priti Bandi, Emily Goldmann, Nina S Parikh, Parisa Farsi, Bernadette Boden-Albala
INTRODUCTION: US Hispanics, particularly younger adults in this population, have a higher prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension than do people of other racial/ethnic groups. Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of antihypertensive medication adherence, a major determinant of hypertension control and cardiovascular disease, and differences between age groups in this fast-growing population. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 1,043 community-dwelling Hispanic adults with hypertension living in 3 northern Manhattan neighborhoods from 2011 through 2012...
July 13, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
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