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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919001/the-impact-of-changing-neighborhoods-switching-schools-and-experiencing-relationship-disruption-on-children-s-adjustment-to-a-new-placement-in-foster-care
#1
Kya Fawley-King, Emily V Trask, Jinjin Zhang, Gregory A Aarons
When children enter a new foster care placement they may experience several different transitions. Not only will a child move in with a new family, he or she may move to a different neighborhood, change schools, lose contact with old friends, be placed apart from one or more siblings, and have limited contact with his or her biological parents. The current study examined the impact of these transitions on foster children's adjustment to a new placement in out-of-home care. The sample consisted of 152 youth ages 6-17...
December 2, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918688/racial-ethnic-and-income-differences-in-obesity-among-older-adults-the-role-of-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-neighborhood-social-cohesion
#2
Chia-Yuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N=7714) was used...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#3
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912130/acidity-triggered-charge-convertible-nanoparticles-that-can-cause-bacterium-specific-aggregation-in-situ-to-enhance-photothermal-ablation-of-focal-infection
#4
Chiranjeevi Korupalli, Chieh-Cheng Huang, Wei-Chih Lin, Wen-Yu Pan, Po-Yen Lin, Wei-Lin Wan, Meng-Ju Li, Yen Chang, Hsing-Wen Sung
Focal infections that are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming an ever-growing challenge to human health. To address this challenge, a pH-responsive amphiphilic polymer of polyaniline-conjugated glycol chitosan (PANI-GCS) that can self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in situ is developed. The PANI-GCS NPs undergo a unique surface charge conversion that is induced by their local pH, favoring bacterium-specific aggregation without direct contact with host cells. Following conjugation onto GCS, the optical-absorbance peak of PANI is red-shifted toward the near-infrared (NIR) region, enabling PANI-GCS NPs to generate a substantial amount of heat, which is emitted to their neighborhood...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911085/perceived-neighborhood-conditions-and-depression-positive-local-news-as-a-buffering-factor
#5
Masahiro Yamamoto
This study investigates positive local news as a moderator of the effects of perceived neighborhood conditions on depression. Data from an online survey of Chicago residents indicate that the relationship between fear of crime and depression is weaker for respondents who pay more attention to positive local news. Data also reveal that the indirect relationships that perceived neighborhood disorder and crime have with depression through fear of crime are weaker as attention to positive local news increases. Implications are discussed for the role of positive news as a protective factor for mental health...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905952/mental-health-and-urban-living-in-sub-saharan-africa-major-depressive-episodes-among-the-urban-poor-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#6
Géraldine Duthé, Clémentine Rossier, Doris Bonnet, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Jamaica Corker
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting...
May 5, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#7
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902562/enhancing-themes-and-strengths-assessment-leveraging-academic-led-qualitative-inquiry-in-community-health-assessment-to-uncover-roots-of-community-health-inequities
#8
Jennifer Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer K Felner, Yvette Castañeda, Sheri Cohen
CONTEXT: Rigorous qualitative research can enhance local health departments' efforts to gain a deeper insight into residents' perceived community health inequities necessary for productive community health assessments (CHAs) and community health improvement plans (CHIPs). OBJECTIVE: The Chicago Department of Public Health and the Partnership for Healthy Chicago used the National Association of County & City Health Officials' Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model to conduct its CHA/CHIP, Healthy Chicago 2...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900514/process-evaluation-of-a-community-garden-at-an-urban-outpatient-clinic
#9
Brandy-Joe Milliron, Mara Z Vitolins, Elizabeth Gamble, Robert Jones, Margaret C Chenault, Janet A Tooze
In addition to expediting patient recovery, community gardens that are associated with medical facilities can provide fresh produce to patients and their families, serve as a platform for clinic-based nutrition education, and help patients develop new skills and insights that can lead to positive health behavior change. While community gardening is undergoing resurgence, there is a strong need for evaluation studies that employ valid and reliable measures. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a community garden program at an urban medical clinic to estimate the prevalence of patient awareness and participation, food security, barriers to participation, and personal characteristics; garden volunteer satisfaction; and clinic staff perspectives in using the garden for patient education/treatment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899439/a-community-arts-based-parent-program
#10
Julia Richerson, Amber Pendleton, Deborah Winders Davis
Early childhood is an important period for development. Parents play an important role in structuring children's physical and psychosocial environments. Much remains unknown about the best methods for engaging parents in health promotion programs. It is critical that programs meet the needs of the families while encouraging the use of positive parenting strategies. The article describes how one pediatrician used the American Academy of Pediatrics' Community Access to Child Health grant program to develop and implement The Arts of Parenting program with input from predominantly low-income families...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898311/premature-mortality-resilience-and-wellbeing-within-urban-m%C3%A4-ori-communities
#11
Andrew M Waa, Amber L Pearson, John L Ryks
Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being...
November 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896045/barriers-to-physical-activity-as-moderators-of-intervention-effects
#12
Michael E Schoeny, Louis Fogg, Susan W Buchholz, Arlene Miller, JoEllen Wilbur
The impact of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) may vary as a function of participants' barriers to PA. The aim of this paper is to determine whether individual barriers (demographic, physical health, psychological health, neighborhood factors, perceived barriers to PA, social support for PA) moderate treatment effects on increases in PA. Three treatment conditions tested the relative efficacy of a group-based PA intervention alone or supplemented by either personal or automated phone calls made between group meetings...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894279/development-of-a-community-s-self-efficacy-scale-for-preventing-social-isolation-among-community-dwelling-older-people-mimamori-scale
#13
Etsuko Tadaka, Ayumi Kono, Eriko Ito, Yukiko Kanaya, Yuka Dai, Yuki Imamatsu, Waka Itoi
BACKGROUND: Among older people in developed countries, social isolation leading to solitary death has become a public health issue of vital importance. Such isolation could be prevented by monitoring at-risk individuals at the neighborhood level and by implementing supportive networks at the community level. However, a means of measuring community confidence in these measures has not been established. This study is aimed at developing the Community's Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES; Mimamori scale in Japanese) for community members preventing social isolation among older people...
November 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894026/the-effect-of-road-network-patterns-on-pedestrian-safety-a-zone-based-bayesian-spatial-modeling-approach
#14
Qiang Guo, Pengpeng Xu, Xin Pei, S C Wong, Danya Yao
Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893745/public-stigma-against-people-with-mental-illness-in-jimma-town-southwest-ethiopia
#15
Yared Reta, Markos Tesfaye, Eshetu Girma, Sandra Dehning, Kristina Adorjan
BACKGROUND: Stigma towards people with mental illness (PWMI) can result in low self-esteem and isolation and threaten employment. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of public stigma against PWMI and factors associated with it among Jimma town residents. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in adult residents of Jimma town. Data were collected among 820 randomly selected residents with the interviewer-administered Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893596/pharmacists-knowledge-and-practices-surrounding-expedited-partner-therapy-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-new-york-city-2012-and-2014
#16
Amanda Reid, Meighan E Rogers, Vibhuti Arya, Zoe R Edelstein, Julia A Schillinger
BACKGROUND: Health care providers in New York City can prescribe treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) for a patient's partner without the partner having a medical evaluation ("prescription-expedited partner therapy" [EPT]), and use of prescription-EPT is common. However, there is little known about pharmacists' knowledge and practices surrounding EPT. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys, in 2012 and 2014, were conducted with representative samples of supervising pharmacists in NYC neighborhoods with high rates of Ct infection...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886528/neighborhood-social-stressors-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-u-s-adults
#17
Jennifer Ailshire, Amelia Karraker, Philippa Clarke
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885583/using-gis-mapping-to-target-public-health-interventions-examining-birth-outcomes-across-gis-techniques
#18
E L MacQuillan, A B Curtis, K M Baker, R Paul, Y O Back
With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884186/general-practitioners-in-german-metropolitan-areas-distribution-patterns-and-their-relationship-with-area-level-measures-of-the-socioeconomic-status
#19
Jan Bauer, Doerthe Brueggmann, Daniela Ohlendorf, David A Groneberg
BACKGROUND: Geographical variation of the general practitioner (GP) workforce is known between rural and urban areas. However, data about the variation between and within urban areas are lacking. METHOD: We analyzed distribution patterns of GP full time equivalents (FTE) in German cities with a population size of more than 500,000. We correlated their distribution with area measures of social deprivation in order to analyze preferences within neighborhood characteristics...
November 25, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884184/dietary-patterns-of-early-childhood-and-maternal-socioeconomic-status-in-a-unique-prospective-sample-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-prenatal-dha-supplementation
#20
Brandon H Hidaka, Elizabeth H Kerling, Jocelynn M Thodosoff, Debra K Sullivan, John Colombo, Susan E Carlson
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits established in early childhood and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) are important, complex, interrelated factors that influence a child's growth and development. The aim of this study was to define the major dietary patterns in a cohort of young US children, construct a maternal SES index, and evaluate their associations. METHODS: The diets of 190 children from a randomized, controlled trial of prenatal supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were recorded at 6-mo intervals from 2-4...
November 25, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
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