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Cardiovascular pharmacology

Changzheng Gao, Fen Wang, Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiangjun Yang
The lactate signaling cascade has recently been linked to mitochondrial energy metabolism and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in several cardiovascular diseases. Asiatic acid (AA) exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects, including antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AA against the lactate-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, as well as its mechanisms of action. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with 20 µM AA for 24 h, followed by exposure to 20 mM lactate for a further 24 h...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Arshag D Mooradian
The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Ryszard Grenda
Delayed graft function (DGF) is commonly defined as the requirement for dialysis within the first 7 days following renal transplantation. The major underlying mechanism is related to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which includes microvascular inflammation and cell death and apoptosis, and to the regeneration processes. Several clinical factors related to donor, recipient and organ procurement/transplantation procedures may increase the risk of DGF, including donor cardiovascular instability, older donor age, donor creatinine concentration, long cold ischaemia time and marked body mass index of both the donor and recipient...
October 24, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Antoni Bayes-Genis, Julio Núñez, Eduardo Núñez, Jaume Barallat Martínez, Maria-Cruz Pastor Ferrer, Marta de Antonio, Elisabet Zamora, Juan Sanchis, Josep Lupón Rosés
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in pharmacologic therapy and devices, patients with heart failure (HF) continue to have significant rehospitalization rates and risk prediction remains challenging. We sought to explore the value of a multi-biomarker panel [including NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT), and ST2] on top of clinical assessment for long-term prediction of recurrent hospitalizations in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, and ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity-2) levels were measured in 891 consecutive ambulatory HF patients...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti, Fabrizio Araniti, Giancarlo A Statti
Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene)...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sarvenaz Sabouri-Rad, Sara Sabouri-Rad, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Subha Rastogi, Madan Mohan Pandey, Aks Rawat
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Julien Wils, Julie Favre, Jérémy Bellien
Diabetes induces a decrease in the number and function of different pro-angiogenic cells types generically designated as putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), which encompasses cells from myeloid origin that act in a paracrine fashion to promote angiogenesis and putative "true" EPC that contribute to endothelial replacement. This not only compromises neovasculogenesis in ischemic tissues but also impairs, at an early stage, the reendotheliziation process at sites of injury, contributing to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan
Relaxin is a small heterodimeric peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin superfamily produced mainly in female and male reproductive organs. It has potent antifibrotic, vasodilatory, and angiogenic effects and regulates the normal function of various physiological systems. Preclinical studies and recent clinical trials have shown the promise of recombinant relaxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases. However, there are universal drawbacks of peptide-based pharmacology which apply to relaxin: a short half-life in vivo requires its continuous delivery, there are high costs of production, storage and treatment, as well as the possibility of immune response...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Werner J Geldenhuys, Li Lin, Altaf S Darvesh, Prabodh Sadana
Although statins and other pharmacological approaches have improved the management of lipid abnormalities, there exists a need for newer treatment modalities especially for the management of hypertriglyceridemia. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), by promoting hydrolytic cleavage of the triglyceride core of lipoproteins, is a crucial node in the management of plasma lipid levels. Although LPL expression and activity modulation is observed as a pleiotropic action of some the commonly used lipid lowering drugs, the deliberate development of drugs targeting LPL has not occurred yet...
October 19, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Jennifer C Cook, Richard H Tran, J Herbert Patterson, Jo E Rodgers
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles of evolving therapies for the management of chronic heart failure (HF) and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are described. SUMMARY: HF confers a significant financial burden despite the widespread use of traditional guideline-directed medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and the rates of HF-related mortality and hospitalization have remained unacceptably high...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Ali Bozorgi, Reza Majdzadeh, Hamed Hosseini, Ali Yoonessi, Ali Ramezankhani, Hassan Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important and well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, in spite of effective treatments, adherence to the regular use of drugs and other nondrug treatments, such as lifestyle improvement, is often poor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an educational, supportive intervention - in the form of a Blood Pressure Management Application (BPMAP) - on self-management in patients with primary hypertension on controlling the determinant factors of hypertension, and on adherence to treatment...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Vani P Sanon, Yehuda Handelsman, Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
IN BRIEF Congenital lipodystrophy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a near-complete absence of fat cells, hypoleptinemia leading to a voracious appetite, and marked insulin resistance. This article focuses on the known cardiovascular manifestations of patients with congenital lipodystrophy, including cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and accelerated atherosclerosis arising from a markedly deranged metabolic milieu. Future research that targets leptin deficiency (metreleptin) and apoC3 mRNA (antisense oligonucleotide) could open a window for potential pharmacological treatment of this challenging disorder...
October 2016: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Hao Huang, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Jianqiong Yang, Xiaoliang Yuan, Longhuo Wu
Nobiletin (NOB) chemically known as 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Citrus fruits. Recent evidences show that NOB is a multifunctional pharmaceutical agent. The various pharmacological activities of NOB include neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, antimetabolic disorder, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation. These events may be underpinned by modulation of signaling cascades, including PKA/ERK/MEK/CREB, NF-κB, MAPK, Ca(2+)/CaMKII, PI3K/Akt1/2, HIF-1α, and TGFβ signaling pathways...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Palanimuthu Vasanth Raj, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effect of aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of Polygonum minus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute antihyperlipidemic effect was studied on chemically induced hyperlipidemic rat model. Treated groups received aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of P. minus respectively (1000 mg/kg; oral) whereas standard treated group received atorvastatin (60 mg/kg; oral) for 3 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at fixed intervals for lipid profile analysis...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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