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Cardiovascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432604/phosphate-imbalance-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431666/glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-heart-failure-in-diabetes
#2
André J Scheen
The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and glucose-lowering agents have distinctive effects on the risk of developing HF that requires hospitalization. Such an increased risk has been consistently reported with thiazolidinediones (glitazones) and perhaps also with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (at least in SAVOR - TIMI 53), whereas a markedly decreased risk was highlighted with the sodium - glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430919/non-coding-rnas-in-cardiovascular-diseases-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#3
Wolfgang Poller, Stefanie Dimmeler, Stephane Heymans, Tanja Zeller, Jan Haas, Mahir Karakas, David-Manuel Leistner, Philipp Jakob, Shinichi Nakagawa, Stefan Blankenberg, Stefan Engelhardt, Thomas Thum, Christian Weber, Benjamin Meder, Roger Hajjar, Ulf Landmesser
Recent research has demonstrated that the non-coding genome plays a key role in genetic programming and gene regulation during development as well as in health and cardiovascular disease. About 99% of the human genome do not encode proteins, but are transcriptionally active representing a broad spectrum of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with important regulatory and structural functions. Non-coding RNAs have been identified as critical novel regulators of cardiovascular risk factors and cell functions and are thus important candidates to improve diagnostics and prognosis assessment...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430357/reactive-oxygen-species-key-regulators-in-vascular-health-and-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Qishan Chen, Qiwen Wang, Jianhua Zhu, Qingzhong Xiao, Li Zhang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of small reactive molecules that play critical roles in the regulation of various cell functions and biological processes. In the vascular system, physiological levels of ROS are essential for normal vascular functions including endothelial homeostasis and smooth muscle cell contraction. In contrast, uncontrolled overproduction of ROS resulted from imbalance of ROS generation and elimination, leads to the development of vascular diseases. Excessive ROS cause vascular cell damages, recruitment of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, activation of metalloproteinases, and deposition of extracellular matrix, collectively leading to vascular remodeling...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428070/no-production-and-potassium-channels-activation-induced-by-crotalus-durissus-cascavella-underlie-mesenteric-artery-relaxation
#5
S S Santos, R L C Jesus, L O Simões, W P Vasconcelos, I A Medeiros, R C Veras, L L Casais-E-Silva, D F Silva
Animal toxins are natural resources for pharmacological studies. The venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (C.d. cascavella) may be a source in the bio-prospecting of new anti-hypertensive agents. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular effects of the venom of C.d. cascavella in normotensive rats. Studies were performed using isolated mesenteric artery segments and aortic endothelial cells. The cumulative administration of the venom of C.d. cascavella (0.001-30 μg/mL) on phenylephrine (Phe; 10 μM) pre-contracted rings induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in the presence of vascular endothelium (Emax = 47...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421408/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-for-decompensated-heart-failure-what-is-new
#6
REVIEW
Parin Shah, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Joseph Cuthbert, Andrew L Clark
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening clinical condition that requires prompt medical attention. The aim of the current review is to summarise the results of recent clinical trials conducted in patients with AHF. RECENT FINDINGS: Several novel compounds have apparently beneficial acute effects on cardiovascular haemodynamics and patients' symptoms, but their administration has not yet translated into improved survival and has been deleterious in some cases...
April 18, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420787/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-complex-potentiates-venous-thrombosis-in-response-to-hypoxia
#7
Neha Gupta, Anita Sahu, Amit Prabhakar, Tathagata Chatterjee, Tarun Tyagi, Babita Kumari, Nilofar Khan, Velu Nair, Nitin Bajaj, Manish Sharma, Mohammad Zahid Ashraf
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), caused by altered hemostasis, remains the third most common cause of mortality among all cardiovascular conditions. In addition to established genetic and acquired risk factors, low-oxygen environments also predispose otherwise healthy individuals to VTE. Although disease etiology appears to entail perturbation of hemostasis pathways, the key molecular determinants during immediate early response remain elusive. Using an established model of venous thrombosis, we here show that systemic hypoxia accelerates thromboembolic events, functionally stimulated by the activation of nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex and increased IL-1β secretion...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420707/role-of-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-in-heart-failure-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Ricardo Rodriguez-Calvo, Josefa Girona, Josep M Alegret, Alba Bosquet, Daiana Ibarretxe, Lluís Masana
Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues are major contributors to heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adipocytes act as endocrine organs by releasing a large number of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, which participate in a communication network between white adipose tissue and other organs, including the heart. Among these molecules, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been recently shown to increase cardiometabolic risk. Both clinical and experimental evidence have identified FABP4 as a relevant player in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, and it has been directly related to cardiac alterations such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or both systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419216/lav-bpifb4-isoform-modulates-enos-signaling-through-ca2-pkc-alpha-dependent-mechanism
#9
Chiara Carmela Spinelli, Albino Carrizzo, Anna Ferrario, Francesco Villa, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Michele Madonna, Giacomo Frati, Sergio Fucile, Miriam Sciaccalunga, Mario Capunzo, Gaetano Calì, Luciano Milanesi, Anna Maciag, Annibale Alessandro Puca, Carmine Vecchione
Aims: Aging is associated with impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and progressive reduction in endothelial function. A genetic study on long-living individuals - who are characterized by delays in aging and in the onset of cardiovascular disease - previously revealed I229V ( rs2070325 ) in BPIFB4 as a longevity-associated variant (LAV); the LAV protein enhanced endothelial NO production and vasorelaxation through a PERK/14-3-3/HSP90 signal. Here, we further characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying LAV-BPIFB4-dependent enhancement of vascular function...
April 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416413/evaluation-of-the-physiotel%C3%A2-digital-m11-cardiovascular-telemetry-implant-in-socially-housed-cynomolgus-monkeys-up-to-16weeks-after-surgery
#10
Ninette K Andersen, Olivier Meyer, Alys Bradley, Nils Dragsted, Anders B Lassen, Ingrid Sjögren, Julie M Larsen, Warren Harvey, Rastislav Bator, Aileen Milne
INTRODUCTION: The novel PhysioTel™ Digital M11 telemetry implant was evaluated in socially housed monkeys with respect to both safety pharmacological cardiovascular (arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and toxicological (clinical pathology and histopathology) endpoints. METHODS: Telemetry and clinical pathology data were obtained repeatedly up to 16weeks after surgery in four female cynomolgus monkeys, followed by necropsy...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413972/xanthine-oxidase-and-its-role-as-target-in-cardiovascular-disease-cardiovascular-protection-by-enzyme-inhibition
#11
Mirjam Schuchardt, Jaqueline Herrmann, Markus Tölle, Markus van der Giet
BACKGROUND: Formerly, hyperuricemia was mainly restricted to the rich population, but now-a-days it is a condition affecting wide parts of western civilization. Although only a minority of our population develops clinically relevant symptomatic hyperuricemia, there is growing evidence that elevated serum uric acid levels might be associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease progression. But it is not clear whether uric acid is just a biomarker or exerts detrimental effects itself...
April 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in >80% of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412915/early-functional-and-structural-microvascular-changes-in-hypertension-related-to-aging
#13
Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Tibirica
It is becoming increasingly clear that both microvascular network alterations and subsequent tissue perfusion defects may precede and predict the development of arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the subsequent functional and structural alterations in microvascular reactivity and density, as well as alterations in the macrocirculation characteristic of physiologic vascular aging, contribute to the development of target organ damage...
April 12, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412522/small-non-coding-rnas-in-adipocyte-biology-and-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Ez-Zoubir Amri, Marcel Scheideler
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions world-wide and constitutes a substantial risk factor for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. So far, regulation of energy intake by dietary and pharmacological treatments has met limited success. The main interest of current research is focused on understanding the role of different pathways involved in adipose tissue function and modulation of its mass. Whole-genome sequencing studies revealed that the majority of the human genome is transcribed, with thousands of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNA), which comprise small and long ncRNAs...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411266/genetic-variation-at-the-sulfonylurea-receptor-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-heart-disease
#15
Connor A Emdin, Derek Klarin, Pradeep Natarajan, Jose C Florez, Sekar Kathiresan, Amit V Khera
Despite widespread clinical use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the impact of sulfonylurea therapy on cardiovascular outcomes remains uncertain. Studies of naturally occurring genetic variation can be used to anticipate the expected clinical consequences of a pharmacologic therapy. A common missense variant in the gene encoding a component of the sulfonylurea receptor (ABCC8 p.A1369S) promotes closure of the target channel of sulfonylurea therapy and is associated with increased insulin secretion, thus mimicking the effects of sulfonylurea therapy...
April 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405227/impact-of-menopause-and-diabetes-on-atherogenic-lipid-profile-is-it-worth-to-analyse-lipoprotein-subfractions-to-assess-cardiovascular-risk-in-women
#16
REVIEW
Marília Izar Helfenstein Fonseca, Isis Tande da Silva, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women at advanced age, who are affected a decade later compared to men. Cardiovascular risk factors in women are not properly investigated nor treated and events are frequently lethal. Both menopause and type 2 diabetes substantially increase cardiovascular risk in the female sex, promoting modifications on lipid metabolism and circulating lipoproteins. Lipoprotein subfractions suffer a shift after menopause towards a more atherogenic lipid profile, consisted of hypertriglyceridemia, lower levels of both total high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its subfraction HDL2, but also higher levels of HDL3 and small low-density lipoprotein particles...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403789/metaflammation-tissue-specific-alterations-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-platform
#17
Raffaella Mastrocola, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe Alloatti, Massimo Collino, Claudia Penna, Pasquale Pagliaro
In the last decades, the extension of life expectancy and the increased consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and added sugars have exposed the general population to emerging health problems. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), composed of a cluster of factors as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, is rapidly increasing in industrialized and developing countries leading to precocious onset of age-related diseases. Indeed, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, and a chronic low-grade inflammation are common features of MS and physiological ageing...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403743/nonclinical-profile-of-blz-100-a-tumor-targeting-fluorescent-imaging-agent
#18
Julia Parrish-Novak, Kelly Byrnes-Blake, Narine Lalayeva, Stefanie Burleson, Janean Fidel, Rhonda Gilmore, Pamela Gayheart-Walsten, Gregory A Bricker, William J Crumb, K S Tarlo, Stacey Hansen, Valorie Wiss, Errol Malta, William S Dernell, James M Olson, Dennis M Miller
BLZ-100 is a single intravenous use, fluorescent imaging agent that labels tumor tissue to enable more complete and precise surgical resection. It is composed of a chlorotoxin peptide covalently bound to the near-infrared fluorophore indocyanine green. BLZ-100 is in clinical development for intraoperative visualization of human tumors. The nonclinical safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of BLZ-100 was evaluated in mice, rats, canines, and nonhuman primates (NHP). Single bolus intravenous administration of BLZ-100 was well tolerated, and no adverse changes were observed in cardiovascular safety pharmacology, PK, and toxicology studies in rats and NHP...
March 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403501/defined-structure-activity-relationships-of-boswellic-acids-determine-modulation-of-ca2-mobilization-and-aggregation-of-human-platelets-by-boswellia-serrata-extracts
#19
Ulf Siemoneit, Lars Tausch, Daniel Poeckel, Michael Paul, Hinnak Northoff, Andreas Koeberle, Johann Jauch, Oliver Werz
Boswellic acids constitute a group of unique pentacyclic triterpene acids from Boswellia serrata with multiple pharmacological activities that confer them anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties. A subgroup of boswellic acids, characterized by an 11-keto group, elevates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)]i and causes moderate aggregation of human platelets. How different BAs and their mixtures in pharmacological preparations affect these parameters in activated platelets has not been addressed, so far...
April 12, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399647/%C3%AE-blockers-cocaine-and-the-unopposed-%C3%AE-stimulation-phenomenon
#20
John R Richards, Judd E Hollander, Edward A Ramoska, Fareed N Fareed, I Charles Sand, María Manuela Izquierdo Gómez, Richard A Lange
Cocaine abuse remains a significant worldwide health problem. Patients with cardiovascular toxicity from cocaine abuse frequently present to the emergency department for treatment. These patients may be tachycardic, hypertensive, agitated, and have chest pain. Several pharmacological options exist for treatment of cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. For the past 3 decades, the phenomenon of unopposed α-stimulation after β-blocker use in cocaine-positive patients has been cited as an absolute contraindication, despite limited and inconsistent clinical evidence...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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