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Cardiovascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243420/-application-progress-of-proteomic-in-pharmacological-study-of-chinese-medicinal-formulae
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Qian Liu, Shu-Yu Zhan, Yu-Er Ruan, Zhi-Yan Zuo, Xiao-Ming Ji, Shuai-Jie Wang, Bao-Yue Ding
Chinese medicinal formulae are the important means of clinical treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. It is urgent to use modern advanced scientific and technological means to reveal the complicated mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae because they have the function characteristics of multiple components, multiple targets and integrated regulation. The systematic and comprehensive research model of proteomic is in line with the function characteristics of Chinese medicinal formulae, and proteomic has been widely used in the study of pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicinal formulae...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241374/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
C V Rizos, T D Filippatos, M S Elisaf
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a growing epidemic and therefore efficient treatment strategies that target its management are needed. The treatment of diabetic patients often requires the combination of antidiabetic drug classes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) block glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) improve glucose metabolism by blocking the enzyme that degrades incretins leading to increased insulin secretion. Areas covered: The aim of the review is to present the available data on pharmacokinetic properties/pharmacodynamics, metabolic and cardiovascular effects...
December 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240722/g-protein-coupled-receptors-at-the-crossroad-between-physiologic-and-pathologic-angiogenesis-old-paradigms-and-emerging-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Ernestina M De Francesco, Federica Sotgia, Robert B Clarke, Michael P Lisanti, Marcello Maggiolini
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in transmitting signals across the extra- and intra-cellular compartments, thus allowing environmental stimuli to elicit critical biological responses. As GPCRs can be activated by an extensive range of factors including hormones, neurotransmitters, phospholipids and other stimuli, their involvement in a plethora of physiological functions is not surprising. Aberrant GPCR signaling has been regarded as a major contributor to diverse pathologic conditions, such as inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235436/bioprosthetic-aortic-valve-leaflet-thrombosis-detected-by-multidetector-computed-tomography-is-associated-with-adverse-cerebrovascular-events-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#4
Hashrul N Rashid, Robert P Gooley, Nitesh Nerlekar, Abdul R Ihdayhid, Liam M McCormick, Arthur Nasis, James D Cameron, Adam J Brown
AIMS: Leaflet thrombosis (LT) has become increasingly recognised following transcatheter and surgical aortic ABV replacement and can be reliably identified by MDCT. However, it is ongoing debate whether MDCT-defined LT is associated with adverse cerebrovascular outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence and clinical outcomes associated with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)-defined leaflet thrombosis following aortic bioprosthetic valve (ABV) replacement...
December 12, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234869/a-controlled-trial-of-inhaled-bronchodilators-in-familial-dysautonomia
#5
Bat-El Bar-Aluma, Ori Efrati, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease is a leading cause of premature death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD). A significant number of patients have obstructive airway disease, yet it is not known whether this is pharmacologically reversible. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing the beta 2 agonist albuterol with the muscarinic blocker ipratropium bromide in patients homozygous for the IKBKAP founder mutation...
December 12, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234445/bioactivity-guided-fractionation-of-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-resina-draconis-reveals-loureirin-b-as-a-pai-1-inhibitor
#6
Yu Jiang, Guangping Zhang, Dong Yan, Hong Yang, Zuguang Ye, Tonghui Ma
Thrombotic diseases have become a global burden due to morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditional Chinese medicine has been proven effective in removing blood stasis and promoting blood circulation, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a natural inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. In this study, we screened four fractions of Resina Draconis (a traditional Chinese medicine) extract for PAI-1 inhibitory activity. Bioactivity-guided purification and chromogenic substrate-based assay led to the identification of loureirin B as the major PAI-1 inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 26...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#7
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232276/contemporary-protease-inhibitors-and-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft, Lene Ryom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence linking use of HIV protease inhibitors with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV+ populations. RECENT FINDINGS: For the two contemporary most frequently used protease inhibitors, darunavir and atazanavir [both pharmacologically boosted with ritonavir (/r)], darunavir/r has been shown to be associated with increased CVD risk. The effect is cumulative with longer exposure increasing risk and an effect size comparable to what has been observed for previously developed protease inhibitors...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231064/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-clinical-efficacy-of-non-statin-treatments-for-hypercholesterolemia
#9
Arrigo F G Cicero, Marilisa Bove, Claudio Borghi
Hypercholesterolemia is the main modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Its pharmacological management is usually based on the prescription of statins, that in some cases are not however fully effective to reach the desired Low-Density-Lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) target, or are not tolerated by patients due to side effects. Areas covered: This manuscript summarizes the basic properties of the emerging new classes of lipid-lowering drugs such as ezetimibe, Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, and Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) inhibitors, also citing new drugs in development...
December 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229563/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2017-clinical
#10
REVIEW
Amanda E Nelson
This review is based on a systematic review of the literature relevant to clinical topics in osteoarthritis (OA) performed for the time period February 22, 2016 to April 1, 2017. A PubMed search using the terms "osteoarthritis" and "treatment or epidemiology" returned over 800 papers, of which 57 are reviewed here, with inclusion primarily based on relevance to clinical OA. Epidemiologic studies in this time frame focused on the incidence and prevalence of OA, comorbidities and mortality in relation to OA (particularly obesity and cardiovascular disease), and multiple joint involvement...
December 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228435/review-of-recent-advances-in-the-management-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Y Cao, P-Y Zhang
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex but common monogenic cardiovascular disorder characterized by unexplained non dilated left ventricular (LV) thickening in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease. The condition is associated with sudden and unexpected death in young individuals including trained athletes. HCM represents a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins of the cardiac myocyte. This review article discusses the genetics behind HCM, its clinical presentation, and diagnosis and the present-day pharmacological management of HCM...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223956/residual-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-events-in-relation-to-reductions-in-very-low-density-lipoproteins
#12
Patrick R Lawler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulo Harada, Robert J Glynn, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether pharmacological reductions in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and their component triglyceride and cholesterol could reduce residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals in whom low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been adequately lowered. We examined whether individuals with greater on-statin reductions in VLDL-related measures-beyond reductions in LDL-C-were at further reduced risk of ASCVD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222605/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cardiovascular-function-novel-insights-and-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Salvador Sierra, Natasha Luquin, Judith Navarro-Otano
RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221803/optimizing-non-pharmacologic-management-of-hypertriglyceridemia
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra Byrne, Sunal Makadia, Aimee Sutherland, Michael Miller
The cornerstone of initial management for hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is lifestyle modification. The combination of weight loss through caloric restriction, alteration in macronutrient composition and increased energy expenditure reduces TG levels by approximately 50%. The addition of cinnamon, cacao products and isocaloric substitution of 1 serving of nuts may contribute another 5-15% lowering of TG. This can be particularly beneficial in patients with HTG who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220092/dose-rectification-of-an-unbalance-between-dpp4-and-glp-1-ameliorates-chronic-stress-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#15
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218931/-research-progress-in-phytoestrogens-of-traditional-chinese-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Yuan Zhao, Hong-Xia Zheng, Ying Xu, Na Lin
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds, which have a similarity in structure with human endogenous estrogen 17-β-estradiol. Structural likeness enables phytoestrogens to interact with estrogen receptors, not simply mimicking the effects of human steroidal estrogen but also exhibiting similar and divergent actions. The global literature relating to phytoestrogen in recent years was systematically summarized in this paper. Chemical compositions of phytoestrogens were mainly flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, steroids, etc...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212812/pharmacologic-prevention-of-incident-atrial-fibrillation-long-term-results-from-the-allhat-antihypertensive-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-to-prevent-heart-attack-trial
#17
Thomas A Dewland, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Barry R Davis, Alvaro Alonso, Christine M Albert, Lara M Simpson, L Julian Haywood, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines indicate that pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may be considered for primary AF prevention in hypertensive patients, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We sought to determine whether randomization to lisinopril reduces incident AF or atrial flutter (AFL) compared with chlorthalidone in a large clinical trial cohort with extended post-trial surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a secondary analysis of the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial that enrolled hypertensive individuals ≥55 years of age with at least one other cardiovascular risk factor...
December 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207575/synthesis-of-novel-nitrogen-containing-heterocycle-bromophenols-and-their-interaction-with-keap1-protein-by-molecular-docking
#18
Xiu E Feng, Qin Jin Wang, Jie Gao, Shu Rong Ban, Qing Shan Li
We previously reported 5,2'-dibromo-2,4',5'-trihydroxydiphenylmethanoe (LM49), a bromophenol analogue that shows strong protection from oxidative stress injury owing to its superior anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. A series of novel nitrogen-containing heterocycle bromophenols were herein synthesized by introducing substituted piperidine, piperazine, and imidazole to modify 2-position of the lead compound LM49. By further evaluating their cytoprotective activity against H₂O₂ induced injury in EA...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206190/direct-fibrinolytic-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-affecting-hemostasis-structural-biochemical-features-and-therapeutic-potential
#19
REVIEW
Eladio F Sanchez, Renzo J Flores-Ortiz, Valeria G Alvarenga, Johannes A Eble
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist only of a single metalloproteinase domain. Despite sharing high sequence homology, only some of them induce hemorrhage. They have direct fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Their main biological substrate is fibrin(ogen), whose Aα-chain is degraded rapidly and independently of activation of plasminogen. It is important to understand their biochemical and physiological mechanisms, as well as their applications, to study the etiology of some human diseases and to identify sites of potential intervention...
December 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203235/sensibility-and-specificity-of-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-according-to-endo-pat-index-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Alessandra S de M Matheus, Maria de Fátima Bevilacqua da Matta, Eliete Leão Silva Clemente, Maria de Lourdes Guimarães Rodrigues, Débora Cristina Torres Valença, Marília B Gomes
OBJECTIVES: To find out an normality value for microvascular response (physiological and pharmacological) assessed through laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based on Endo-PAT, which identifies the ones with Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Patients with T1D, aged ≥12years underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were obtained (lipid profile, glycemic control and levels of C-reactive protein)...
December 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
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