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Cardiovascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821796/cathepsin-k-knockout-protects-against-cardiac-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice
#1
Rui Guo, Yinan Hua, Olivia Rogers, Travis E Brown, Jun Ren, Sreejayan Nair
Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K plays a critical role in cardiac pathophysiology. To expand upon our previous findings, we tested the hypothesis that, knockout of cathepsin K protects against diabetes-associated cardiac anomalies. Wild-type and cathepsin K knockout mice were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) injections. Body weight, organ mass, fasting blood glucose, energy expenditure, cardiac geometry and function, cardiac histomorphology, glutathione levels and protein levels of cathepsin K and those associated with Ca(2+) handling, calcineurin/NFAT signaling, insulin signaling, cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis were determined...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814785/comparison-between-spectral-analysis-and-symbolic-dynamics-for-heart-rate-variability-analysis-in-the-rat
#2
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Victor Rezende Geraldini, Bianca Potratz de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Alberto Porta, Rubens Fazan
Spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) has been widely used to assess the autonomic cardiovascular control. A nonlinear approach, known as symbolic analysis, has been reported to be very useful to assess the autonomic control of cardiovascular system in humans, but very few studies reported on the differences between these two approaches on experimental models. Two distinct approaches were used to elicit autonomic changes in conscious Wistar rats: (1) pharmacological blockade of cardiac autonomic receptors with atenolol (ATE, N = 9) or methylatropine (ATR, N = 9) and (2) mild changes in arterial pressure (AP) induced by phenylephrine (PHE, N = 9) or sodium nitroprusside (NPS, N = 9)...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811706/therapeutic-potential-of-flavonoids-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Ali Salaritabar, Behrad Darvishi, Farzaneh Hadjiakhoondi, Azadeh Manayi, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Leo R Fitzpatrick, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Anupam Bishayee
The inflammatory process plays a central role in the development and progression of numerous pathological situations, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders. IBDs involve inflammation of the gastrointestinal area and mainly comprise Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both pathological situations usually involve recurring or bloody diarrhea, pain, fatigue and weight loss. There is at present no pharmacological cure for CD or UC...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808933/cardiovascular-disease-in-clozapine-treated-patients-evidence-mechanisms-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Kathlyn J Ronaldson
Myocarditis occurs in about 3% of those initiated on clozapine but monitoring reduces the risk of serious outcome. Cardiomyopathy may develop after myocarditis, or from prolonged tachycardia. Monitoring using echocardiography is not deemed cost effective. Tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension and reduced heart rate variability are a group of clozapine-related adverse effects associated with autonomic dysfunction and may have serious consequences in the long term. Elevated heart rate and poor heart rate variability can be treated with a β-blocker or a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, while orthostatic hypotension can be alleviated by increased fluid intake and abdominal binding, but may require pharmacological intervention...
August 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808498/functional-cellular-and-molecular-remodeling-of-the-heart-under-influence-of-oxidative-cigarette-tobacco-smoke
#5
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Rana Ghali, George W Booz, Firas Kobeissy, Fouad A Zouein
Passive and active chronic cigarette smoking (CS) remains an international epidemic and a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. CS-induced cardiac damage is divided into two major and interchangeable mechanisms: (1) direct adverse effects on the myocardium causing smoking cardiomyopathy and (2) indirect effects on the myocardium by fueling comorbidities such as atherosclerotic syndromes and hypertension that eventually damage and remodel the heart. To date, our understanding of cardiac remodeling following acute and chronic smoking exposure is not well elucidated...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807522/orthostatic-hypotension-a-practical-approach-to-investigation-and-management
#6
Amy C Arnold, Satish R Raj
The maintenance of blood pressure upon the assumption of upright posture depends on rapid cardiovascular adaptations driven primarily by the autonomic nervous system. Failure of these compensatory mechanisms can result in orthostatic hypotension (OH), defined as sustained reduction in systolic blood pressure > 20 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > 10 mm Hg within 3 minutes of standing or > 60° head-up tilt. OH is a common finding, particularly in elderly populations, associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality...
May 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807459/rapidly-progressive-atherosclerosis-after-domino-liver-transplantation-from-a-teenage-donor-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#7
Jessica R Golbus, Linda Farhat, Robert J Fontana, Melvyn Rubenfire
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by impaired clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Given limitations in pharmacologic therapy and the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, liver transplantation may be offered to select homozygous FH patients in childhood in an effort to slow progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In rare cases, domino liver transplantation can be performed, transplanting the livers of patients with various metabolic disorders into elderly recipients whose projected survival precludes prolonged waiting on the transplant list...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805967/prognostic-value-of-exercise-capacity-among-men-undergoing-pharmacologic-treatment-for-erectile-dysfunction-the-fit-project
#8
Robert V Same, Mahmoud Al Rifai, David I Feldman, Kevin L Billups, Clinton A Brawner, Zeina A Dardari, Jonathan K Ehrman, Steven J Keteyian, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND: Vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified as a potentially useful risk factor for predicting future cardiovascular events, particularly in younger men. Because these men typically score more favorably on traditional cardiovascular disease risk assessment tools, there exists a gap in knowledge for how to most appropriately identify those men who would benefit from more aggressive treatments. To date, no studies have examined the impact of fitness on cardiovascular outcomes in men with ED...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805563/infusional-therapies-continuous-dopaminergic-stimulation-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#9
Ulrika Mundt-Petersen, Per Odin
Pump-based Parkinson (PD) therapies, including subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSA) and levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG), presently constitute the most effective pharmacological treatments available for advanced PD. These therapies are based on a more constant delivery of the dopaminergic drug resulting in a more continuous dopaminergic stimulation and a more stable treatment effect. This can be detected as reduction of time in off, reduction of dyskinesia frequency and severity, as well as increase of time in on without troublesome dyskinesias...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804243/a-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-platform-to-investigate-the-impact-of-alirocumab-and-cholesterol-lowering-therapies-on-lipid-profiles-and-plaque-characteristics
#10
Jeffrey E Ming, Ruth E Abrams, Derek W Bartlett, Mengdi Tao, Tu Nguyen, Howard Surks, Katherine Kudrycki, Ananth Kadambi, Christina M Friedrich, Nassim Djebli, Britta Goebel, Alex Koszycki, Meera Varshnaya, Joseph Elassal, Poulabi Banerjee, William J Sasiela, Michael J Reed, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karim Azer
Reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. Alirocumab, an antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduces LDL-C. Here, we report development of a quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model integrating peripheral and liver cholesterol metabolism, as well as PCSK9 function, to examine the mechanisms of action of alirocumab and other lipid-lowering therapies, including statins. The model predicts changes in LDL-C and other lipids that are consistent with effects observed in clinical trials of single or combined treatments of alirocumab and other treatments...
2017: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800937/vortioxetine-a-new-alternative-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Estela Salagre, Iria Grande, Brisa Solé, Jose Sanchez-Moreno, Eduard Vieta
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric condition. Its treatment remains a challenge nowadays. Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant with a unique profile, as it acts as a multimodal serotoninergic agent. Its efficacy in MDD has been established in many short- and long-term studies, with 7 positive, 4 negative and 1 failed randomized controlled trials. Moreover, its ability to modulate a wide range of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, glutamate or GABA) confers vortioxetine pro-cognitive effects...
August 8, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799763/iminothioethers-as-hydrogen-sulfide-donors-from-the-gasotransmitter-release-to-the-vascular-effects
#12
Elisabetta Barresi, Giulia Nesi, Valentina Citi, Eugenia Piragine, Ilaria Piano, Sabrina Taliani, Federico Da Settimo, Simona Rapposelli, Lara Testai, Maria Cristina Breschi, Claudia Gargini, Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli
The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important tuner of the cardiovascular homeostasis and its deficiency is etiologically associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the research of original moieties able to release H2S represents a timely issue for drug discovery. In this work, we developed a collection of iminothioethers (ITEs), exhibiting H2S-releasing properties and producing vasorelaxing effects on rat aortic rings. Derivatives 4 and 11, selected as representative of slow and fast rate H2S-donors respectively, produced a complete recovery of the basal coronary flow, reverting the AngII-induced effects in isolated rat hearts...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797402/the-identification-of-calcified-coronary-plaque-is-associated-with-initiation-and-continuation-of-pharmacological-and-lifestyle-preventive-therapies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ankur Gupta, Emily Lau, Ravi Varshney, Edward A Hulten, Michael Cheezum, Marcio S Bittencourt, Michael J Blaha, Nathan D Wong, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Craig A Umscheid, Khurram Nasir, Ron Blankstein
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the odds of initiation or continuation of pharmacological and lifestyle preventive therapies in patients with nonzero versus zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score detected on cardiac computed tomography. BACKGROUND: Detection of calcified coronary plaque could serve as a motivational tool for physicians and patients to intensify preventive therapies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica database), Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL (Cochrane central register of controlled trials), ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794832/perioperative-management-and-monitoring-of-antiplatelet-agents-a-focused-review-on-aspirin-and-p2y12-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Mazzeffi, Khang Lee, Bradley Taylor, Kenichi A Tanaka
Platelets play pivotal roles in hemostasis as well as pathological arterial thrombosis. The combination of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor has become the mainstay therapy in the ageing population with cardiovascular conditions, particularly during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. A number of novel P2Y12 inhibitors has become available in the recent years, and they markedly vary in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Perioperative physicians today face a challenge of preventing hemorrhage due to platelet inhibitors, while minimizing thrombotic risks...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791858/the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-what-s-new
#15
REVIEW
Sylwia Bednarska, Agnieszka Siejka
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is currently the leading cause of menstrual complications in women. It is characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, ovulation abnormalities and the presence of enlarged and/or polycystic ovaries in ultrasound images (12 or more small bubbles located circumferentially and/or ovarian volume > 10 mL). It is often comorbid with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight or obesity, and is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791432/-dyslipidemias-diagnostics-and-management
#16
D Sinning, U Landmesser
For disorders of lipid metabolism the risk-adapted adjustment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol remains the primary treatment target, as a causal role in minimizing the progression of ACVD has been shown. Because of their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, statins are recommended as first-line pharmacological treatment in dyslipidemias. Additionally, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition have been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular events in high-risk patients...
August 8, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782823/drugs-and-the-kidneys-clinical-pharmacology-perspectives
#18
EDITORIAL
John Vincent
The focus of this edition of Clinical Pharmacolgoy & Therapeutics (CPT) is on drugs and renal function and will not include a detailed discussion of kidney disease and its treatment. It is well recognized that drugs affect the kidneys in different ways, while kidney disease impacts drug metabolism and response. It is impossible to underestimate the value of the kidneys to man in health and disease, from regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance to participating in drug metabolism and transport. Additionally, the kidneys serve as targets for drugs used to treat cardiovascular (CV) diseases including hypertension and heart failure, metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as playing a role in the regulation of several hormones...
September 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782352/cornus-mas-a-review-on-traditional-uses-and-pharmacological-properties
#19
Fatemeh Hosseinpour-Jaghdani, Tahoora Shomali, Sajedeh Gholipour-Shahraki, Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Medicinal plants that are used today have been known by people of ancient cultures around the world and have largely been considered due to their medicinal properties. Cornus mas L. (Cornelian cherry) is one of these medicinal plants with high level of antioxidant activity. Cornelian cherry is an attractive ornamental plant with delicious fruit having nutritional and therapeutic values. The main purpose of this paper is to present and summarize the pharmacological and therapeutic effects from researches done on Cornelian cherry in studies from 2000 to 2016...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781255/-pharmacological-approaches-for-correction-of-thyroid-dysfunctions-in-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
A O Shpakov
Thyroid diseases are closely associated with the development of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and as a consequence, the development of effective approaches for their treatment is one of the urgent problems of endocrinology. Traditionally, thyroid hormones (TH) are used to correct functions of the thyroid system. However, they are characterized by many side effects, such as their negative effect on the cardiovascular system as well as the ability of TH to enhance insulin resistance and to disturb insulin-producing function of pancreas, exacerbating thereby diabetic pathology...
May 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
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