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Cardiovascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052435/high-overall-cardiovascular-risk-and-mortality-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-diabetes-a-nationwide-report
#1
Stelios Karayiannides, Pia Lundman, Leif Friberg, Anna Norhammar
AIM: To describe nationwide complication patterns in patients with atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: All ( n = 326,832) patients in Sweden with non-valvular atrial fibrillation during 2006-2012 were identified, and information on events, comorbidities and pharmacological therapy was extracted using nationwide mandatory registers. Patients were followed until 31 December 2013 and the mean follow-up time was 3.7 years (0.9-8 years). RESULTS: Diabetes was present in 17...
October 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051141/coronary-artery-ectasia-predicts-future-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Takahito Doi, Yu Kataoka, Teruo Noguchi, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Takahiro Nakashima, Shoji Kawakami, Kazuhiro Nakao, Masashi Fujino, Toshiyuki Nagai, Tomoaki Kanaya, Yoshio Tahara, Yasuhide Asaumi, Etsuko Tsuda, Michikazu Nakai, Kunihiro Nishimura, Toshihisa Anzai, Kengo Kusano, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Yoichi Goto, Satoshi Yasuda
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is an infrequently observed vascular phenotype characterized by abnormal vessel dilatation and disturbed coronary flow, which potentially promote thrombogenicity and inflammatory reactions. However, whether or not CAE influences cardiovascular outcomes remains unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We investigated major adverse cardiac events (MACE; defined as cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI]) in 1698 patients with acute MI...
October 19, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046988/should-pre-hypertension-be-treated
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kanegae, Takamitsu Oikawa, Kazuomi Kario
Hypertension is an important preventable risk factor for disease and death worldwide. In light of the world's population growth and aging, hypertension is a global public health issue. Many studies have shown associations between pre-hypertension and a higher risk of the future development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in general populations. However, pre-hypertension per se is not a disease with an immediate high risk, and the clinical value of the identification of pre-hypertension is the potential detection of the early stage of the risk of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease over an individual's lifespan...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046002/-optimal-diagnostics-and-therapy-for-microvascular-angina-pectoris
#4
Peter Ong, Udo Sechtem
Patients with microvascular angina are characterized by angina pectoris with proof of myocardial ischemia in the absence of any relevant epicardial stenosis and without myocardial disease (type 1 coronary microvascular dysfunction according to Crea and Camici). Structural and functional alterations of the coronary microvessels (diameter < 500 µm) are the reason for this phenomenon. Frequently such alterations are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with angina pectoris without epicardial stenoses represent for 10 - 50 % of all patients undergoing coronary angiography depending on the clinical presentation...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045335/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-renal-disease
#5
Vanessa R Williams, James W Scholey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a pivotal player in the physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal systems. Discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), capable of cleaving RAS effector peptide angiotensin (Ang) II into biologically active Ang-(1-7), has increased the complexity of our knowledge of the RAS. ACE2 expression is abundant in the kidney and is thought to provide protection against injury. This review emphasizes current experimental and clinical findings that examine ACE2 in the context of kidney injury and its potential therapeutic impact for treatment of kidney disease...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045287/yosprala%C3%A2-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-aspirin-and-omeprazole
#6
Keith T Veltri
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Patients who survive a primary cerebrovascular or cardiovascular event are at increased risk of a subsequent occurrence. Antiplatelet therapy plays an essential role for secondary prevention in individuals with stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute or chronic artery disease or peripheral arterial disease. Maintaining high risk patients on low dose aspirin therapy is a fundamental component of management. However, poor adherence, secondary to the drug's gastrointestinal side effects, has been associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043224/optimization-of-mixing-ratio-to-improve-antioxidant-activity-of-aged-garlic-with-pine-needle-using-response-surface-methodology
#7
Jae-Hee Park, Eunji Shin, Eunju Park
Aged garlic has been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological activities, including anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, and to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system and liver. Pine needles are widely used in folk medicine and as food additives owing to their pharmacological properties such as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has long been known that combining certain phytochemicals with other phenols or organic acids can produce synergistic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an optimal formula of aged garlic with added pine needle powder for improved antioxidant activity using the statistical technique of response surface methodology...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043079/acute-coronary-syndromes-in-the-elderly
#8
REVIEW
Niels Engberding, Nanette K Wenger
The clinical evidence for treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the elderly is less robust than in patients younger than 75 years. The elderly have the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease and frequently present with ACS. This number can be expected to increase over time because society is aging. Older adults often sustain unfavorable outcomes from ACS because of atypical presentation and delay in recognition. In addition, elderly patients commonly do not receive optimal guideline-directed ACS treatment...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#9
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040592/the-association-between-igf-i-and-igfbp-3-and-incident-diabetes-in-an-older-population-of-men-and-women-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#10
Chino S Aneke-Nash, Xiaonan Xue, Qibin Qi, Mary L Biggs, Anne Cappola, Lewis Kuller, Michael Pollak, Bruce M Psaty, David Siscovick, Kenneth Mukamal, Howard D Strickler, Robert C Kaplan
Context: Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has structural/functional similarities with insulin and may play a role in glucose homeostasis, along with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which binds the majority of circulating IGF-I. Objective: To assess whether IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in older adults. Design: Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n=3133), a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, were observed for 16 years (n=3133) for the development of incident diabetes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038360/carotid-sinus-hypersensitivity-block-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-does-not-affect-responses-to-carotid-sinus-massage-in-healthy-young-adults
#11
Matthew G Lloyd, James M Wakeling, Michael S Koehle, Robert J Drapala, Victoria E Claydon
The arterial baroreflex is crucial for short-term blood pressure control - abnormal baroreflex function predisposes to syncope and falling. Hypersensitive responses to carotid baroreflex stimulation using carotid sinus massage (CSM) are common in older adults and may be associated with syncope. The pathophysiology of this hypersensitivity is unknown, but chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in elderly patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), and is proposed to interfere with normal integration of afferent firing from the carotid baroreceptors with proprioceptive feedback from the sternocleidomastoids, producing large responses to CSM...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038204/do-we-need-a-patient-centered-target-for-systolic-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Weng Yee Chin, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
The current trend on diabetes mellitus management advocates replacing the paradigm from a uniform to an individualized patient-centered systolic blood pressure (SBP), but there is no consensus on the achieved treatment goals of SBP level. The study aimed at evaluating the association between SBP and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause mortality for diabetic patients to identify patient-centered treatment targets. A retrospective study was conducted on 95 086 Chinese adult primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension...
October 16, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038147/imputation-of-baseline-ldl-cholesterol-concentration-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-on-statins-or-ezetimibe
#13
Isabelle Ruel, Sumayah Aljenedil, Iman Sadri, Émilie de Varennes, Robert A Hegele, Patrick Couture, Jean Bergeron, Eric Wanneh, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour, Daniel Gaudet, Diane Brisson, Liam R Brunham, Gordon A Francis, Lubomira Cermakova, James M Brophy, Arnold Ryomoto, G B John Mancini, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR, PCSK9, or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033193/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-elderly-adults-using-score-op-model-in-a-latin-american-population-the-experience-from-ecuador
#14
Ivan Sisa
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is predicted to increase in Latin America countries due to their rapidly aging population. However, there is very little information about CVD risk assessment as a primary preventive measure in this high-risk population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We predicted the national risk of developing CVD in Ecuadorian elderly population using the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation in Older Persons (SCORE OP) High and Low models by risk categories/CVD risk region in 2009...
October 12, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032034/therapeutic-investigations-of-novel-indoxyl-based-indolines-a-drug-target-validation-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-with-cardiovascular-regulation-and-thrombolytic-potential
#15
A Manikandan, Pearl Moharil, M Sathishkumar, C Muñoz-Garay, A Sivakumar
A family of 12 members of Naphthalene-2-ol-indolin-2-one-thiocarbamides (5a-l) with pharmacological potentials of cardiovascular modulator were efficiently synthesized and evaluated. These compounds show inhibitory activity on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is a principal constituent of the renin-angiotensin system and causative source for hypertension (HTN) (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure (CHF), a parameter that was tested in this report. Prior to this, to get more insight into the binding mode and inhibition of human ACE C-domain (PDB ID: 2XY9) and N-domain (PDB ID: 3NXQ) compounds 5a-l was docked into the active site of them...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031359/treatment-of-abnormalities-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#16
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Hyperkalemia, defined as serum potassium concentrations greater than 5.0 to 5.5 mEq/L, is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice because of the increasing incidence and prevalence of CKD. Patients at risk for this disorder are commonly treated with drugs that interfere in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, thereby enhancing the occurrence and prevalence of this disorder. Discontinuation of these drugs because of the development of hyperkalemia deprives these patients the renal-protective and cardiovascular benefits this class of pharmacology has been shown to provide...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031332/right-ventricular-function-during-pharmacological-and-exercise-stress-testing-in-horses
#17
A Decloedt, D De Clercq, S Ven, L Vera, G van Loon
The disproportionate rise of pulmonary artery pressure compared to systemic blood pressure during exercise can lead to detrimental right ventricular remodelling in endurance athletes. Horses may act as an extreme model of these athletic cardiovascular adaptations, as they show a three fold increase in pulmonary pressures during exercise. Right ventricular function was examined in ten healthy horses using post-exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography in a randomised cross-over design. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill while pharmacological testing was performed using an atropine-dobutamine infusion...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030392/hydrogen-sulfide-preserves-enos-function-by-inhibiting-pyk2-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-survival-and-cardioprotection
#18
Sofia-Iris Bibli, Csaba Szabo, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Bert Luck, Sven Zukunft, Ingrid Fleming, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system, many of which depend on nitric oxide (NO). Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a redox-sensitive tyrosine kinase, directly phosphorylates and inhibits eNOS. Herein, we investigated the ability of H2S to relieve PYK2-mediated eNOS inhibition and evaluated the importance of the H2S/PYK2/eNOS axis on cardiomyocyte injury in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of H9c2 cardiomyocytes to H2O2 or pharmacological inhibition of H2S production increased PYK2 (Y402) and eNOS (Y656) phosphorylation...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029165/depicting-new-pharmacological-strategies-for-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-involving-lipoprotein-a
#19
Alpo Vuorio, Gerald F Watts, Petri T Kovanen
Approximately 35 million people worldwide suffer from heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH), a condition characterized by genetically determined life-long elevation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). One in three of these patients also inherit an elevated plasma concentration of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], a lipoprotein particle with atherogenic, inflammatory and prothrombotic properties. Accordingly, the combination of high plasma LDL-C and Lp(a) can markedly accelerate premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
October 3, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028058/protein-protein-interaction-networks-as-a-new-perspective-to-evaluate-distinct-functional-roles-of-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-isoforms
#20
REVIEW
Marianna Caterino, Margherita Ruoppolo, Annalisa Mandola, Michele Costanzo, Stefania Orrù, Esther Imperlini
Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are a family of three mitochondrial porins and the most abundant integral membrane proteins of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). VDACs are known to be involved in metabolite/ion transport across the MOM and in many cellular processes ranging from mitochondria-mediated apoptosis to the control of energy metabolism, by interacting with cytosolic, mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins and other membrane channels. Despite redundancy and compensatory mechanisms among VDAC isoforms, they display not only different channel properties and protein expression levels, but also distinct protein partners...
October 13, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
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