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Cardiovascular drugs

Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Soo Lim, Robert H Eckel, Kwang Kon Koh
The final goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reduction in cardiovascular (CV) complications and total mortality. Various factors including hyperglycemia contribute to these complications and mortality directly and indirectly. In recent years, large-scale CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic medications, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been completed...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Alice Ossoli, Chiara Pavanello, Eleonora Giorgio, Laura Calabresi, Monica Gomaraschi
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Among the various lipoprotein classes, however, high density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely associated with the incidence of atherosclerosis, since they are able to exert a series of atheroprotective functions. The central role of HDL within the reverse cholesterol transport, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their ability to preserve endothelial homeostasis are likely responsible for HDL-mediated atheroprotection...
March 15, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Michaël R Laurent
An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. PURPOSE: This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keyword "bone" and articles published in 2017. RESULTS: Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Kyle I Mentkowski, Jonathan D Snitzer, Sarah Rusnak, Jennifer K Lang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of "cell-free, cell therapy" for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Vesa M Olkkonen, Juha Sinisalo, Matti Jauhiainen
Remarkably good results have been achieved in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by using statin, ezetimibe, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and PCSK9 inhibitor therapies and their proper combinations. However, despite this success, the remaining CVD risk is still high. To target this residual risk and to treat patients who are statin-intolerant or have an exceptionally high CVD risk for instance due to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), new therapies are intensively sought. One pathway of drug development is targeting the circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and their lipolytic remnants, which, according to the current view, confer a major CVD risk...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Meyrick Kidwell, Bart A Ellenbroek
There is a bidirectional relationship between affective disorders and cardiovascular abnormalities, often described as a downward spiral, whereas major depressive disorders (MDD, and anxiety disorders) significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD); CVD are also associated with increased risk of developing MDD (and anxiety disorders). Moreover, the prognosis and progression of CVD is significantly worsened in the presence of MDD. Heart rate variability (HRV) has often been suggested as a potential mediator in this comorbidity...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Wuxiang Xie, Fanfan Zheng, Evangelos Evangelou, Ou Liu, Zhenchun Yang, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of five commonly used blood pressure-lowering drugs in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with nonacute cardiovascular disease, but without heart failure. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on 18 March 2017. The primary outcome was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Frédéric J Baud, Mohamad K Haidar, Romain Jouffroy, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Lionel Lamhaut, Pierre Carli
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the magnitude of lactic acidosis in response to cyanide poisoning compared with the secondary response caused by cardiovascular shock. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control observational study. SETTING: University Hospital of Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris. SUBJECTS: Patients admitted for suspicion of cyanide poisoning or drug overdose. Medical charts provided by Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris of patients between January 1988 and December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gian Marco Rosa, Danilo Baccino, Alberto Valbusa, Carolina Scala, Fabio Barra, Claudio Brunelli, Simone Ferrero
Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common in the general population, particularly in elderly patients. Antimuscarinic drugs (AMs) are considered the mainstay pharmaceutical treatment of OAB whereas β3-adrenoceptor agonists, such as mirabegron, represent a good alternative. Owing to the important role of muscarinic and β3 receptors in cardiovascular (CV) tissue and to the fact that OAB patients often have CV comorbidities, the safety-profile of these drugs constitute an important challenge. Area covered: The aim of this review is to evaluate the CV effects of AMs and mirabegron in OAB...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Marcelo R Luizon, Daniela A Pereira, Valeria C Sandrim
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, but only about half of patients on antihypertensive therapy achieve blood pressure control. Preeclampsia is defined as pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria, and is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Similarly, a large number of patients with preeclampsia are non-responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Pharmacogenomics may help to guide the personalized treatment for non-responsive hypertensive patients...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kentaro Ando, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Hiroyuki Harada, Hiroyoshi Miyamoto, Naoki Inamura, Kan Takagi, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Atsuhiko T Naito, Atsushi Sugiyama
In order to better understand the variability of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of terfenadine between the previous studies as well as to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the proarrhythmic potential of its major active metabolite fexofenadine in comparison with that of terfenadine, we directly compared their electropharmacological effects with halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 3). For this purpose, we adopted a cross-over design, which can directly compare the effects of terfenadine and fexofenadine under the identical metabolic condition...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Catriona Crossan, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Hilarie Williams, Neil Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Stephen Jan, Simon Thom, Joanne Lord
INTRODUCTION: The 'Use of a Multi-drug Pill in Reducing cardiovascular Events' (UMPIRE) trial was a randomised controlled clinical trial evaluating the impact of a polypill strategy on adherence to indicated medication in a population with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) of or at high risk thereof. The aim of Researching the UMPIRE Processes for Economic Evaluation in the National Health Service (RUPEE NHS) is to estimate the potential health economic impact of a polypill strategy for CVD prevention within the NHS using UMPIRE trial and other relevant data...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Mikhail Kosiborod, Carolyn S P Lam, Shun Kohsaka, Dae Jung Kim, Avraham Karasik, Jonathan Shaw, Navdeep Tangri, Su-Yen Goh, Marcus Thuresson, Hungta Chen, Filip Surmont, Niklas Hammar, Peter Fenici
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials demonstrated lower risk of cardiovascular (CV) events with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high CV risk. Prior real-world data suggested similar SGLT-2i effects in T2D patients with broader risk profile, but focused on heart failure and death, and were limited to US and Europe. OBJECTIVES: To examine a broad range of CV outcomes in patients initiated on SGLT-2i vs. other glucose lowering drugs (oGLD) across six countries in Asia Pacific, Middle East and North America (NCT02993614)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jun Shiraishi, Nariko Koshi, Yuki Matsubara, Tetsuro Nishimura, Akira Shikuma, Keisuke Shoji, Daisuke Ito, Masayoshi Kimura, Eigo Kishita, Yusuke Nakagawa, Masayuki Hyogo, Takahisa Sawada
BACKGROUND: Experiences of rotational atherectomy (RA) followed by drug-coated balloon (DCB) dilation alone (RA/DCB) for de novo coronary artery lesion have been limited. CASE SERIES: Case 1 (65 year-old male) with silent myocardial ischemia and hemodialysis had old anterior myocardial infarction and intact LM/LCx, and underwent RA/DCB against a diffuse calcified lesion in the proximal LAD and a tandem lesion in the proximal RCA. Case 2 (88 year-old female) with post-infarction unstable angina had severe thrombocytopenia and anemia due to myelodysplastic syndrome (platelet 6000/μL, hemoglobin 8...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Julio Rosenstock, Vlado Perkovic, John H Alexander, Mark E Cooper, Nikolaus Marx, Michael J Pencina, Robert D Toto, Christoph Wanner, Bernard Zinman, David Baanstra, Egon Pfarr, Michaela Mattheus, Uli C Broedl, Hans-Juergen Woerle, Jyothis T George, Maximilian von Eynatten, Darren K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have underrepresented patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to uncertainty regarding their kidney efficacy and safety. The CARMELINA® trial aims to evaluate the effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on both CV and kidney outcomes in a study population enriched for cardio-renal risk. METHODS: CARMELINA® is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 27 countries in T2D patients at high risk of CV and/or kidney events...
March 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Ellen Go, Stefan P Tarnawsky, W Chris Shelley, Kimihiko Banno, Yang Lin, Chang-Hyun Gil, Emily K Blue, Laura S Haneline, Kathleen M O'Neil, Mervin C Yoder
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases, typified by vascular inflammation and damage. Immunosuppressive drugs induce disease remission and lead to improved patient survival. However, there remains a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in these patients even after adequate disease control. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mycophenolic acid (MPA), a commonly used immunosuppressive drug in rheumatology, on blood vessel or circulating endothelial colony forming cell number and function...
2018: PloS One
Cheng Zeng, Wen Jiang, Ruifang Zheng, Chenghui He, Jianguang Li, Jianguo Xing
Our previous research demonstrated that tilianin protects the myocardium in a myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) rat model and has prominent pharmacological potential as a cardiovascular drug. Our study aimed to investigate the molecular signaling implicated in the improvement of myocardial survival induced by tilianin, a flavonoid antioxidant. Tilianin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d) or saline was orally administered to rats for 14 days. On the 15th day, ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 45 min, followed by 4 h of reperfusion...
2018: PloS One
Jihye Seo, Cheol Hyun Kim, Hongmin Chu, Yeonju Moon, Sangkwan Lee
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common disease of primary headache, which it causes many kinds of secondary diseases or symptoms. The treatment drugs have sometimes shown side effects such as overuse headache, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the demand for complementary and alternative interventions for migraine has increased. Herbal medicines are a representative intervention to treat migraine traditionally. Among these herbal medicines, Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (BBT) and Chongsanggeontong-tang (CGT) have been most commonly used for migraine treatment in traditional clinical practice...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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