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Cardiovascular drugs

Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Liming Yu, Chongxi Fan, Zhi Li, Jian Zhang, Xiaodong Xue, Yinli Xu, Guolong Zhao, Yang Yang, Huishan Wang
Stress hyperglycemia is commonly observed in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. It not only worsens cardiovascular prognosis but also attenuates the efficacies of various cardioprotective agents. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in acute hyperglycemic state with a focus on Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and intracellular thioredoxin (Trx) system. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R surgery and high glucose (HG, 500 g/L) infusion (4 ml/kg/h) to induce temporary hyperglycemia...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Kyung Sik Kang, Hyung Il Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
OBJECTIVE: Adverse cardiovascular events (ACVEs) account for a large proportion of the morbidities and mortalities associated with drug overdose emergencies. However, there are no published reports regarding outcomes of ACVEs associated with acute dapsone poisoning. Here, the authors retrospectively analyzed ACVEs reported within 48 hours of treatment in patients with acute dapsone poisoning and assessed the significance of ACVEs as early predictors of mortality. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive cases of acute dapsone poisoning that were diagnosed and treated at a regional emergency center between 2006 and 2014 were included in the study...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Hassan Fares, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, Carl J Lavie
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is well established as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although there is undeniable evidence to support the beneficial effects of antihypertensive therapy on morbidity and mortality, adequate blood pressure management still remains suboptimal. Research into the treatment of hypertension has produced a multitude of drug classes with different efficacy profiles. These agents include β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers...
2016: Open Heart
Kamal Awad, Peter Penson, Maciej Banach
Reduction of elevated cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is essential in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore there is still a large need for new effective drugs, which would be able to essentially reduce LDL-C and in the consequence CV residual risk. D-003 is a mixture of high aliphatic primary acids purified from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) wax. It showed promising hypocholesterolemic effects in both animal and human studies; it significantly lowers both serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Axel C Mühlbacher, Susanne Bethge, Anika Kaczynski
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with many individuals having experienced acute coronary syndrome (ACS). How patients with a history of ACS value aspects of their medical treatment have been evaluated rarely. The aim of this study was to determine patient priorities for long-term drug therapy after experiencing ACS. METHODS: To identify patient-relevant treatment characteristics, a systematic literature review and qualitative patient interviews were conducted...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Yongzhi Chang, Shuxi Zhou, Enqin Li, Wenfeng Zhao, Yanpeng Ji, Xiaoan Wen, Hongbin Sun, Haoliang Yuan
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our molecular modeling study revealed that pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds could mimic the protein-ligand interactions of the endogenous ligand cholesteryl ester (CE) by occupying its binding site. Alignment of the docking conformations of oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA) and the crystal conformations of known CETP inhibitor Torcetrapib in the active site proposed the applicability of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approaches in this study...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Manuela Casula, Lorenza Scotti, Elena Tragni, Luca Merlino, Giovanni Corrao, Alberico L Catapano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed at describing the therapeutic approach in young adult patients diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) and their adherence and persistence to treatment. METHODS: From regional administrative databases, individuals aged ≤40 years, who received exemption for HeFH between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011, and concomitantly started statin treatment, were identified. Within the first year of treatment, we evaluated therapeutic changes, adherence as MPR (medication possession ratio), persistence as continuous drug coverage without gaps ≥60 days, and influencing factors using log binomial models...
October 12, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Miriam Qvarnström, Thomas Kahan, Helle Kieler, Lena Brandt, Jan Hasselström, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Karin Manhem, Per Hjerpe, Björn Wettermark
The aim was to study persistence to, and switching between, antihypertensive drug classes and to determine factors associated with poor persistence.This was an observational cohort study. The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database includes data from medical records, socioeconomic data, filled prescriptions, and hospitalizations from national registries for 75,000 patients with hypertension. Patients included in the study were initiated on antihypertensive drug treatment in primary healthcare in 2006 to 2007...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea Matucci, Francesca Nencini, Sara Pratesi, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents have been a treatment option for many chronic immune-mediated diseases as well as oncological conditions. The issue of infusion reactions is of particular importance and at least in some cases related to the immunogenicity of these drugs with the production of antidrug antibodies. Infectious diseases are a well described side-effect of certain biological agents, even if, at least regarding the biological agents used for the treatment of allergic diseases and immune-mediated diseases, the risk has been reduced...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Miroslav Zeman, Marek Vecka, František Perlík, Barbora Staňková, Robert Hromádka, Eva Tvrzická, Jakub Širc, Jakub Hrib, Aleš Žák
Niacin was the first hypolipidemic drug to significantly reduce both major cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Niacin favorably influences all lipoprotein classes, including lipoprotein[a],and belongs to the most potent hypolipidemic drugs for increasing HDL-C. Moreover, niacin causes favorable changes to the qualitative composition of lipoprotein HDL. In addition to its pronounced hypolipidemic action, niacin exerts many other, non-hypolipidemic effects (e.g., antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic), which favorably influence the development and progression of atherosclerosis...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Julie A Birt, YingMeei Tan, Neelufar Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the real-world characteristics and costs of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Analysing the MarketScan Commercial Claims database from Jan. 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2011, we identified 10,414 patients ≥18 years old newly diagnosed with SS. Patient characteristics, drugs (commonly used for SS), resource utilisation, and medical costs were evaluated for 12 months pre- and post-diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean age was 55 years; 90% were female...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Wendong Huang, Yongfei Yang, Zhi Zeng, Meiling Su, Qi Gao, Banghao Zhu
Salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine are traditional Chinese medicines that have been used in combination for treatment of cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, cardiac angina and atherosclerosis in Asia, in particular, China. The present study aimed to determine the effect of S. miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine injection (SLI) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injuries via the Akt serine/threonine kinase (Akt)‑endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yao Lu, Honit Piplani, Stacy L McAllister, Carl M Hurt, Eric R Gross
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that cross talk exists between cellular pathways important for pain signaling and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, the authors address whether the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, important in pain signaling, is present in cardiac myocytes and regulates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: For biochemical analysis of TRPA1, techniques including quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used...
September 30, 2016: Anesthesiology
Lili Wang, Rufeng Ma, Chenyue Liu, Haixia Liu, Ruyuan Zhu, Shuzhen Guo, Minke Tang, Yu Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Sihua Gao, Dongwei Zhang
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize the literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Maria Campos, C Batista, N R Jesus, C M Silva, T P Silva
Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. This work aimed to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers of the potential of occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. Information obtained from the campaign "Aprender Saúde Entre as Plantas e os Medicamentos", carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www...
October 7, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Marc D Cohen, Edward Keystone
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 molecule on the surfaces of some but not all B cells. It depletes almost all peripheral B cells, but other niches of B cells are variably depleted, including synovium. Its mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is only partially understood. Rituximab was efficacious in clinical trials of patients with RA, including those who are methotrexate naïve, those with an incomplete response to methotrexate, and those with an incomplete response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
December 2015: Rheumatol Ther
Silvia Bini, Cesare Cerri, Antonello E Rigamonti, Pietro A Bertazzi, Gianfrancesco Fiorini, Silvano G Cella
We analysed drug dispensation by charitable organisations in a year time. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification and the amount dispensed was calculated with the system of the Daily Defined Dose (DDD) and expressed as DDD/1000 subjects/day. A number of 87,550 subjects were studied (13,308 Italians; 74,242 Immigrants). Though we noticed a great sesonal variability, the drugs most frequently dispensed were those for the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system and antibiotics, which is different from the rest of the Italian population and the immigrant population assisted by our National Health Service (NHS)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
H D Rashmi, H K Komala
BACKGROUND: The procedures in anesthesia such as laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are the most important skills to be mastered by an anesthesiologist. However, they produce marked cardiovascular responses such as hypertension and tachycardia. Various drugs have been used to suppress this response. One of those is a novel centrally acting α2 agonist - dexmedetomidine. It has numerous uses in anesthesia as it is having sedative, analgesic, hypnotic, and opioid sparing effects. It is also known to suppress the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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