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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018164/termination-of-vernakalant-resistant-atrial-fibrillation-by-inhibition-of-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels-in-pigs
#1
Jonas Goldin Diness, Lasse Skibsbye, Rafel Simó-Vicens, Joana Larupa Santos, Pia Lundegaard, Carlotta Citerni, Daniel Rafael Peter Sauter, Sofia Hammami Bomholtz, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Søren-Peter Olesen, Ulrik S Sørensen, Thomas Jespersen, Morten Grunnet, Bo Hjorth Bentzen
BACKGROUND: Evidence has emerged that small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels constitute a new target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). SK channels are predominantly expressed in the atria as compared with the ventricles. Various marketed antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by ventricular adverse effects and efficacy loss as AF progresses. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 43 pigs were used for the studies. AF reversion in conscious long-term tachypaced pigs: Pigs were subjected to atrial tachypacing (7 Hz) until they developed sustained AF that could not be reverted by vernakalant 4 mg/kg (18...
October 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016724/triggered-intracellular-calcium-waves-in-dog-and-human-left-atrial-myocytes-from-normal-and-failing-hearts
#2
Gary L Aistrup, Rishi Arora, Søren Grubb, Shin Yoo, Benjamin Toren, Manvinder Kumar, Aaron Kunamalla, William Marszalec, Tej Motiwala, Shannon Tai, Sean Yamakawa, Satya Yerrabolu, Francisco J Alvarado, Hector H Valdivia, Jonathan M Cordeiro, Yohannes Shiferaw, J Andrew Wasserstrom
Aims: Abnormal intracellular Ca 2+ cycling contributes to triggered activity and arrhythmias in the heart. We investigated the properties and underlying mechanisms for systolic triggered Ca 2+ waves in left atria from normal and failing dog hearts. Methods and Results: Intracellular Ca 2+ cycling was studied using confocal microscopy during rapid pacing of atrial myocytes (36 °C) isolated from normal and failing canine hearts (ventricular tachypacing model). In normal atrial myocytes (NAMs), Ca 2+ waves developed during rapid pacing at rates ≥ 3...
August 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974514/diminished-prrx1-expression-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-shortening-of-the-cardiac-action-potential
#3
Nathan R Tucker, Elena V Dolmatova, Honghuang Lin, Rebecca R Cooper, Jiangchuan Ye, William J Hucker, Heather S Jameson, Victoria A Parsons, Lu-Chen Weng, Robert W Mills, Moritz F Sinner, Maxim Imakaev, Jordan Leyton-Mange, Gus Vlahakes, Emelia J Benjamin, Kathryn L Lunetta, Steven A Lubitz, Leonid Mirny, David J Milan, Patrick T Ellinor
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects over 33 million individuals worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified at least 30 AF loci, but the mechanisms through which individual variants lead to altered disease risk have remained unclear for the majority of these loci. At the 1q24 locus, we hypothesized that the transcription factor PRRX1 could be a strong candidate gene as it is expressed in the pulmonary veins, a source of AF in many individuals. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism, whereby variation at 1q24 may lead to AF susceptibility...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964164/sensitivity-of-reentrant-driver-localization-to-electrophysiological-parameter-variability-in-image-based-computational-models-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-sustained-by-a-fibrotic-substrate
#4
Dongdong Deng, Michael J Murphy, Joe B Hakim, William H Franceschi, Sohail Zahid, Farhad Pashakhanloo, Natalia A Trayanova, Patrick M Boyle
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, causing morbidity and mortality in millions worldwide. The atria of patients with persistent AF (PsAF) are characterized by the presence of extensive and distributed atrial fibrosis, which facilitates the formation of persistent reentrant drivers (RDs, i.e., spiral waves), which promote fibrillatory activity. Targeted catheter ablation of RD-harboring tissues has shown promise as a clinical treatment for PsAF, but the outcomes remain sub-par...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964116/revealing-kinetics-and-state-dependent-binding-properties-of-ikur-targeting-drugs-that-maximize-atrial-fibrillation-selectivity
#5
Nicholas Ellinwood, Dobromir Dobrev, Stefano Morotti, Eleonora Grandi
The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962160/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-pitavastatin-on-electrophysiology-and-anticoagulant-gene-expression-in-mice-with-rapid-atrial-pacing
#6
Maoqing Tong, Jiewen Wang, Yunxin Ji, Xiaomin Chen, Jieru Wang, Shuangshuang Wang, Liemin Ruan, Hanbin Cui, Ying Zhou, Qingyu Zhang, Eiichi Watanabe
Atrial remodeling is considered to be any persistent change in atrial structure or function, and is responsible for the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Oxidative stress and intracellular pH regulation may also be linked to AF; however it remains unclear whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or statins have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EPA and pitavastatin on the electrophysiology of and gene expressions in mice with rapidly-paced atria...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947309/wilson-s-disease-and-cardiac-myopathy
#7
Donald J Grandis, Gregory Nah, Isaac R Whitman, Eric Vittinghoff, Thomas A Dewland, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory M Marcus
Wilson's disease is a well-characterized disorder known to cause liver and brain disease due to abnormal copper deposition. Data regarding copper infiltration of the heart is conflicting, and the risk of heart disease has not been well described. We aimed to determine whether Wilson's disease is associated with cardiac myopathy, clinically evident in the atria as atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the ventricles as heart failure (HF). We longitudinally assessed 14.3 million patients in the California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database from 2005 through 2009 for diagnoses of Wilson's disease, AF, HF, and covariates using International Classification of Diseases-9th Edition codes...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946993/beat-to-beat-p-wave-morphology-as-a-predictor-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Dimitrios Filos, Ioanna Chouvarda, Dimitris Tachmatzidis, Vassilios Vassilikos, Nicos Maglaveras
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The initiation and the perpetuation of AF is linked with phenomena of atrial remodeling, referring to the modification of the electrical and structural characteristics of the atrium. P-wave morphology analysis can reveal information regarding the propagation of the electrical activity on the atrial substrate. The purpose of this study is to investigate patterns on the P-wave morphology that may occur in patients with Paroxysmal AF (PAF) and which can be the basis for distinguishing between PAF and healthy subjects...
November 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943382/comparing-bleeding-risk-assessment-focused-on-modifiable-risk-factors-only-to-validated-bleeding-risk-scores-in-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Yutao Guo, Hang Zhu, Yundai Chen, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty whether a focus on modifiable bleeding risk factors, offers better prediction of major bleeding or intracranial haemorrhage compared to other existing bleeding risk scores. METHODS: Comparison of a score based on numbers of the modifiable bleeding risk factors recommended in the 2016 European guidelines ('European risk score'), to other published bleeding risk scores that have been derived and validated in atrial fibrillation subjects (HEMORR2HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA and ORBIT) in a large hospital-based cohort of Chinese inpatients with atrial fibrillation...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941612/recipient-atrial-fibrillation-manifesting-as-an-irregular-monomorphic-atrial-tachycardia-in-the-donor-heart
#10
Nicolas Johner, Mehdi Namdar, Andréa Buttu, Sophie Perenet, Philippe Meyer, Dipen C Shah
A 63-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of atrial tachycardia (AT) 6 years after orthotopic heart transplantation with bicaval anastomosis. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram showed monomorphic AT with isoelectric intervals across all leads and strikingly irregular PP intervals. At electrophysiology study, the native left atrium's rhythm was atrial fibrillation (AF) while the donor atria exhibited centrifugal activation of irregular cycle length originating from a site along the left atrial anastomosis...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939672/cha2ds2-vasc-score-for-identifying-truly-low-risk-atrial-fibrillation-for-stroke-a-korean-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Tae-Hoon Kim, Pil-Sung Yang, Daehoon Kim, Hee Tae Yu, Jae-Sun Uhm, Jong-Youn Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As the threshold of stroke risk for initiating oral anticoagulants is lowered after the introduction of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, the focus of stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation has shifted away from predicting high-risk patients toward initially identifying patients with a truly low risk of ischemic stroke, who do not need antithrombotic therapy. We tested the predictive ability of the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled; CHADS2), congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female (CHA2DS2-VASc), and Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) risk stratification schemes in oral anticoagulants naive patients with atrial fibrillation in a Korean nationwide sample cohort...
September 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935953/very-low-density-lipoprotein-of-metabolic-syndrome-modulates-gap-junctions-and-slows-cardiac-conduction
#12
Hsiang-Chun Lee, Chih-Chieh Chen, Wei-Chung Tsai, Hsin-Ting Lin, Yi-Lin Shiao, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Bin-Nan Wu, Chu-Huang Chen, Wen-Ter Lai
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each manifestation of MetS is related to atrial fibrillation (AF) risks. Slowed atrial conduction is a mechanism of AF in MetS. We hypothesized that VLDL can modulate and reduce atrial gap junctions. VLDLs were separated from normal (Normal-VLDL) and MetS (MetS-VLDL) individuals. VLDLs (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline (CTL) were injected respectively to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. Electrocardiograms demonstrated that MetS-VLDL induced prolongation of P wave (P = 0...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935868/importance-of-time-in-therapeutic-range-on-bleeding-risk-prediction-using-clinical-risk-scores-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#13
José Miguel Rivera-Caravaca, Vanessa Roldán, María Asunción Esteve-Pastor, Mariano Valdés, Vicente Vicente, Gregory Y H Lip, Francisco Marín
Bleeding risk with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is closely related to the quality of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, reflected by time in therapeutic range (TTR). Here we compared the discrimination performance of different bleeding risk scores and investigated if adding TTR would improve their predictive value and clinical usefulness. We included 1361 AF patients stables on VKA for at least 6 months. Bleeding risk was assessed by the HAS-BLED, ATRIA, ORBIT and HEMORR2HAGES scores. Major bleeding events were recorded after a median of 6...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931618/predicting-major-bleeding-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Nina A Hilkens, Ale Algra, Jacoba P Greving
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Performance of risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is not well established. We aimed to validate risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants after cerebral ischemia and explore the net benefit of oral anticoagulants among bleeding risk categories. METHODS: We analyzed 3623 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke included in the RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy)...
September 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888481/spatial-distribution-of-conduction-disorders-during-sinus-rhythm
#15
Eva A H Lanters, Ameeta Yaksh, Christophe P Teuwen, Lisette J M E van der Does, Charles Kik, Paul Knops, Denise M S van Marion, Bianca J J M Brundel, Ad J J C Bogers, Maurits A Allessie, Natasja M S de Groot
BACKGROUND: Length of lines of conduction block (CB) during sinus rhythm (SR) at Bachmann's bundle (BB) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether extensiveness of CB at BB represents CB elsewhere in the atria. We aim to investigate during SR 1) the spatial distribution and extensiveness of CB 2) whether there is a predilection site for CB and 3) the association between CB and incidence of post-operative AF. METHODS: During SR, epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), BB and left atrium was performed in 209 patients with coronary artery disease...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871329/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-mediated-cd44-stat3-signaling-contributes-to-the-development-of-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation
#16
Shang-Hung Chang, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Jia-Lin Lee, Yu-Juei Hsu, Chi-Tai Kuo, Wei-Jan Chen
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with atrial fibrosis. Inhibition of atrial fibrosis might be a plausible approach for AF prevention and therapy. This study is designed to evaluate the potential role of CD44, a membrane receptor known to regulate fibrosis, and its related signaling in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrosis and AF. Treatment of cultured rat atrial fibroblasts with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, a key mediator of atrial fibrosis) led to a higher expression of hyaluronan (HA), CD44, STAT3, and collagen (a principal marker of fibrosis) than that of ventricular fibroblasts...
September 4, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862969/three-dimensional-integrated-functional-structural-and-computational-mapping-to-define-the-structural-fingerprints-of-heart-specific-atrial-fibrillation-drivers-in-human-heart-ex-vivo
#17
Jichao Zhao, Brian J Hansen, Yufeng Wang, Thomas A Csepe, Lidiya V Sul, Alan Tang, Yiming Yuan, Ning Li, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Raul Weiss, Orlando P Simonetti, John D Hummel, Vadim V Fedorov
BACKGROUND: Structural remodeling of human atria plays a key role in sustaining atrial fibrillation (AF), but insufficient quantitative analysis of human atrial structure impedes the treatment of AF. We aimed to develop a novel 3-dimensional (3D) structural and computational simulation analysis tool that could reveal the structural contributors to human reentrant AF drivers. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-resolution panoramic epicardial optical mapping of the coronary-perfused explanted intact human atria (63-year-old woman, chronic hypertension, heart weight 608 g) was conducted during sinus rhythm and sustained AF maintained by spatially stable reentrant AF drivers in the left and right atrium...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862960/selection-of-stent-type-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-presenting-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-an-analysis-from-the-action-acute-coronary-treatment-and-intervention-outcomes-network-registry-get-with-the-guidelines
#18
Amit N Vora, Tracy Y Wang, Shuang Li, Karen Chiswell, Connie Hess, Renato D Lopes, Sunil V Rao, Eric D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving oral anticoagulation in addition to dual-antiplatelet therapy are known to be at high risk for bleeding events; thus, the selection of a drug-eluting stent (DES) versus a bare metal stent (BMS) can have important implications for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-Get With the Guidelines, we identified 14 427 AF patients presenting with acute MI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention from 2008 to 2014...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862787/panoramic-atrial-mapping-with-basket-catheters-a-quantitative-analysis-to-optimize-practice-patient-selection-and-catheter-choice
#19
Shohreh Honarbakhsh, Richard J Schilling, Rui Providência, Gurpreet Dhillon, Vinit Sawhney, Claire A Martin, Emily Keating, Malcolm Finlay, Syed Ahsan, Anthony Chow, Mark J Earley, Ross J Hunter
INTRODUCTION: Panoramic mapping with basket catheters has been used to map atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the limited tissue contact and coverage achieved has raised concerns. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial tachycardia (AT) and persistent AF were recruited. Unipolar signals were recorded with the Constellation or FIRMap catheters. The proportion and distribution of anatomical coverage by the catheters was determined and tissue contact achieved measured...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844514/comparison-of-the-cha2ds2-vasc-chads2-has-bled-orbit-and-atria-risk-scores-in-predicting-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-associated-bleeding-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Xiaoxi Yao, Bernard J Gersh, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, David M Kent, Nilay D Shah, Neena S Abraham, Peter A Noseworthy
The increasing adoption of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitates a reassessment of bleeding risk scores. Because known risk factors for bleeding are largely the same as for stroke, we hypothesize that stroke risk scores could also be used to identify patients with high bleeding risks. We aimed to compare the performance of 2 stroke risk scores (Congestive Heart failure, hypertension, Age ≥75 [doubled], Diabetes, Stroke [doubled], Vascular disease, Age 65-74, and Sex [female] [CHA2DS2-VASc] and Cardiac failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke [Doubled] [CHADS2]) and 3 bleeding risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function [1 point each], stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly [...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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