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atria fibrillation

Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ursula Ravens, Katja E Odening
Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K(+)) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maureen E Czick, Christine L Shapter, David I Silverman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia in the world, due both to its tenacious treatment resistance, and to the tremendous number of risk factors that set the stage for the atria to fibrillate. Cardiopulmonary, behavioral, and psychological risk factors generate electrical and structural alterations of the atria that promote reentry and wavebreak. These culminate in fibrillation once atrial ectopic beats set the arrhythmia process in motion. There is growing evidence that chronic stress can physically alter the emotion centers of the limbic system, changing their input to the hypothalamic-limbic-autonomic network that regulates autonomic outflow...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Rishi Arora, Gary L Aistrup, Stephen Supple, Caleb Frank, Jasleen Singh, Shannon Tai, Anne Zhao, Laura Chicos, William Marszalec, Ang Guo, Long-Sheng Song, J Andrew Wasserstrom
BACKGROUND: The peculiarities of T-tubule morphology and distribution in the atrium - and how they contribute to excitation-contraction coupling - are just beginning to be understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine T-tubule density in the intact, live right and left atria in a large animal and to determine intra-regional differences in T-tubule organization within each atrium. METHODS: Using confocal microscopy, T-tubules were imaged in both atria in intact, Langendorf-perfused normal dog hearts loaded with di-4-ANEPPS...
September 23, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Zewei Sun, Dongchen Zhou, Xudong Xie, Shuai Wang, Zhen Wang, Wenting Zhao, Hongfei Xu, Liangrong Zheng
Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS(+), Arg1(-)). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Inger Njølstad, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Henrik Schirmer, Dag Steinar Thelle
The rapid increase of coronary heart disease mortality in Northern Norway during 1951-1970 was why the newly established University of Tromsø decided to start a study to identify major operating cardiovascular risk factors. The first Tromsø survey in 1974 suggested that the relatively high cardiovascular mortality was associated with elevated cholesterol levels and high prevalence of smoking, while high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was identified as a preventive factor. After 1974, six more surveys including both genders (aged 20 to 89 years) were undertaken...
September 21, 2016: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
V Nagibin, T Egan Benova, C Viczenczova, B Szeiffova Bacova, I Dovinova, M Barancik, N Tribulova
Mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, particularly in aged population, are not fully elucidated. We have previously shown an increased propensity of old guinea pigs (GPs) heart to inducible AF when comparing to young animals. This study aimed to verify our hypothesis that susceptibility of aged heart to AF may be attributed to abnormalities in myocardial connexin-43 (Cx43) and extracellular matrix that affect cardiac electrical properties. Experiments were conducted on male and female 4-week-old and 24-week-old GPs...
September 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Thomas J Hund, Peter J Mohler
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia that arises from electrical and contractile dysfunction in the atria. Atrial function is regulated by a variety of intracellular signaling networks that facilitate rapid communication and coordinate responses of atrial myocytes. In this issue of the JCI, Brandenburg and colleagues describe the identification and characterization of "super-hub" signaling nodes located on atrial axial tubules that regulate atrial contraction. Together, the results of this study provide important insight into the regulation of atrial contraction and describe potential therapeutic targets to be explored in future studies...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rohan S Wijesurendra, Alexander Liu, Christian Eichhorn, Rina Ariga, Eylem Levelt, William T Clarke, Christopher T Rodgers, Theodoros D Karamitsos, Yaver Bashir, Matthew Ginks, Kim Rajappan, Tim Betts, Vanessa M Ferreira, Stefan Neubauer, Barbara Casadei
BACKGROUND: Lone atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect a subclinical cardiomyopathy that persists after sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, providing a substrate for AF recurrence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of restoring SR by catheter ablation on left ventricular (LV) function and energetics in patients with AF but no significant comorbidities. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent AF and without significant valvular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, coronary artery disease, uncontrolled thyroid disease, systemic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, or obstructive sleep apnea (ie, lone AF) undergoing ablation and 25 matched control subjects in SR were investigated...
October 11, 2016: Circulation
Antoine H G Driessen, Wouter R Berger, Sébastien P J Krul, Nicoline W E van den Berg, Jolien Neefs, Femke R Piersma, Dean R P P Chan Pin Yin, Jonas S S G de Jong, WimJan P van Boven, Joris R de Groot
BACKGROUND: Patients with long duration of atrial fibrillation (AF), enlarged atria, or failed catheter ablation have advanced AF and may require more extensive treatment than pulmonary vein isolation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of additional ganglion plexus (GP) ablation in patients undergoing thoracoscopic AF surgery. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal AF underwent pulmonary vein isolation...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Takanori Yaegashi, Takeshi Kato, Soichiro Usui, Naomi Kanamori, Hiroshi Furusho, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Hisayoshi Murai, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) activates the coagulation system, leading to hypercoagulation of the blood. The liver is a major source of prothrombotic molecules. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify whether cardiohepatic interactions are involved in AF-related hypercoagulation. METHODS: We compared gene expression profiles of human liver tissue between patients with AF and sinus rhythm. An AF model was created by rapid atrial pacing (RAP) at a frequency of 1200 beats/min in anesthetized 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 26, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Mimount Bourfiss, Anneline S J M Te Riele, Thomas P Mast, Maarten J Cramer, Jeroen F VAN DER Heijden, Toon A B VAN Veen, Peter Loh, Dennis Dooijes, Richard N W Hauer, Birgitta K Velthuis
INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is associated with desmosomal mutations. Although desmosomal disruption affects both ventricles and atria, little is known about atrial involvement in ARVD/C. OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent and clinical significance of structural atrial involvement and atrial arrhythmias (AA) in ARVD/C stratified by genotype. METHODS: We included 71 patients who met ARVD/C Task Force Criteria and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and molecular genetic analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Jonas Oldgren, Ziad Hijazi, Johan Lindbäck, John H Alexander, Stuart J Connolly, John W Eikelboom, Michael D Ezekowitz, Christopher B Granger, Elaine M Hylek, Renato D Lopes, Agneta Siegbahn, Salim Yusuf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: -Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased but variable risk of stroke. Our aim was to validate the recently developed biomarker-based ABC-stroke risk score and compare its performance with the CHA2DS2VASc and ATRIA risk scores. METHODS: -ABC-stroke score includes Age, Biomarkers (NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity [hs] troponin [cTn]), and Clinical history (prior stroke). This validation was based on 8,356 patients, 16,137 person-years of follow-up, and 219 adjudicated stroke or systemic embolic (SE) events in anticoagulated patients with AF in the RE-LY study...
August 28, 2016: Circulation
Yung-Hsin Yeh, Lung-An Hsu, Ying-Hwa Chen, Chi-Tai Kuo, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Wei-Jan Chen
Structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium constitutes the main feature of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent anti-oxidant system that may provide protection against various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 has a protective effect on AF-related remodeling. Cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cell line) were used to evaluate tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, structural, and electrical remodeling...
September 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Shashi K Gupta, Anna Zoccarato, Rika Kitazume-Taneike, Marika Fava, Xiaoke Yin, Tessa Werner, Marc N Hirt, Anna Zampetaki, Alessandro Viviano, Mei Chong, Marshall Bern, Antonios Kourliouros, Nieves Domenech, Peter Willeit, Ajay M Shah, Marjan Jahangiri, Liliana Schaefer, Jens W Fischer, Renato V Iozzo, Rosa Viner, Thomas Thum, Joerg Heineke, Antoine Kichler, Kinya Otsu, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a feature of many cardiac diseases. We used proteomics to profile glycoproteins in the human cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: Atrial specimens were analyzed by mass spectrometry after extraction of ECM proteins and enrichment for glycoproteins or glycopeptides. RESULTS: ECM-related glycoproteins were identified in left and right atrial appendages from the same patients. Several known glycosylation sites were confirmed...
September 13, 2016: Circulation
Harsh Agrawal, Kul Aggarwal, Martin A Alpert
Atrial standstill is a rare disorder of cardiac rhythm that is characterized by total absence of electrical activity in one or both atria. We report herein the case of a patient with atrial fibrillation and symptomatic 4.0 s pauses who received a ventricular demand pacemaker. The patient later underwent mitral valve replacement with a pericardial tissue valve and the Cox-maze III procedure for symptomatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. Following surgery, he developed atrial standstill and became pacemaker dependent...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Yu-Tao Guo, Ye Zhang, Xiang-Min Shi, Zhao-Liang Shan, Chun-Jiang Wang, Yu-Tang Wang, Yun-Dai Chen, Gregory Y H Lip
The risks of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are higher in Asian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to non-Asians. We aimed to investigate risk factors for bleeding, and validate the predictive value of available bleeding risk scores (mOBRI, HEMORR2HAGES, Shireman, HAS-BLED, ATRIA and ORBIT) in a large cohort of Chinese inpatients with AF. Using hospital electronic medical databases, we identified 4824 AF patients (mean age 67 years; 34.9% female) from January 1, 1995 to May 30, 2015, with median (interquartile) in-hospital days of 10 (7-16) days...
2016: Scientific Reports
Asit Das, Dhiman Kahali
Adverse hemodynamics of right ventricular (RV) pacing is a well-known fact. It was believed to be the result of atrio-ventricular (AV) dyssynchrony and sequential pacing of the atrium and ventricle may solve these problems. However, despite maintenance of AV synchrony, the dual chamber pacemakers in different trials have failed to show its superiority over single chamber RV apical pacing in terms of death, progression of heart failure, and atrial fibrillation (AF). As a consequence, investigators searched for alternate pacing sites with a more physiological activation pattern and better hemodynamics...
July 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Mohadeseh Sani, Erfan Ayubi, Kamyar Mansori, Salman Khazaei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Adéla Matějková, Ivo Šteiner
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. For long time it was considered as pure functional disorder, but in recent years, there were identified atrial locations, which are involved in the initiation and maintenance of this arrhythmia. These structural changes, so called remodelation, start at electric level and later they affect contractility and morphology. In this study we attempted to find a possible relation between morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial (LA) enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG features) changes in patients with AF...
2016: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
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