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nitric oxide synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822019/gypenoside-ix-suppresses-p38-mapk-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes-stimulated-by-proinflammatory-mediators
#1
Xiaoshuang Wang, Liu Yang, Li Yang, Faping Xing, Hua Yang, Liyue Qin, Yunyi Lan, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Cheng Lu, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821452/pinocembrin-a-novel-histidine-decarboxylase-inhibitor-with-anti-allergic-potential-in-in-vitro
#2
Hamza Hanieh, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul Islam, Subramanian Saravanan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Kessavane Ragul, Arumugam Durga, Kaliyamoorthy Venugopal, Venugopal Senthilkumar, Palanisamy Senthilkumar, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
Pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of Pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. Thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of Pinocembrin on IgE-mediated allergic response in vitro. A special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies, using a microbiological model of Klebsiella pneumoniae, provided first evidences that suggest Pinocembrin as a potential thermal stable inhibitor for HDC...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821008/trans-caryophyllene-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#3
Yawei Hu, Ziling Zeng, Baojie Wang, Shougang Guo
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques (SP) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and serves as an inflammatory stimulus for microglia. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a major component in the essential oils derived from various species of medicinal plants, has displayed its neuro-protective effects in previous studies. However, whether TC has a protective role in AD remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TC on Aβ1-42-induced neuro-inflammation were investigated. We found that TC reduced the release of LDH in BV-2 microglial cells treated with Aβ1-42...
August 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820802/antioxidation-role-of-different-lateral-stellate-ganglion-block-in-isoproterenol-induced-acute-myocardial-ischemia-in-rats
#4
Na Wei, Meng Chi, Lin Deng, Guonian Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether stellate ganglion block (SGB) treatment exerts protective effects against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) due to its antioxidant effects, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of different lateral SGB agents on the tissue antioxidant status in ISO-induced AMI in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: The AMI model received an acute ISO overdose to make cardiac ischemia damage at a single dose of 110 mg/kg injected subcutaneously into the rats...
September 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820443/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-dysfunction-in-chronic-renal-failure-role-of-enos-activation-and-of-oxidative-stress
#5
Michela Zanetti, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Davide Barbetta, Annamaria Semolic, Rocco Barazzoni
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and oxidative stress. METHODS: 5/6 nephrectomized male Wistar rats (CKD; n = 10) and sham operated animals (SHAM; n = 10) were treated for 6 weeks with standard diet...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819685/cardiomyocyte-dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-1-ddah1-plays-an-important-role-in-attenuating-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-dysfunction
#6
Xin Xu, Ping Zhang, Dongmin Kwak, John Fassett, Wenhui Yue, Dorothee Atzler, Xinli Hu, Xiaohong Liu, Huan Wang, Zhongbing Lu, Haipeng Guo, Edzard Schwedhelm, Rainer H Böger, Peijie Chen, Yingjie Chen
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases that limits nitric oxide bioavailability. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) exerts a critical role for ADMA degradation and plays an important role in NO signaling. In the heart, DDAH1 is observed in endothelial cells and in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. While NO signaling is important for cardiac adaptation to stress, DDAH1 impact on cardiomyocyte homeostasis is not clear. Here we used the MerCreMer-LoxP model to specifically disrupt cardiomyocyte DDAH1 expression in adult mice to determine the physiological impact of cardiomyocyte DDAH1 under basal conditions and during hypertrophic stress imposed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
August 17, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819302/generation-and-intracellular-trafficking-of-a-polysialic-acid-carrying-fragment-of-the-neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-ncam-to-the-cell-nucleus
#7
Nina Westphal, Gabriele Loers, David Lutz, Thomas Theis, Ralf Kleene, Melitta Schachner
Polysialic acid (PSA) and its major protein carrier, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, play important roles in many nervous system functions during development and in adulthood. Here, we show that a PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is generated at the plasma membrane by matrix metalloproteases and transferred to the cell nucleus via endosomes and the cytoplasm. Generation and nuclear import of this fragment in cultured cerebellar neurons is induced by a function-triggering NCAM antibody and a peptide comprising the effector domain (ED) of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) which interacts with PSA within the plane of the plasma membrane...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819082/dysregulation-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-underlies-degenerative-vascular-disorders
#8
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Chronic vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, diabetic angiopathy/retinopathy as well as fibrotic and proliferative vascular diseases are generally complicated by the progression of degenerative insults, which are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, apoptotic/necrotic cell death in vascular/immune cells, remodeling of extracellular matrix or breakdown of elastic lamella. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional calpain proteolytic systems and defective calpain protein metabolism in blood vessels contribute to degenerative disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818791/low-density-lipoprotein-modified-by-myeloperoxidase-oxidants-induces-endothelial-dysfunction
#9
Adrian I Abdo, Benjamin S Rayner, David M van Reyk, Clare L Hawkins
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial dysfunction. Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) ions are utilised by MPO to produce the oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), which reacts with LDL in a different manner to HOCl. Whilst the reactivity of HOCl-modified LDL has been previously studied, the role of HOSCN in the modification of LDL in vivo is poorly defined, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties...
August 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817788/the-joint-effect-of-the-endothelin-receptor-b-gene-ednrb-polymorphism-rs10507875-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-3-gene-nos3-polymorphism-rs869109213-in-slovenian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#10
Dejan Bregar, Ines Cilenšek, Sara Mankoč, Ana Reschner, Danijel Petrovič, Mojca Globočnik Petrovič
Increasing evidence suggests that endothelin and nitric oxide synthase genes and their products exert biological effects on the vasculature via the nitric oxide or endothelin pathway. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of rs10507875 and rs869109213 (alone or in interaction) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10507875 of the endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB) and variable number tandem repeats rs869109213 of the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3) in 270 Slovenian patients with DR and T2DM and 256 controls with T2DM without clinical signs of DR...
August 17, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817116/total-tanshinones-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-effects-through-blocking-tlr4-dimerization-via-the-myd88-pathway
#11
Hongwei Gao, Xin Liu, Wen Sun, Naixin Kang, Yanli Liu, Shilin Yang, Qiong-Ming Xu, Chunming Wang, Xiuping Chen
Tanshinones belong to a group of lipophilic constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. A deluge of studies demonstrated that tanshinones exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear to date. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of total tanshinones (TTN). TTN suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in RAW264...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815802/prophylactic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-and-rosmarinic-acid-on-doxorubicin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#12
Hanan A Rizk, Marwa A Masoud, Omar W Maher
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use cause neurobiological side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by daily administration of ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on DOX-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Our data showed that DOX-induced significant elevation of brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and cholinesterase associated with significant reduction in reduced glutathione, monoamines namely serotonin, dopamine, as well as norepinephrine...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815720/pharmacological-evidence-of-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-anti-pruritic-effects-of-sumatriptan-in-chloroquine-induced-scratching-in-mice
#13
Nazgol-Sadat Haddadi, Sattar Ostadhadi, Saeed Shakiba, Khashayar Afshari, Nastaran Rahimi, Arash Foroutan, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Chloroquine (CQ) induces histamine-independent itch in human and mice. We recently reported the role of intradermal nitric oxide (NO)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in CQ-evoked scratching in mice. Chloroquine stimulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity to over-producing NO in the skin. Sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d receptors (5-HTR1b/1d) agonist, is involved in pain and used to treat migraine and cluster headaches. According to previous studies, sumatriptan inhibits NOS activity...
August 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814711/reprogramming-bone-marrow-stem-cells-to-functional-endothelial-cells-in-a-mini-pig-animal-model
#14
Franziska Schlegel, Marco Appler, Michelle Halling, Francis Edwin Smit, Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, Stefan Dhein, Pascal Maria Dohmen
BACKGROUND The aims of this study were to compare the morphological, biochemical, and functional properties of reprogrammed bone marrow stem cell (BMSC)-derived arterial endothelial cells (AECs) and venous endothelial cells (VECs), following adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulation in a mini pig animal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bone marrow aspiration was performed in six adult mini pigs. Harvested mononuclear cells were isolated, cultured, and treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (16 µg/ml)...
August 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#15
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813479/metabolomic-profiling-of-amines-in-sepsis-predicts-changes-in-nos-canonical-pathways
#16
Abel Tesfai, Niall MacCallum, Nicholas S Kirkby, Hime Gashaw, Nicola Gray, Elizabeth Want, Gregory J Quinlan, Sharon Mumby, James M Leiper, Mark Paul-Clark, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane A Mitchell
RATIONALE: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a biomarker/target in sepsis. NOS activity is driven by amino acids, which cycle to regulate the substrate L-arginine in parallel with cycles which regulate the endogenous inhibitors ADMA and L-NMMA. The relationship between amines and the consequence of plasma changes on iNOS activity in early sepsis is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to apply a metabolomics approach to determine the influence of sepsis on a full array of amines and what consequence these changes may have on predicted iNOS activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812425/nasunin-inhibits-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-mediator-production-in-raw264-mouse-macrophages-by-suppressing-ros-mediated-activation-of-pi3%C3%A2-k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-signaling-pathways
#17
Wataru Komatsu, Kazuko Itoh, Satomi Akutsu, Hisashi Kishi, Shuji Ohhira
Nasunin is a major anthocyanin in eggplant peel. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of nasunin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264 macrophages and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that nasunin reduced the LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner. Nasunin diminished LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB...
August 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811826/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-piper-attenuatum-methanol-extract-in-lps-stimulated-inflammatory-responses
#18
You Jin Kim, Jeong Deok, Sunggyu Kim, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Seungihm Lee, Mi-Nam Lee, Suntaek Hong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Jin Son, Jae Youl Cho
Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME) on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811686/influence-of-the-flavonoid-quercetin-on-antioxidant-status-lipid-peroxidation-and-histopathological-changes-in-hyperammonemic-rats
#19
Sivamani Kanimozhi, Pakkiri Bhavani, Perumal Subramanian
We have studied the ability of quercetin (a bioflavonoid) in tackling oxidative stress to alleviate the symptoms during ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia was induced by the treatment of ammonium chloride (AC) 100 mg/kg b.w for 56 days. Hyperammonemic rats exhibited reduced urea (in plasma) and increased ammonia (in blood), uric acid (in plasma), creatinine (in serum), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and decreased levels of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and tissues (liver and brain) vitamins E and C (in plasma))...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811678/patchoulene-epoxide-isolated-from-patchouli-oil-suppresses-acute-inflammation-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-downregulation-of-cox-2-inos
#20
Jia-Li Liang, Jia-Zhen Wu, Yu-Hong Liu, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Qi-Duan Wu, Han-Bin Chen, Yan-Feng Huang, Yao-Xing Dou, Jiang-Tao Zhou, Zi-Ren Su, Janis Ya-Xian Zhan
According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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