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Fungal invasive infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444889/invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-treated-with-macromolecular-immunomodulators-other-than-tumour-necrosis-alpha-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
An expanding list of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and biologic therapeutics is currently entering clinical practice, particularly in the areas of oncology, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. These agents are directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity and may therefore be associated with serious and opportunistic infections. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the literature on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occurring in association with mAbs and fusion proteins other than tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, including therapeutics modulating T-cell-mediated pathologies (muromonab, abatacept, belatacept, ipilimumab, basiliximab, daclizumab), inducing lymphopenia (alemtuzumab), depleting CD20+ B cells (rituximab) and interfering with various targets (anakinra, natalizumab, blodalumab, ixekizumab and others) with a focus on children, and to provide a framework of evaluating the risk for IFIs in this population...
April 26, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444360/role-of-early-onset-neutropenia-in-development-of-candidemia-in-premature-infants
#2
Nermin Ramy, Mohamed Hashim, Heba Abou Hussein, Happy Sawires, Maha Gaafar, Ayat El Maghraby
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, drugs as corticosteroids and others...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442603/aspergillus-fumigatus-trehalose-regulatory-subunit-homolog-moonlights-to-mediate-cell-wall-homeostasis-through-modulation-of-chitin-synthase-activity
#3
Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J Obar, Robert A Cramer
Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslA and tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#4
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440301/the-environmental-yeast-cryptococcus-liquefaciens-produces-capsular-and-secreted-polysaccharides-with-similar-pathogenic-properties-to-those-of-c-neoformans
#5
Glauber R de S Araújo, Gustavo J C Freitas, Fernanda L Fonseca, Paulo Emilio C Leite, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wanderley de Souza, Daniel A Santos, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections, including cryptococcosis, are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients. Although Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of human cryptococcosis, opportunistic infections by environmental species, such as C. liquefaciens, have been observed recently. The main Cryptococcus virulence factor is the production and secretion of polysaccharides (PS). Previously, we showed that both species produce PS of similar composition. Here, we examined the ultrastructure and biological activity of capsular and secreted PS from C...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437670/a-case-report-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-fungal-osteomyelitis-mimicking-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-recurrence-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-following-transoral-robotic-surgery
#6
Hong Yu Tan, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Elizabeth Roche, Hiang Khoon Tan
INTRODUCTION: Transoral robotic surgery(TORS) for the excision of oropharyngeal tumour is increasingly considered for its lower rates of postoperative complications and better functional outcomes. However, we report a case of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient with previous radiation therapy years ago who underwent TORS recently. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55year old Chinese female with previous radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma diagnosed in 1986 underwent wide excision of a newly diagnosed oropharyngeal carcinoma with TORS...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437176/echinocandins-in-ocular-therapeutics
#7
Akash Patil, Soumyajit Majumdar
Fungal infections of the eye, especially fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis, are major causes of concern and if left untreated could lead to vision loss. Currently, natamycin (polyene antifungal) is the only commercially available topical agent used for the treatment of ocular fungal infections. The other antifungals, belonging to the polyene and azole classes, are used off-label in treating ocular infections and are administered topically, orally, intraocularly, or systemically. Even though their use through the different routes of administration has shown favorable outcomes, challenges such as poor ocular penetration, low bioavailability, ocular toxicity, and systemic side effects limit their utility...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433743/the-antibiotic-polymyxin-b-exhibits-novel-antifungal-activity-against-fusarium-species
#8
Li-Hang Hsu, Hsuan-Fu Wang, Pei-Lun Sun, Fung-Rong Hu, Ying-Lien Chen
The genus Fusarium comprises many species, including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, and causes severe infections in plants and humans. In clinical settings, Fusarium is the third most frequent mould to cause invasive fungal infections after Aspergillus and the Mucorales. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum are the most prevalent Fusarium spp. causing clinical disease. However, few effective antifungal drugs are available to treat human and plant Fusarium infections...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429862/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-children-with-solid-tumours-undergoing-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-10-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-italian-centre
#9
Paola Tatarelli, Maura Faraci, Ilaria Caviglia, Roberto Bandettini, Giuliana Cangemi, Gian Michele Magnano, Alberto Garaventa, Claudio Viscoli, Elio Castagnola
The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auHSCT) for solid tumours (ST). Retrospective study on auHSCT was performed in children with ST (January 2006-December 2015). Data on the number of patient-days at risk (pdr) during the first 30 and 90 days after auHSCT and cases of proven/probable IFDs were collected. Infection rate (IR, episodes/1000 pdr) and proportions and cumulative risk (CR) of IFD were evaluated...
April 21, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429626/promising-immunotherapy-against-fungal-diseases
#10
Wilfried Posch, Marion Steger, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Despite the relatively high efficacy of antifungal drugs, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are still associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality, since late diagnosis makes an antifungal drug therapy inefficient. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapies to specifically strengthen the host´s own immune mechanisms constitute an additional promising strategy in taking action against fungal pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarize efforts in research and clinical trials to provide safe and efficient immunotherapeutic options against invasive fungal diseases...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429246/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-caspofungin-versus-micafungin-in-pediatric-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-analysis
#11
Natalia Maximova, Giulia Schillani, Roberto Simeone, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon
INTRODUCTION: The high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) provide the rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in immuno-compromised pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Caspofungin and micafungin are antifungal agents of interest for prophylaxis of IFIs because of their potency against Candida and minimal toxicity or interactions with other drugs. Few studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of such echinocandins as prophylaxis for IFIs in patients undergoing HSCT...
April 20, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#12
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425571/clinical-factors-affecting-costs-in-patients-receiving-systemic-antifungal-therapy-in-intensive-care-units-in-greece-results-from-the-estimator-study
#13
A Armaganidis, S Nanas, E Antoniadou, K Mandragos, K Liakou, A Koutsoukou, G Baltopoulos, G Nakos, A Kounougeri, K Ganas, A Prekates, M Kompoti, D Georgopoulos, I Pneumatikos, E Zakynthinos
Invasive fungal infections are common in intensive care units (ICUs) but there is a great variability in factors affecting costs of different antifungal treatment strategies in clinical practice. To determine factors affecting treatment cost in adult ICU patients with or without documented invasive fungal infection receiving systemic antifungal therapy (SAT) we have performed a prospective, multicentre, observational study enrolling patients receiving SAT in participating ICUs in Greece. During the study period, 155 patients received SAT at 14 participating ICUs: 37 (23...
April 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424773/septins-focus-cellular-growth-for-host-infection-by-pathogenic-fungi
#14
REVIEW
Michelle Momany, Nicholas J Talbot
One of the key challenges faced by microbial pathogens is invasion of host tissue. Fungal pathogens adopt a number of distinct strategies to overcome host cell defenses, including the development of specialized infection structures, the secretion of proteins that manipulate host responses or cellular organization, and the ability to facilitate their own uptake by phagocytic mechanisms. Key to many of these adaptations is the considerable morphogenetic plasticity displayed by pathogenic species. Fungal pathogens can, for example, shift their growth habit between non-polarized spores, or yeast-like cells, and highly polarized hyphal filaments...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423062/filamentous-fungal-carbon-catabolite-repression-supports-metabolic-plasticity-and-stress-responses-essential-for-disease-progression
#15
Sarah R Beattie, Kenneth M K Mark, Arsa Thammahong, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sourabh Dhingra, Alayna K Caffrey-Carr, Chao Cheng, Candice C Black, Paul Bowyer, Michael J Bromley, Joshua J Obar, Gustavo H Goldman, Robert A Cramer
Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for a disproportionate number of invasive mycosis cases relative to other common filamentous fungi. While many fungal factors critical for infection establishment are known, genes essential for disease persistence and progression are ill defined. We propose that fungal factors that promote navigation of the rapidly changing nutrient and structural landscape characteristic of disease progression represent untapped clinically relevant therapeutic targets. To this end, we find that A...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422065/detection-of-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#16
Eric Levesque, Fadi Rizk, Zaid Noorah, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Catherine Cordonnier-Jourdin, Sarra El Anbassi, Christine Bonnal, Daniel Azoulay, Jean-Claude Merle, Françoise Botterel
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are complications after liver transplantation involving high morbidity and mortality. (1,3)-β-d-glucan (BG) is a biomarker for IFI, but its utility remains uncertain. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of BG following their diagnosis. Between January 2013 and May 2016, 271 liver transplants were performed in our institution. Serum samples were tested for BG (Fungitell(®), Associates Cape Code Inc., Falmouth, MA, USA) at least weekly between liver transplantation and the discharge of patients...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#17
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410611/recurrent-scedosporium-apiospermum-mycetoma-successfully-treated-by-surgical-excision-and-terbinafine-treatment-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Eszter J Tóth, Géza R Nagy, Mónika Homa, Marianna Ábrók, Ildikó É Kiss, Gábor Nagy, Zsuzsanna Bata-Csörgő, Lajos Kemény, Edit Urbán, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409093/first-case-of-invasive-magnusiomyces-capitatus-infection-in-slovakia
#19
Dominika Tanuskova, Julia Horakova, Peter Svec, Ivana Bodova, Martina Lengerova, Matej Bezdicek, Miroslava Poczova, Jozef Koppl, Alexandra Kolenova
Magnusiomyces capitatus (previously known as Geotrichum capitatum or Blastoschizomyces capitatus or Trichosporon capitatum) is a rare cause of fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. Most of these cases (87%) have been reported from the Mediterranean region, as it is extremely rare to recognize it in other regions. Here we report a first case of disseminated M. capitatus infection in Slovakia. The patient - 19 year old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome was diagnosed with M. capitatus fungemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408913/altered-expression-of-genes-implicated-in-xylan-biosynthesis-affects-penetration-resistance-against-powdery-mildew
#20
Jamil Chowdhury, Stefanie Lück, Jeyaraman Rajaraman, Dimitar Douchkov, Neil J Shirley, Julian G Schwerdt, Patrick Schweizer, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton, Alan Little
Heteroxylan has recently been identified as an important component of papillae, which are formed during powdery mildew infection of barley leaves. Deposition of heteroxylan near the sites of attempted fungal penetration in the epidermal cell wall is believed to enhance the physical resistance to the fungal penetration peg and hence to improve pre-invasion resistance. Several glycosyltransferase (GT) families are implicated in the assembly of heteroxylan in the plant cell wall, and are likely to work together in a multi-enzyme complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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