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Fungal invasive infection

Jiexian Ma, Yingwei Hu, Min Wu, Xiaoqin Wang, Yanhui Xie
Patients who receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exhibit an immune defect after recovering from neutropenia. The current guidelines do not recommend fungal prophylaxis in these patients, except for grades III to IV GVHD in HSCT. Thus, the timing for the initiation and cessation of IFI prophylaxis in immune-compromised patients remains a challenging endeavor. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto or allo-HSCT and monitored their immune function after recovering from neutropenia by measuring the levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, as well as the number of T, B, NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Peng, Zhiping Xu, Zhenyu Huo, Rui Long, Liang Ma
Background: Despite increasing incidence of pulmonary fungal infections (PFIs) worldwide, the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcomes of hospitalized patients diagnosed with PFIs. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 123 patients at a university hospital in Southwestern China between February 2014 and May 2016, who were diagnosed with PFIs based on clinical presentations and laboratory tests including fungal culture and pathological examination...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
X Chen, J L Wei, Y Huang, E L Jiang, Q L Ma, W H Zhai, Y He, R L Zhang, D L Yang, J F Yao, G X Zhang, S Z Feng, M Z Han
Objective: To compare eficacy and safety of porcine antihuman lymphocyte immunoglobulin (pALG) and rabbit antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) as a part of alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AD allo-HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Methods: The clinical data of 46 SAA patients received AD allo-HSCT from January 2006 to November 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort of patients were divided into two groups based on rATG or pALG as a part of conditioning regimen to compare implantation rate, transplantation related complications and outcome...
January 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Philipp Wohlfarth, Amin T Turki, Joerg Steinmann, Melanie Fiedler, Nina K Steckel, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients frequently develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary infiltrates. Molecular and biomarker-based assays enhance pathogen detection, but data on their yield in this population are scarce. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in 156 consecutive HSCT recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 05/2013 and 07/2017. Findings of a microbiological diagnostic work-up using currently available methods on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples from 66 patients (age: 58 [45-64] years; HSCT to ICU: 176 [85-407] days) with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed...
March 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Shahid Husain, Archana Bhaskaran, Coleman Rotstein, Yanhong Li, Alyajahan Bhimji, Rhea Pavan, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar, Shaf Keshavjee, Lianne G Singer
BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections in lung transplant recipients remains undetermined. We studied strategies based on bronchoalveolar lavage fungal culture and galactomannan for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Consecutive lung transplant recipients were evaluated during the period January 2010 to September 2014. Rates of invasive aspergillosis and all-cause mortality were recorded at 1 year...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Johannes Stein, Stefan Latz, Jörg Ellinger, Guido Fechner, Maher Safi, Philipp Krausewitz, Simone Müller, Karin Weyer, Stefan C Müller
BACKGROUND: Renal fungal bezoars are remarkably rare and mostly occur in immunodeficient patients. Only a small number of cases with immunocompetent patients have been published so far. The published treatment approaches comprised systemic antimycotic therapy and surgical or minimal invasive removal of the fungal balls. In some cases irrigation of the renal duct system with amphotericin B was performed. By obstruction of the urinary tract bezoars can lead to infected hydronephrosis and severe urosepsis with high lethality...
March 16, 2018: BMC Urology
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Nicole M Revie, Kali R Iyer, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Microorganisms have a remarkable capacity to evolve resistance to antimicrobial agents, threatening the efficacy of the limited arsenal of antimicrobials and becoming a dire public health crisis. This is of particular concern for fungal pathogens, which cause devastating invasive infections with treatment options limited to only three major classes of antifungal drugs. The paucity of antifungals with clinical utility is in part due to close evolutionary relationships between these eukaryotic pathogens and their human hosts, which limits the unique targets to be exploited therapeutically...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Adilia Warris
The newly recognised and emerging fungal species, Candida auris , has caused worldwide invasive infections and has been implicated in difficult to control hospital outbreaks. Challenges are encountered in the correct identification of this fungus as commonly used phenotypic and biochemical methods fail to differentiate C. auris from other Candida species. Its resistance profile, over 90% of isolates are fluconazole resistant and 35% are resistant to amphotericin, confronts clinicians with the restricted arsenal of antifungals and concerns about optimal treatment...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Wilfried Posch, Michael Blatzer, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
The polyene antifungal amphotericin B (AmB) exerts a powerful and broad activity against a vast array of fungi and in general displays a remarkably low rate of antimicrobial resistance. Aspergillus terreus holds an exceptional position among the Aspergilli due to its intrinsic AmB resistance, in vivo and in vitro. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of polyene resistance were not well understood. This review will highlight the molecular basis of A. terreus and AmB resistance recently gained and will display novel data on the mode of action of AmB...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Y Santamaría-Alza, J Sánchez-Bautista, J F Fajardo-Rivero, C L Figueroa
Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement. Complications, such as invasive fungal infections usually occur in patients with a greater severity of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk variables associated with invasive fungal infections in a Colombian systemic lupus erythematosus population. Materials and methods A cross-sectional, retrospective study that evaluated patients with systemic lupus erythematosus for six years...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Chunyan Yue, Yingying Ding, Yang Gao, Li Li, Yan Pang, Zenghui Liu, Hang Zhang, Yang Xiao, Zujun Jiang, Haowen Xiao
OBJECTIVES: In patients with very severe aplastic anemia (VSAA), neutropenia is prolonged and persistent, resulting in refractory overwhelming infections. Hematopoiesis recovery is urgently needed. METHODS: Six patients with de novo VSAA lacking HLA-identical sibling donors and those who experienced refractory infections, underwent haploidentical related donor (HRD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as a first-line therapy. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan, cyclophosphamide and rabbit antithymocyte globulin...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Dorina Esendagli, Irem Serifoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Merih Tepeoglu, Sule Akcay, Mehmet Haberal
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an infection seen in patients receiving intensive immunosuppressive regimens, such as transplant recipients. Some risk factors that increase the incidence of infection have been determined, and patients defined as having high risk are recommended to take antifungal prophylaxis and be monitored closely. Here, we present a liver transplant patient with mild respiratory symptoms and a normal chest radiography on day 26 posttransplant. However, he had acute renal failure and underwent hemodialysis, which are both defined to increase significantly the risk of aspergillosis...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Lijun Yang, Min Yang, Siying Li, Zhongxi Zhao
Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. However, its clinical usage is limited by a lot of adverse reactions such as diarrhea. S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), a garlic organosulfur compound, has a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to examine the protective effects of SAMC on posaconazole-induced adverse effects. Mice were treated with the blank control, enteric coated posaconazole microparticles (POS group) and its combination with SAMC (Combination group)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
P Dallé Rosa, M Ramirez-Castrillon, P Valente, A Meneghello Fuentefria, A D Van Diepeningen, L Z Goldani
Invasive fusariosis has a high mortality and is predominantly observed in patients with leukemia. We report the first case of a novel species of Fusarium, Fusarium riograndense sp. nov, isolated from a lesion in the nasal cavity lesion of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The etiological agent was identified by Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST), including RPB2, TEF-1α, and ITS-LSU sequences, the gold standard technique to identify new species of Fusarium. MLST and phenotypic data strongly supported its inclusion in the F...
March 7, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Waqar Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Ali Noman, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Tayyab, Taimoor Hassan Farooq, Huang Wei, Liande Wang
Plants are attacked by a large number of pathogens. To defend against these pathogens, plants activate or repress a vast array of genes. For genetic expression and reprogramming, host endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are the key factors. Among these sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level and play an essential role in the defense responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In the recent years, high-throughput sequencing has enabled the researchers to uncover the role of plant miRNAs during pathogen invasion...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Emmanuel C Patin, Aiysha Thompson, Selinda J Orr
Over the last decade, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a growing threat to human health worldwide and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. In this context, investigations into host-pathogen interactions represent an important and promising field of research. Antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells are strategically located at the frontline of defence against potential invaders. Importantly, these cells express germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense conserved entities from pathogens and orchestrate innate immune responses...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Nattachai Anantasit, Noramon Nuntacharruksa, Pimpin Incharoen, Aroonwan Preutthipan
Introduction: Invasive' pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) defined IPA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Tilly Varughese, Ying Taur, Nina Cohen, M Lia Palomba, Susan K Seo, Tobias M Hohl, Gil Redelman-Sidi
Background: Ibrutinib is a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Several case series have described opportunistic infections among ibrutinib recipients, but the full extent of these infections is unknown. We sought to determine the spectrum of serious infections associated with ibrutinib treatment. Methods: We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with lymphoid malignancies at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who received ibrutinib during a five-year period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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