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Fungal invasive infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783622/risk-mitigation-for-immunocompromised-consumers-of-mucormycete-spoiled-and-fermented-foods-germain-guidance-and-remaining-needs
#2
REVIEW
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Mucoralean invasive fungal infections, while unusual among the general population, have a high mortality rate among immunocompromised individuals who become infected. They are also common spoilage organisms in cultured dairy products, some fresh produce, and baked goods. Additionally, Mucor and Rhizopus spp. are utilized in the production of traditional fermented foods including mold ripened cheeses and fermented soy products. The risk that consumption of these foods poses to immunocompromised consumers has been previously identified...
May 18, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782660/the-feared-five-fungal-infections-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-single-center20-year-experience
#3
Sandesh Parajuli, Alexandra Wick, Sameer Pandeya, Brad C Astor, Jeannina Smith, Arjang Djamali, Didier A Mandelbrot
Invasive fungal infections are a feared complication in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Here we present the University of Wisconsin experience with five invasive fungal infections - aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis - in KTRs transplanted between 01/01/1994 and 06/30/2014. During this period there were 128 cases of fungal infections; aspergillosis was the most common (72), followed by cryptococcosis (29), histoplasmosis (14), blastomycosis (10) and coccidioidomycosis (3)...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782541/an-unappreciated-role-for-neutrophil-dc-hybrids-in-immunity-to-invasive-fungal-infections
#4
J Scott Fites, Michael Gui, John F Kernien, Paige Negoro, Zeina Dagher, David B Sykes, Jeniel E Nett, Michael K Mansour, Bruce S Klein
Neutrophils are classically defined as terminally differentiated, short-lived cells; however, neutrophils can be long-lived with phenotypic plasticity. During inflammation, a subset of neutrophils transdifferentiate into a population called neutrophil-DC hybrids (PMN-DCs) having properties of both neutrophils and dendritic cells. While these cells ubiquitously appear during inflammation, the role of PMN-DCs in disease remains poorly understood. We observed the differentiation of PMN-DCs in pre-clinical murine models of fungal infection: blastomycosis, aspergillosis and candidiasis...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778493/retrograde-ureteral-catheterization-a-possible-new-treatment-for-renal-fungal-balls-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#5
Cheng-Wei Chen, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jin-Cherng Sheu, Hsin Chi, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chun-Chen Lin, Jeng-Daw Tsai
Invasive candidiasis is a serious pathogen of late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth- weight (VLBW) infants. Kidney is the most common organ involved and it causes morbidity and mortality, especially when fungal balls are formed. We report a 34-day-old female infant (28 weeks, 1152 gm) with systemic fungal infection complicated obstructive uropathy. On sonography, the fungal balls filled the entire pelvis without hydronephrosis. Percutaneous nephrostomy was not feasible. In addition to systemic antifungals, we successfully performed cystoscopy-assisted retrograde ureteral catheterization (RUC) to decompress the pelvis, which also provided a route for local amphotericin B irrigation to achieve therapeutic concentration without nephrotoxicity...
May 17, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777151/integrated-proteomics-genomics-metabolomics-approaches-reveal-oxalic-acid-as-pathogenicity-factor-in-tilletia-indica-inciting-karnal-bunt-disease-of-wheat
#6
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773439/the-evaluation-of-frequency-of-nephrotoxicity-caused-by-liposomal-amphotericin-b
#7
Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Yuka Yamagishi, Yuichi Shibata, Yukiko Kato, Tatsuro Furui, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) was developed to reduce nephrotoxicity and maximize the therapeutic utility of amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. However, there is little investigation into the safety of L-AmB in patients with several renal functions. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical safety of L-AmB among patients with several renal functions. METHODS: We divided patients treated with L-AmB from April 2014 to September 2016 into 4 groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥60, 60 > eGFR≥30, eGFR<30 and hemodialysis)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773434/tinea-blepharo-ciliaris-in-a-13-year-old-girl-caused-by-trichophyton-benhamiae
#8
Fang-Ying Wang, Pei-Lun Sun
Tinea blepharo-ciliaris is a rare form of dermatophyte infection which involves eyelids and associated eyelashes. We report a 13-year-old girl with type I diabetes mellitus who had right eyelid swelling and eyelash loss for two weeks. The lesions were presented as erythematous patches with scales and tiny pustules on the right upper and lower eyelids with broken eyelashes. Two additional annular erythematous patches with scaly active borders were found on her right forearm and right thigh. Microscopic examination of broken eyelashes demonstrated many chains of arthroconidia and hyaline hyphae in an endothrix invasion pattern...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771293/breakthrough-fungal-infections-in-leukemia-patients-receiving-isavuconazole
#9
Caitlin R Rausch, Adam J DiPippo, Prithviraj Bose, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Isavuconazole (ISA) is increasingly used in leukemia patients. We retrospectively assessed breakthrough invasive fungal infections (b-IFIs) in 100 consecutive leukemia patients receiving ISA as single agent; 13 developed documented b-IFIs. (6 candidiasis, 6 mold infections, 4 mucormycosis). All b-IFIs were observed in patients with prolonged neutropenia and active leukemia.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770082/first-reported-case-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris-in-canada
#10
I S Schwartz, G W Hammond
Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769603/components-of-a-new-gene-family-of-ferroxidases-involved-in-virulence-are-functionally-specialized-in-fungal-dimorphism
#11
María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Laura Murcia, Pablo Martínez-García, Carlos Lax, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
Mucormycosis is an emerging angio-invasive infection caused by Mucorales that presents unacceptable mortality rates. Iron uptake has been related to mucormycosis, since serum iron availability predisposes the host to suffer this infection. In addition, iron uptake has been described as a limiting factor that determines virulence in other fungal infections, becoming a promising field to study virulence in Mucorales. Here, we identified a gene family of three ferroxidases in Mucor circinelloides, fet3a, fet3b and fet3c, which are overexpressed during infection in a mouse model for mucormycosis, and their expression in vitro is regulated by the availability of iron in the culture media and the dimorphic state...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768268/antifungal-innate-immunity-a-perspective-from-the-last-10-years
#12
REVIEW
Fabián Salazar, Gordon D Brown
Fungal pathogens can rarely cause diseases in immunocompetent individuals. However, commensal and normally nonpathogenic environmental fungi can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Over the last few decades, there has been a huge increase in the incidence of invasive opportunistic fungal infections along with a worrying increase in antifungal drug resistance. As a consequence, research focused on understanding the molecular and cellular basis of antifungal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last few years...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764947/biological-roles-played-by-sphingolipids-in-dimorphic-and-filamentous-fungi
#13
REVIEW
Caroline Mota Fernandes, Gustavo H Goldman, Maurizio Del Poeta
Filamentous and dimorphic fungi cause invasive mycoses associated with high mortality rates. Among the fungal determinants involved in the establishment of infection, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have gained increased interest in the last few decades. GSLs are ubiquitous membrane components that have been isolated from both filamentous and dimorphic species and play a crucial role in polarized growth as well as hypha-to-yeast transition. In fungi, two major classes of GSLs are found: neutral and acidic GSLs. Neutral GSLs comprise glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, which utilize Δ4-Δ8-9-methyl-sphingadienine as a sphingoid base, linked to a C16-18 fatty acid chain, forming ceramide, and to a sugar residue, such as glucose or galactose...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764228/anti-infective-chemoprophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
Paul J Deziel, Raymund Razonable
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after solid organ transplantation were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762868/candidemia-in-children-epidemiology-prevention-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Elpis Mantadakis, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Theoklis Zaoutis
Candidemia is the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized children. The highest rates of candidemia have been recorded in neonates and infants <1 year of age. Candidemia is more frequent in neonates and young infants than in adults, and is associated with better clinical outcomes, but higher inpatient costs. Over the last 10 years, a declining trend has been noted in the incidence of pediatric candidemia in the US and elsewhere due to the hospital-wide implementation of central-line insertion and maintenance bundles that emphasize full sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin preparation during line insertion, meticulous site and tubing care, and daily discussion of catheter necessity...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762861/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-isavuconazole-against-aspergillus-spp-and-candida-spp-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-hepatic-or-renal-impairment-by-monte-carlo-simulation
#16
Xiaowei Zheng, Gaoqi Xu, Liqin Zhu, Luo Fang, Yiwen Zhang, Haiying Ding, Yinghui Tong, Jiao Sun, Ping Huang
The aim of this pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study is to evaluate the efficacy of various isavuconazole dosing regimens for healthy individuals and patients with hepatic or renal impairment against Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and pharmacodynamics (PD) data to determine the probabilities of target attainment and cumulative fractions of response in terms of area under the concentration curve/minimum inhibition concentration (AUC/MIC) targets of isavuconazole...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761110/granulomatous-invasive-aspergillus-flavus-infection-involving-the-nasal-sinuses-and-brain
#17
Roopam Jariwal, Arash Heidari, Ahana Sandhu, Janushe Patel, Kamelia Shoaepour, Piruthiviraj Natarajan, Everardo Cobos
Invasive fungal infections are commonly associated with some form of immunosuppression. On the nasal epithelial surface, Aspergillus flavus , under favorable conditions, can aggressively breach multiple cell lines invading the local tissues. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman with granulomatous invasive Aspergillus flavus infection involving the nasal sinuses and the brain. Antifungal agents administered in the previous episodes contained the infection; however, the infected site evolved over time surrounded with calcified tissues in the left maxillary sinus...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760132/a-multimodal-imaging-approach-enables-in-vivo-assessment-of-antifungal-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Jennifer Poelmans, Uwe Himmelreich, Liesbeth Vanherp, Luca Zhai, Amy Hillen, Bryan Holvoet, Sarah Belderbos, Matthias Brock, Johan Maertens, Greetje Vande Velde, Katrien Lagrou
Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening lung infections in immunocompromised patients. Mouse models are extensively used in research to assess the in vivo efficacy of antifungals. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to evaluate experimental infections. However, single imaging modalities have limitations concerning the type of information they can provide. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescence imaging were combined to obtain longitudinal information on the extent of developing lesions and fungal load in a leucopenic mouse model of IPA...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756722/-use-of-posaconazole-in-children-experience-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital
#19
María T Rosanova, Carla Voto, María S Mussini, Claudia Sarkis, Sandra Gómez, Norma Sberna, Susana Carnovale, Beatriz Caracciolo, Roberto Lede
There is limited information on the use of posaconazole in children. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, microbiological characteristics and evolution of patients treated with posaconazole between August 2010 and March 2017. We included 16 children. Median age: 161 months (interquartile range -IQR- 69-173 m). All had underlying disease and a proven invasive fungal infection. The most frequent isolated were Mucor spp. and Aspergillus spp. The mean posaconazole dose was 600 mg/day (400-800 mg/day) and the median duration of treatment was 223 days (IQR 48-632)...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755935/aspergillus-endocarditis-of-the-mitral-valve-with-ventricular-myocardial-invasion-cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-mycotic-aneurysm-formation-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#20
Bibin Varghese, Kevin Ting, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Cezar Iliescu, Joseph Kim, Peter Kim
Aspergillus endocarditis is a rare infection and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of mitral valve aspergillus endocarditis with ventricular myocardial invasion, cerebral vasculitis and intracranial fungal aneurysm formation in a patient with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). This case illustrates the importance of prompt investigation and treatment of masses seen on an echocardiogram for rare infections such as Aspergillus endocarditis in immunocompromised patients.
September 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
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